French Revolution Part Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fun
fun
Newton
1642-1727; Gravity
Louis XVIII
...
physiocrats
laizzes faire people
Jacobins
Radical political oraginazition
Age of Montesquieu
n
Napoleon
French Ruler from 1804-1815
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France
relics of fuedalism
aristicratic priliges
Plebiscite
popular vote, French supported Napoleon
First Estate
the Catholic clergy
extremely wealthy
top of the social hierarchy
bastille
a paris prison and arsenal
Creoles
Colonists born in Spanish America
sans-culottes
The working people (bakers, shopkeepers, artisans, and manual labors who were characterized
by their long working pants-hence, sans-culottes, literally without short pants) who asserted their will
in the radical phase of the French Revolution (1791-1794).
true love of your country
patriotism
Bourgeoisie, Peasants, and city workers had __ vote(s)
1
cahiers
list of complaints against the monarchy
Brienne
appointed head of finances after Calonne
Mirabeau
president du Assemblee Nationale en 1791, Estates General
Robespierre
was arrested and guillotined because he made a lot of enemies
Wellington
British duke of wellington, defeated napoleon's army at waterloo- called in reinforcements to win the battle
Jacques Necker
Financial advisor to Louis XVI.
Bourgeoisie
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
Louis XVI
"Let all three estates list..."
Montesquieu
the Enlighenment writer who believed in seperation of powers
Scandal
something that draws public attention and criticism
which rev? national convention seated, louis executed
second
Girondin
the rival radical faction to the Jacobins in the National Convention
First Coalition
composed of Great Britain, Holland, and Spain joined with Prussia and Austria
Montagnards
the mountain, member sat on highest benches in Assembly, uncompromising men of action, opposed Girondists, gained upper hand in Jacobin Club
la Nouvelle France
l'immense territoire qui comprenait toutes les colonies francaise de l'Amerique du Nord
ELECTORS
Per constitution of 1791, these were voted for by "active" citizens. Paid higher tax to qualify and chose deputies to national legislature. One elector represented every 100 active citizens. In 1791 there were 50,000 electors in France.
Elba
This island in the Mediterranean Sea off of Italy where Napoleon was initially exiled after he abdicated the throne for the first time. He promised to never leave, but does so and regains power in France for a short period called the Hundred days
Great Britain
In the Continental System, Napoleon hoped to cut trade off to the European continent from this country:
2nd Estate Make-Up
25% of land, swords, inherited/purchased titles, little taxes, can tax peasants
tithe
income tax you pay to church, 10%
legislative assembly
legislature of france, provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law making between the periods of the national constitcent assembly of the national convention
consulate
a form of government which followed the directory. It was-established by Napoleon and ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
Guillotine
Used by the revolutionaries to execute opponents
Before the French Revolution, the French system in which each estate had one vote was known as this.
Old Regime
Paris Commune/September Massacres
Paris Commune: city government; September Massacres: fear mongering by radical journalists caused tribunals to execute thousands
emigres
nobles and others who left france during the peasant uprisings and who hoped to come back to restore the old system
Charlotte de corday
murdered Marat in his bathtub
Liberte! Egalite! Fraternite!
-motto of the French Revolution
-Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Congress Of Vienna
conservative, reactionary meeting, led by prince metternich, restore europe to prerevolution time
Gallican Church
Roman Catholic church in France, headed by the monarch, not the pope
National Convention
the Legislative Assembly set aside the constitution, declared the King deposed, called for an election and a new legislature was made into this; in abolished the monarchy and declared France a Republic
July 14th, 1789
Date that represents the symbolic start of the French Revolution; Parisians stormed the Bastille
Austerlitz
on Dec. 2, 1805, in perhaps his greatest victory, Napoleon defeated the combined Austrian/Russian forces here
propagation
an increase(as of a king of organism) in numbers; the spreading of something (such as belief) abroad of into new regions
Nobility of the Robe
Received noble status holding government office
Why did the revolts fail?
conservatives, military, and middle-class liberals united to end them
"PATRIOTS"
In the Assembly as it was preparing for the new government there were some who wanted "veto" power for the king. The "patriots" wanted only delaying veto for the king and a one chamber assembly because they distrusted both the king and the nobility. There thus resulted a conflict of ideas between the conservatives and the "patriots". This would then be interrupted by the "bread march."
what do they create at the national convention
republic
Napoleonic Code
A new legal system based on Enlightenment ideals
louis xv louis xvi
failure of these two leaders
Internal Crisis
• The working class wanted more radical reforms- Paris Commune
Estate
a major social class or order of persons regarded collectively as part of the body politic of the country and formerly possessing distinct political rights
Holy alliance
Agreement signed by Alexander I of Russia, emperor Francis I of Austria, and King Frederick William III of Prussia
Civil Code
Code of laws established by Napoleon which preserved many of the ideals of the French Revolution
Battle of Waterloo
Battle fought between Napoleon's new army and the reassembled united forces against Napoleon. After a day of fighting, Napoleon was defeated and forced to abdicate again
Three Estates
1st (Clergy, 1%), 2nd (Nobility 2%), 3rd (Everyone else 97%)
Olympe de Gouges
french journalist who demanded equal rights for women
Great Fear
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
Nobility
2nd Estate that didn't have to pay taxes; divided by nobility of the sword and nobility of the robe
Directory
new French gov't est. in 1795, after the Reign of Terror
Girondists
a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain
waterloo
a village in central Belgium, south of Brussels: Napoleon decisively defeated here on June 18, 1815.
revolution
a great change over a short period of time
Capture of the Bastille
JULY 14, 1789 - medieval prison/fortress and much hated symbol of the Old Regime in Paris. Poor harvests and shortage of bread plus fact that King seen as assembling troops outside of Paris led to urban unrest. Bastille stormed by angry crowd of Parisians - not just by rabble but many merchants, soldiers and women involved(French banker, Laborde funded the attack). A few prisoners released and some weapons taken. Several soldiers in the garrison killed and warden summarily executed and head displayed on pike. It was not intended to do so but resulted in saving of National Assembly at Versailles. King flustered by event and decided to accept the situation in Paris.
Old Regime
The name of the political system that existed in France before the French Revolution...an absolute monarchy.
la Grande Peur
les paysans attaquent les chateaux et prennent et detruisent des documents importants
George Danton
the leader of the Paris Commune, was one of the main leaders, he was fearless and devoted to the rights of Paris' poor
Napoleon & Russia
Russia refused to participate in the continental system
Who issued the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
The National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath
Where the third estates meeting was held.
Maximilian Robespierre
A Jacobin who led the Committee of Public Safety and wanted to kill any opposers to the revolution; led Reign of Terror and was executed for being too radical
Estates general
called by Louis XVI, meeting of all estates to on taxes
Hall of Mirrors
Famous room in the Palace of Versailles.
Battle of Austerlitz
This massive victory by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France
Gabelle
a salt tax in France. This is an example of one of the ways monarchs could raise money by levying taxes on basic food and clothing
refactory priests
priests that did not agree to the CCC.
Refactory clergy
Created in response to when the Civil Constitution of the Clergy created a national church with 83 bishops and dioceses (had the support of the King, former aristocrats, peasants, and the urban working class)
Constitution of 1791
first constitution of France, set up a limited monarchy with a new Legislative Assembly to make laws, collect taxes, and decide issues of war and peace
Temple of Reason
What the cathedral of Notre Dame was called during the de-christianization of France
What was the Contintal system?
Napoleans attempt to conquer England economically
France at War in 1792
Citizens invaded Tuileries (The Royal Palace) after being threatened by Prussian forces. Slaughtered the guards in the palace and captured/imprisoned the royal family.
Baron De Montesquieu
His idea of checks and balances would influence the U.S Constitution.
Declaration of Pillnitz
A statement agreed upon by Leopold II and Fredrick William II to intervene if Louis XVI was threatened by revolution. (Prussia and Austria)
Stages of the French Revolution
A) Moderate phase - constitutional monarchy ( National Assembly )
B) Radical phase - ended monarchy and started reign of terror (Jacobsins)
C) Directory phase - reaction to extremism
D) Age of Napoleon - France re-draws map of Europe ( Empire / Military Dictator - Napolean)
Après moi, le déluge
Quote attributed to King Louis XV before his death.
coup d' etat
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
Women's March to Versailles
women pushed the revolution forward in October when shortages of bread persisted; 7,000 women with the Paris national guard marched 12 miles to Versailles demanding the king redress their economic problems.
Declaration of rights of man and citizen
an expression of enlightenment principles such as "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression"from national assembly
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
law passed by the French Revolutionary Government that declared the French Church would no longer be under the Catholic Church, and also abolished monastic vows, which were seen to be part of irrational church tradition
prince klemens von metternich
-leader of congress of Vienna & is Austrian foreign minister
-goals: balance of power in EUrope & restore monarchy in all countries (France)
What was the committee of public safety
12 individuals that rule france.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
written by Marquis de Lafayette, who was influenced by Thomas Jefferson. Stated that popular sovereignty isn't in the monarch, but in the nation. Citizens have equal rights, freedom of press & religion, etc. Intended to fit the bourgeoisie.
Long term causes of the French Revolution
1. enlightnemnt ideas
2. The American Revolution was a success
3. Growing economics: military, social, political
Economic Crisis
# 3 cause 3 of FR, France was in debt, along with crop failures
Concert of Europe, Congress of Vienna
created out of the fear of revolution and war in France, retracting to old regime (2 total)
enlightenment - The ideas of the Enlightenmnet made people think that they could make their own government; they did not need a king.
1. ideas that people could create governments, not kings
2. that people were born with rights, king did not control those rights
3. american revolution success (proved to french people that monarchy could be beaten)
What did Abbe Sieyes do in the Election of 1795?
asked Napoleon to attack France to restore equality; Napoleon is elected consul and takes power
Why was war declared on the Austrian monarchy in 1792?
They were afraid Louis would escape there to Marie Antoinette's Family. If not for this, they would support the monarchy. Also because Austria was counter-revolution. Internal french problems --> unity against Austria.
What are the 5 causes of the French Revolution?
1) Inequalites in society
2) Ideas of enlightment ideas
3) Poor leadership from Louis XVI
4) Finacial Crisis
5) Widespread hunger & record cold
abolir
to abolish
Josephine
Napoleon's first wife
Suffrage
the right to vote
Talleyrand
France's representative during Congress of Vienna
tricolor
flag symbolized the people
misinformed
Adjective describing Marie Antoinette's knowledge of the situation in France.
Edmund Burke
Father of modern conservatism
revolution-phobic
Galileo
1564-1642; First telescope use; Imprisoned by church
Vendee
Site of Infamous Counter-Revolution; Army Takes much of Countryside; Revolutionary Army Confronts Them; 100,000 + Die
19Girodins
-moderates(don't want to kill everyone)
-people from outside of Paris(rural people)
terror
-Robespierre (created)
- repression of internal enemies
When was the Directory
July 1795-1799
Slogan of the Revolution
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
indissoluble
incapable of being annulled,undone or broken;permanent
National Assembly
the first French revolutionary legislature made up of primarily 3rd class members to enact the peoples' will.
Turgot
financial advisor in 1774 &1775, Physiocrat, wanted the king to live in a budget so that the corvee could be revoked, was criticized by the nobility
aller à la chase
to go hunting
September 1791
Adoption of a new constitution
dictator
a ruler who has total power
Third Estate
peasants; bourgeoisie; city workers; farmers
Georges Danton
leader of the sans culottes
Jean-Paul Marat
defender of the Parisian sans-culottes,murdered in his bathtub by Charlotte Corday,
Marie-Antoinette
Unpopular Austrian wife of Louis XVI. She was beheaded after being found guilty of crimes by a revolutionary tribunal
Lycees
public schools in France created by Napoleon
sans culotes
"without breeches"; members of the Paris Commune who considered themselves ordinary patrions
Corvee
forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects
Toussaint
Began the revolt that eventually led to Haitian independence. Haiti becomes the first successful assault on colonial gov't.
Quadruple Alliance
Alliences between Austria, Russia, and Britian to fight against Napoleon., G.B., Austria, Prussia, and Russia united to defeat France and their Bonapartism, and also to ensure peace after war. After Napoleon, they resotred the Bourbon monarchy to France.
convention
the national assembly forced by paris government to be elected by universal male suffrage and became the convention
first act is to abolish royalty
Girondins
moved from "left" to "right" after national convention was established
Dr. Joseph Guillotine
promoted and endorsed the Guillotine
Rene Descartes
believed that humans should doubt everything until it can be proven with reason
Charles Calonne
French finance minister from 1783-87. He followed Turgot and Necker in the recognition of France3's financial crisis, and suggested reforms to save the economy. These included the abandonment and reformation of taxes such as taille, gabelle, and corvée; the abolishment of trade inhibitors (i.e. tolls); the establishment of provinicial assemblies; and the taxation of all three estates. The king rejected his ideas, so he called the Assembly of Notables, which also rejected them.
continental system
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Napoleon Bonaparte
A general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul of the French Republic, and Emperor of the French. He was a military strategist, winning most of the battles in which he fought.
moderates
persons who do not hold extreme political views
Republic of Virtue
democratic nation composed of good citizens, which the Committee of Public Safety tried to establish
Rosetta Stone
stone tablet with ancient languages on it, becomes the key to understanding ancient text; most important archaeological find of the 19th century
Citizen
title given to all French people to eliminate all other titles of the ancien regime
Vendee Revolution
a revolution within the revolution of people upset about cunscription that was violently put down
Revolutionary Calender
created a new calender w/ new nationalistic holidays; year 1; 10 day week to avoid sundays
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue. Killed thousands of people with using the guillotine
cartesian dualism
concept of separation of mind and matter conceived by descartes
divine right
theory which argued that certain kings ruled because they were chosen by God to do so and that these kings were accountable to no person but God.
October Days
High bread prices provoked women and militia to go to Versailles and there was a brief and bloody confrontation with King's guards. Forced the king and family to move back to Paris and the national assembly --> King is a puppet, under the eyes of people and the Nat'l assembly
jean paul marat
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
Feudal Obligations
List of what peasants did for nobles.
Napopleeonic code
system of laws established by Napoleon and all people were treated equal before this law
Corvée
A French tax that originated in feudal times. It required one day of annual service to the state
John Locke
Tabula Rasa- Born Equal "blank slate"
3 Natural Rights- Life(protection), Liberty, Property (decent quality of living)
Democracy- people have the ability to govern themselves
A major goal of the Quadruple Alliance was to prevent ________________.
Revolutions
the Hundred Days
The period in which Napoleon regained power of France
bread riots
French people in fear of starvation go on rampage
Treaty of Luneville
1801, Austria accepts loss of almost all Italian possessions and their Germany territory on the west bank of the Rhine
Flight to Varennes
royal family's attempt to flee is stopped and they are brought to paris.
Klemens Von Metternich
The Foreign Minister of Austria; he had the most influence at the Congress of Vienna.
St. Helena
Exiled to this island after the battle of waterloo
Why does Napoleon return?
Under Louis reign, France suffered. Napoleon escaped the exile and returned to france. The army helped himj regain the throne.
3rd Estate
97% everyone else lots of taxes loved enlightment
Levee en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Scorched- earth Policy
Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land.
St Helena
-sent to Elba, returns, then is exiled to St HElena
-it's practically lifeless, he's surroundded by guards everywhere, has nothign to do
Liberty Trees
A symbol of the French Revolution, the first being planted in 1790 by a pastor of a Vienne village, inspired by the 1765 Liberty Tree of Boston.
The final constitution is
by middle class for middle class
Coup d'Etat Brumaire
upon returning from Egypt with his forces, Napoleon drove legislators from the Legislative Assembly. A new consistution established, beginning the Consulate Era.
invaded russia in ____out of army of ________ escapes with ___what weather
1812
400,000
10,000
winter
Concert of Europe
Tried to maintain peace and the old order in Europe
3 social classes in France
1st Estate, 2nd Estate, 3rd Estate
The Second Estate
2-3 % of population. Noblemen who were exceedingly wealthy. They owned most of the land which they held in a feudal society.
THE RIGHTS OF MAN
Written in 1791 by Thomas Paine, Englishman, to defend the French Revolution. Gave the phrase, "rights of man", a powerful impact in English.
limited monarchy
a monarchy that is limited by laws and a constitution
Dates:
Louis XIV moves to versailles
assembly of notables
national assembly formation
storming of the bastille
execution of Louis XVI
fall of robespierre
Louis XIV moves to versailles- 1683
assembly of notables- 1787
national assembly formation- 6/17/89
storming of the bastille- 7/14/89
execution of Louis XVI- 1793
fall of robespierre- 9 Therimidor (1794)
Reign of terror
A Period in the French Revolution. It was established by the government on Sept. 5, 1793, to take harsh measures against those suspected of being enemies of the Revolution (including nobles, priests, and hoarders). Controlled by the radical Committee of Public Safety and Maximilien Robespierre, the Terror eliminated enemies Jacques Hébert and his followers and Georges Danton and the Indulgents.
The Great Fear
Refers to the period of July and August 1789 when peasants sacked the castles of the nobles and burned the documents that recorded their feudal obligations.
Storming of the Bastille
prison fortress in Paris; attacked and destroyed on July 14, 1789, at the start of the French Revolution
National Assembly, Legislative Assembly and National Convention
The name given to the 3 congresses established in 1789-1794
What was the Continental System?
No trade with England, Russia traded with them, Napoleon invades Russia.
Poll Tax
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Which factor did not contribut to France's pre-rebolution debt?
A.) The Seven Years' War
B.) The cost of maintaining the army and navy
C.) Upkeep at Versailles
D.) High tariffs on imported goods
D.) High tariffs on imported goods
What was the pledge taken by the Third Estate to write a constitution
The Tennis Court Oath
Committee of Public Safety
a group of 12 men led by Robespierre, given control over military, economic, and political policy
What was the symbolism of Bastille? Why was the storming of it significant?
Was the prison that represented Louis XVI's power, so when the people overthrew it, they overthrew Louis XVI's power as well.
How might the Festival of the Supreme Being have contributed to Robespierre's downfall?
Because people didnt like being forced to believe in something that they didnt want to believe
Events that led to the end of the Monarchy
War with France
Voted itself out
The levee an masse enabled France to aquire a...
call for all to contribute service to the war effort.
Estate 3
Bourgoisie
Parlement
French law courts
bankrupt
to be in debt
Locke
1632-1704; Created political philosophy; Tabula Rasa, "Blank Slate"
national razor
nickname for guillotine
Symbols
Bastille (Paris), Guillotine, Tuileries
Marrie Antoinette
Wife of Louis XVI
Constitution
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
third estate wanted
everyone to vote
dictatorship
government headed by an absolute ruler
National Guard
the citizen militia of Paris
French Constitution
it created a constitutional monarchy.
The Caste System
Estates divided in 3
Rise of Napoleon
Strengthened central government, Napoleonic Code, order, security, and efficiency was the new slogan of the New Regime
Enlightenment
historical period that focused on gaining insight into beliefs, religion, economics, and education. its known as the Age of Reason because it stressed reason and thought
France
-nobles were exempt from paying taxes
- nobles: had priveleges
-grain shortage, economic troubles
Who killed Marat in his bath?
Charlotte Corday
coup d'etat
a sudden overthrow of the government
Thermidorian Reaction
August 18-September 16, returned the moderate Bourgeois reformers to power.
the directory
The Directory was the five-man executive elected by the Legislative Assembly in 1975 after the execution of Robespierre. These men were elected by electors, who were in turn elected by the general census. They supported the expansion of France in foreign lands. However, the unprincipled actions of the Directory only promoted hatred of the wars and of the starvation. The Directory and its constitution was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in a coup d'etat on November 9, 1799. Soldiers disbanded the Legislative Assembly the next day.
Petite Bourgeoisie
They were the urban lower middle-class; they were the merchants/artisans
radical leaders known as ____ because they sat on high benches at the rear end of the hall
mountains
Voltaire
French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)
bourgeoise
Upper class of the Third Estate; business class/upper middle class
The Foreign Minister of England who authored the Treaty of Chaumont.
Castlereagh
What do the French call their independence day?
Bastille Day
hunting rights
Dating back to feudal times, the nobility had the privilege of hunting on their own AND peasants' lands. Peasants generally did not have these rights and therefore were limited in their ability to provide for themselves - particularly in years of poor harvests.
Verdun
Town on the road to Paris; when Prussia took this town it led to THE GREAT FEAR that political prisoners would turn
Constitution of 1795
Constitution created by the French Revolution that had no monarchy and an executive called the Directory
Louis XV
King who reigned from 1715-1774 who would permanently disband parlements after repeated remonstrance issues --> represents the growth in public opinion against the king
czar alexander
Russian ruler who refused to stop selling grain to Britain, and refused to make peace with Napoleon and France.
What were Napoleon's faults?
The continental system (blockade between europe and great britain for all trade and commerce); The Peninsular War (marched through spain to get portugal to agree to cont. system, removed spanish king replacing with bro); Invasion of russia (scorched earth policy; therefore, france loses)
Law of Suspects
Kill anyone suspected of plotting against you
Peninsular War
Napoleon puts his brother Joseph on throne of Spain;angers Spanish people , they revolted waging guerrilla war for a while. Eventually, British and Spanish forces under Duke of Wellington drive French out. One of reasons for Napoleon’s decline.
deficit spending
a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenues
2Nobility Estate(2nd estate)
-pay no taxes
-have plenty of food
-dress like a king
-very privaledged
Causes of French Revolution
Economic downturn, population boom, agricultural downturn, high taxes, national debt
-battle of trafalgar
-brits vs french & spanish
-brits' Nelson attacks French & Spanish ships by crossing the T = worst method, Brits knew they'd lose, but in the end: they wont
Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride for one's country
Joseph Bonaparte
Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.
Brunswick Manifesto
Threatened that if the French royal family was harmed, then French civilians would be harmed.
Orders in Council
edicts that closed European ports to foreign shipping unless they stopped first in a British port
Universal Manhood Suffrage
policy that every adult male could vote, whether he owned property or not
Treaty of Paris, 1763
ended the fighting in North America
Cahiers de Doleances
List of grievances presented by the Estates General to the monarchy; complaints included constitutional monarchy, civil liberties, and power to the bourgeoisie
Code Napolean
Group of organized laws that got rid of the ancient regime gave legal equality and protection of property to people. Napolean went through ancient French law and threw out irrelevant things.
Declaration of Pilnitz
Issued by Prussia and Austria in August, 1791; , the statment made by Austria and Prussia that they would attack France if anything happened to the King or Queen
CONSTITUTION OF THE YEAR III(1795)
After the Thermidorean Reaction members of the Convention wrote a new constitution. Went into effect at end of 1795. Set up a Directory and a Bicameral legislature.
Absolute Monarchy
A king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of the society
Duke of Wellington
The greatest man or general England ever produced , he went to Portugal to help fight
tenis court oath
third estate vowed not to disband unitl france had a new constitution- starting point of revolution
M. Robespierre
He was a French political leader of the Jacobins; in charge during the Reign of Terror.
Counter Revolutionary
A person who does not support the Revolution.
Equitable
the quality or state of being equal or equivalent
June 20, 1789:
Storming of the Bastille- was symbolic of political changes b/c the citizen gained control
Marquis de Lafayette
Aristocratic hero of two worlds who fought alongside George Washington in the American Revolution; headed national guard.
Lettre de Cachet
letter bearing a seal ordering the imprisonment without trial of a person the letter names
TRUE OR FALSE: As a result of the French Revolution, church-run schools like those begun by the Religious of the Sacred Heart were officially sponsored and supported by the French government.
false
Discontent in France
caused by rising cost of living, lac of political voice for the lower classed, and anger that the nobility and clergy paid no taxes
Who was in power during the last year of the French Revolution?
Napoleon Bonaparte
France celebrates July 14 because it is an anniversary of
the storming of Bastille
Step 4- Rule of Radicals
Girondists and Jacobins, Sans Culottes (without breeches), National convention formed, first french republic, Louis 16th sent to guillotine, invaded by Prussia, Austria, Britain, Holland , and Spain. Committee of Public Safety
assembly of notables
term for the 1st and 2nd estate together when they refused calonne's reforms?
Storming of the Tuileries Palace
ended the French monarchy in 1792
The Legislative Assembly
This was formed after the King signed the constitution. It tried to establish a workable government, but it had too much difficulty. You had extremely Radical people who wanted a republic, then people who wanted a constitutional monarchy and then people who wanted to restore the old system.
Battle of Leipzig
Also known as the Battle of the Nations; in October 1813, the combined armies of the fourth coaliton decisively defeated Napoleon and the French army
abbe sieyes
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
Dawn of the Revolution
The Third Estates delegates were eager to make changes in government., established the National AssemblyBeginning of a representative government.
Women March on Versailles
women angry bc of bread shortage, they forced king and his family back to Paris
Be able to describe the "de-Christianization" of France
anti-Catholic people wanted France to not be Catholic and have people practice their own religion, killed Catholics, got rid of other religions and created a religion solely based on reason, Robespierre was the "Supreme Being"
Doubling of the 3rd
Agreement by LXVI to allow 3rd estate to double in size b/c of the power of the 1st and 2nd Estates --> really symbolizes the desire of the third estate to express their grievances and be a part of the nation
The Atlantic Revolutions
The term for a wave of late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century revolutions associated with the Enlightenment.
"What is the Third Estate?"
Pamphlet written by Abbe Sieyes in January 1789. It declared the nobility to be a useless caste that should be abolished. Only the Third Estate was necessary and was identical with the nation - should therefore be sovereign. Through these writings of Sieyes the ideas of Rousseau 's Social Contract entered the revolution. They also added to the fear between the classes even before the meeting of the Estates General.
The Battle of the Nile
Also known as the Battle of Aboukir Bay and fought on the night of August 1-2, 1798, Nelson and the British fleet defeated the French fleet in Egypt, preventing Napoleon from further victory in the Middle East.
1st act of Fr. Revolution
This was the creation of the National Assembly. It happened after a few parish priests went over to the side of the Third Estate.
causes of the french revolution were?
government spent more than it earned which made the 3rd state have to pay higher taxes, bad harvest lead to starvation, inflation
FR was also caused by falling French economy. They had an inefficient and uneven _______ ________
taxation system and had excessive spending
long lasting effects of French Revolution
1. end of class system
2. end of absolute monarch
3. end of special privileges
4. constitution
a. individual rights
b. trial b jury
c. freedom of religion, speech, press
5. middle class became powerful/influential
6. war- fought by all
7. feeling of Nationalism - devotion to country not ruler
What internal political problems led to the French Revolution?
The commoners only got 1 vote in the estates general, priests and nobles got the other 2, commoners were given "double representation", they formed the National Assembly.
What did the public first think of Napolean?
approved b/c they wanted a strong military leader to rebuild france... named first consol of the republic in 1799
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Men are born and remain free and equal in rights, and that the aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural rights of man which were liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression.
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