French Revolution Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
First Estate
French revolutionary
Second Esate
orders of society
led French Revolution
people are born good
2.3 million people, upper-middle/middle class, owned 20-25% of land, made up of merchants, bankers, lawyers, doctors, etc. drawn to enlightenment.
had no extreme views
government ruled by representatives instead of a monarch
the former French government consisting of three consuls, that ruled France from 1799 to 1804
ruler of austria
emperor Francis 1st
Influential German military state, which declared war on France during the revolution.
food surplus
Extra amount of food
urban workers "those without knee breeches"
informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
Napoleon's was defeated by
Duke of Wellington
"French National Barber" "The Razor" 40,000 executed/300,000 arrested "A cool breath on the back of the neck"
constitution of 1791
1st constitution on France
levee en masse
draft for the army
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
liberal political group, supported a powerless king
Opposition to the Mountain in Revolutionary France.
When Robespierre tried to create a Republic of Virtue (a democratic republic of good citizens based on reason) he tried to eliminate christianity by: 1. taking away the word saint from street signs. 2. pillaging churches 3. encouraging priests to marry 4. changing a catherdrael to a temple of reason 5. starting a new calendar that would take away holy sundays
The ability to think critically and draw logical conclusions.
Declaration of Rights of Man
August 1, 1789
France was the wealthiest country in Europe in 1789 but the gov't was broke
the village/estate of land which the lord owned and allowed peasants to live on and farm for him
Why did women march on Versailles?
Food/expensive bread
an isolated island where Napoleon is dropped and left
French vs British navy battle, British win, Napoleon gives up on trying to invade Britain
National Convention
radical group dominated by bourgeoisie who distrusted and executed the king
Military Genius of France, who later became a dictator and eventually overthrown. He sold the west land (Louisiana) to the United States for a very cheap price doubling the land of America.
Pope Pius VII
pope during French Revolution
pope that was arrested by Napoleon and taken out of Rome and sent to France until Napoleon was defeated
When was Nepoleon crowned Emperor
December 2, 1804
no monarchy, wanted a REPUBLIC, wanted radical economic reforms-Low bourgeoisie and sans-culottes
Significance of Bastille
sets pattern for popular revolution working with elite revolution.2. puts Paris at center of revol. 3. Confirms power of National Assembly 4. Wak-up call for those who leave France 5. blows lid off of censorship 6. sparks revol. all over france.
A lawyer and politician that lead the Committee of Public Safety
Great Fear
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives., Followed the storming of the Bastille-people were scared of outlaws and reprisals-fanned flames of rebellion.
Helvetic Republic
Swiss republic set up under French guidance.
science can be used to explain all aspects of life and society, nothing should be accepted on faith; no superstition or tradition
the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation--that is , to the people with whom they share a culture and history---rather than to a king or empire
system of codes that puts country first
Napoleonic Code
Peninsular War
When Napoleon tried to take Portugal, and placed his brother on the throne of Spain
Estates General
~assembly of all the estates in France
~Louis XVI turns to the Estates General to find a solution to the Political Crisis
~meets in May of 1789
effort to cut off food, suppiles, war material, or communications from a particula area by force
Continential System
Napoleon attempts to weaken Britain by keeping all their goods out of Europe (weakening economy)
deficit spending
situation in which a government spends more money than it takes in
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
Legislative Assembly
- The National Assembly created a limited constitutional monarchy.
- Louis reluctantly signed the constitution and handed over power to this new assembly.
- They had the power to create laws and approve or prevent any war the King declared,
- This assembly split into three different groups dues to their different ideas on food shortages and government debt.
Louis XVI
king of France from 1774 to 1792
National Assembly
the first governing body of France during the FR. Created by the Abbe Sieyes
The Mountain
Represented the city of Paris. Mostly radical middle class.
Invasion of Russia
Perhaps the worst decision made by Napolean was to invade Russia. Who when they were invaded immediatly retreated to Moscow and burned all the crops leaving no food for the French army. Napolean and his army stayed in the cold for 5 weeks waiting for a peace treaty. They never got one and the snows came which made the French army cold and without food. Most of the soldiers were not loyal to Napolean. The snows prevented their troops from getting home safe and so many French soldiers died.
What was a coup detat
a sudden seizure of power
Olympe de Gouges
A female journalist who demanded equal rights for women in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
Why was Robespierre finally executed
Because he was a tyrant
Reign of Terror
george danton killed because he wasnt radical enough, 40,000 others were killed
(Prince Clemens von) Metternich
Austrian; prominent leader in the Congress of Vienna; cleverly sided with whichever side was winning at the time in order to pursue his own goals and make Austria important in politics
Popular Sovereignty
people hold the final authority in all matters of government. like a democracy
Committee of Public Safety
the Mountain joined with sans-culottes and ousted the Girondist from the convention.
- The Convention gave dictorial power to this committee.
- The nine members were determ ined to save the revolution.
- It decreed a levy-in-mass, drafted males capable of fighting, issued a plea for the entire nation to support the war.
- Also began to regulate prices and wages to help the economic situation, adopted a new calendar, ended imprisonment for debt, abolished slavery, and outlaw the selling of titles of nobility
Middle Class
a social class made up of skilled workers,protestants,business people,and wealthy farmers
Conditions for Revolution
huge debt, Louis XIV tried to clear the debt with taxing the 3rd Estate, poor harvest, and steady economic decline
vindication of the rights of man
Wollstonecraft compared the male domination over women to slavery. She also said that since the goals ofEnlightenment were to advance all human beings then why were women excluded. Declared that women should have equal rights with man.
Liberty, Fraternity, Equality
This was the slogan (battlecry) of the French Revolution
committee of public safety's society
men fought, women mended, children scrapped.
Declaration of the RIghts of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Marie Antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
What was the Revolution slogan?
ideas of the Declaration " liberty, equality and fraternity"
The National Razor
The National Razor was a tool used to kill people as ome form of punishment.
2 major groups within jacobins
-Mountain: most radical, wanted to end monarchy
^- girondins- wanted limited monarchy
-Sans Culottes: "blue collar workers", wanted change through violence, organized the paris commune (militia)
who was maximillien robespierre
he was the head of the jacobins and committee of public safety during the terror
Declaration of the Right of Man and the Citizen
proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, access to run for public office based on talent, and end to tax exemptions
Three goals of the Congress of Vienna
1. To surround France with strong countries
2. To restore a balance of power
3. To restore Europe's royal families
Why was a coup detat important
he came to power so quickly, which was important because it showed that how much the people supported him
What was the Battle of Trafalgar
Took place off the SW coast of Spain, Nepoleon's only major defeat
why did the second and third estate do the tennis court oath.
because the votes were unfair so they made the tennis court oath
France's chief tax
les preuves
the proof
"rural masses"
peasant who participated in army in war time, got gun, then kept gun
Parisians thought nobility hired so they would loot the towns
the right to vote
moderates in the National convention
Napoleonic Period
Napoleon's rule, elected Emperor
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
popular vote, French supported Napoleon
favor status quo; no change
What was the first estate?
Location where Napoleon was defeated by the British and he also discovered the Rosetta Stone
Extremely radical faction of the Jacobins who were violently anti-Christian and wanted to see even more price controls
King's lackey created to decrease noble power
Old Regime
political system before French Rev.
bond redeemable for land (confiscated church land in this case)
Ancien Regime
"Old Regime", The conservative political and social order in Europe before the French Revolution
a formal agreement especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of Church affairs
Second estate was made up of?
the estate system is
the class system
Horatio Nelson
The British admiral who defeated Napoleon in Egypt. He won the battle of Tragalgar but lost his life
A radical supporter of the French Revolution who used his newspaper to demand more blood; he was eventually murdered
October 5, 1789
The Women's March on Versailles
September Massacres
Jacobins spread rumors that imprisoned priests/prisoners of counterrevolution plan to break out of jail and attack French army. Leads sans-culottes to kill prisoners and suspend constitution. Martial rule is put into place.
Nobility of the Robe
bought their way in
Official who ruled over the regional departments. Under direct orders from Minister of Interior. Part of Napoleons administrative machinery which allowed him to centralize control of France.
wrote vindication of the rights of women, founder of modern feminism
Continental system
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
georges danton
the newly appointed minister of justice who led the sans-culottes in revenge on those who had aided the king and resisted the popular will.
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution
list of grievances drawn up by delegates going to the meeting of the estates general
The Directory
The Directory was the five-man executive elected by the Legislative Assembly in 1975 after the execution of Robespierre; The men were elected by electors, who were elected by the general census; supported the expansion of France in foreign lands but the unprincipled actions of the Directory promoted hatred of the wars and starvation; The Directory and its constitution was overthrown by Napoleon Bonaparte in a coup d'etat on November 9, 1799
Congress of Vienna
conservative, reactionary meeting, led by Prince Metternich, restore Europe to Prerevolution time
assembly chose 5 directors as an executive body ruling france for 4 years, electors filter votes and chose representitives, aristocratic fasions return to france
napoleanic code
organized code, gave people freedoms and rights and equality before the law
describe the poorer members of the Third Estate, according to the dominant theory because they usually wore pantaloons (full-length trousers) instead of the fashionable knee-length culotte
The September Massacres
The Paris Commune summarily executed or murdered about 1,200 people who were in the city jails.
Battle of Trafalgar
The naval battle Napoleon waged against ENgland in order to take their navy out. He lost
institut d'Egypte
learned academy formed by Napoleon to carry out research during his Egyptian campaign
Second Estate
rich nobles, made up 2% of population
Tuileries Palace
royal palace in Paris, destroyed in upheaval during the suppression of the Paris Commune
The Third Estate
Everybody else. Mostly peasants. There were also rich lawyers and business people but none of these people could vote or own land. Only nobles could own land.
Napoleon was exiled to ____ after a forced abduction
Tennis Court Oath
third state declared itself the National Assembly & pledged to write a constitution for the nation.
forcing young men to fight in the army
the national assembly
the french congress established by representatives of the third estate
-they claimed to represent all of the people
-was the beginning of representative government for france
Urban workers
Worked in factories owned by the aristocrats.(nobility)
the money the government is short each year after it pays its bills
abbe sieyes
"what is the third estate? nothing. what does it want to be? something." (something like that :3) challenged the king to give third estate representation which seemed like it was going to happen when he doubled representation of third estate
a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment
estates system
The way French society was organized in the centuries before 1789. This system determined which groups had rights and privileges, which paid taxes and which did not.
A perosn who leaves his native country for political reasons, like the nobles and tohers who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution.
Josephine de Beauharnais
Wife of Napoleon- Parisian socialite with many contacts
Third Estate
Artisans etc. Everyone not in the First or Second Estate. paid all taxes
Jacques Necker
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
Group created when the Third Estate withdrew from the Estates General
National Assembly
St. Helena
a forlorn island in the South Atlantic where Napoleon was exiled the second time, this time for good.
Battle of Traflgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson
Scorched-Earth Policy
the idea of burning the area during war - to not allow for usage of the land
June 17, 1789
The Third Estate declares itself the National assembly
First Constitution (1791)
The first con. that the National Assembly came up with. They were the first country to ban slavery. It gave universal suffrage men- WELL the men categorized as Active Citizens.
The Mountain/Montagnards
A political group whose members sat on the highest benches in the Assembly
the Holy Alliance
-league formed by Russia, Austria, and Prussia to be good Christian monarchs and cooperate to fight revolution
-Czar Alexander, Emporer Frances I of Austria, and king Frederick William III of Prussia also contributed to help form this
the ________ was a party that wanted a republic w/ universal male suffrage
Absolute Monarch
European ruler of the 17th and 18th centuries who claimed absolute power of his or her people.
The Three Estates
refers to the Social classes of France
The Directory is established
Cause: National convention wrote new constitution and needed new assembly
Effect: supported French military expansion
marie antoniette
Queen of France: wife of Louis XVI daughter of maria-theresa empress of Austria
refactory clergy
Created in response to when the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. It created a national church with 83 bishops and dioceses. They had the support of the King, formor aristocrats, peasants, and the urban working class.
Marie Antionette
Queen of France from 1774 to 1792, who was executed during the French Revolution
July 14, 1789
-Crowds go to Bastille (mainly to show power over Louis XVI)
-Louis XVI recognizes National Assembly
Rights of women
They wanted equal rights as men such as education, vote, property,
interest on the debt
instead of reducing the debts, the monarchs decided to make more debts
Confederation of the Rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
conspiracy of equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction--communistic in nature
Battle of Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
Constitution of 1795
Its main aim was to prevent the rise of another dictatorial government. Social rights and the right to vote was limited to the wealthiest taxpayers
the declaration of the rights of women
Created the rights for women.
clergy in the Estates?
church leaders who owned 10% of the land, yet made up 2% of the population
napoleon does these two things in war
captures northern italy
expedition to egypt to disrupt british trade to india
French Monarchy in Crisis
France is forced to spend half of its alotted budget on paying back debts alone; this means that not enough revenue is being collected. The fact that nobles received tax exemptions made this situation even worse.
Declaration of the RIghts of Manand citizen
Giving all men citizens equal rights
"What is the Third Estate?"
Written by Abbe Sieyes it claimed the Third Estate should have the power in France and stated the nobility should be abolished and it brought the ideas of Rousseau's Social Contract
Why were the peasants alarmed by the Assembly's actions
Most citizens were devout Catholics, the effort to make the Church a part of the state offended them
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A body of legislation passed in July 1790 that redefined the relationship between the clergy and the state in France. It allowed for the confiscation of church property formerly used to support the clergy, replacing it with a guarantee of state salaries for clergymen instead. It also stipulated that parish priests and bishops be elected just like public officials. The National Assembly attempted to enforce it by requiring the clergy to take an oath, divided public opinion of the French Revolution (1789-99) and galvanized religious opposition.
What happened as a result of the Peninsular War
Nepoleon removed the Spanish King and put his brother Joseph on the throne
If you were italian, what are some reasons you wouldnt love Napoleon?
Because he made them learn french and change their customs
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