Equine/etc. Skull Flashcards

Bones of the head and neck
Terms Definitions
What 2 bones form the brain case in the horse?
Mostly parietal, some frontal.
How many points does the equine nasal bone have? Cow? Sheep? Goat?
Horse and Sheep: 1Cow and Goat: 2
How can you locate the supraorbital foramen by palpation in a live horse?
Palpate the orbital rim (zygomatic process of frontal bone) and where it begins to widen, the foramen is found in the middle.
What 2 nerves can be blocked at the supraorbital foramen? Would you need to block at any additional point(s)?
Frontal branches of opthalmic of V and Palpebral of VII are blocked at the supraorbital foramen. Due to the variable course of the palpebral, doing a block along the dorsal margin of the zygomatic arch is not a bad idea.
Why is it impossible to perform an ocular exam on a horse w/o nerve block?
Eye muscles (orbicularis oculi) are very strong, largely due to attachment at prominent lacrimal tubercle (bony projection rostral to orbit).
Where does the facial crest terminate?
At PM4.
What are the 4 clinical significances of the facial crest in the horse?
1) Can use to locate pulse at caudal end of crest (transverse facial artery). 2) Just ventral to crest under orbit is site for blood sampling (facial vein)3) Trephination of maxillary sinus should be performed dorsal to facial crest.4) End of crest rostrally marks rostral end of rostral maxillary sinus (and beginning of nasal cavity).
Where do the lamellar and funicular parts of the nuchal ligament attach?
Lamellar: nuchal crestFunicular: External occipital protuberance (just under nuchal crest)
What muscles attach to the jugular (paracondylar) processes of the equine skull?
Occipital mandibularisDigastricus
What muscles attach to the muscular process near the styloid process of the temporal bone?
Tensor veli palatiniLevator veli palatini
What muscles attach at the tubercles near the suture line of the basisphenoid and basioccipital bone?
Longus capitisRectus capitis ventralis(Clinical note: rearing head can lead to fracture at this weak suture and perforation of cavernous venous sibus above).
Where is the jugular foramen located in the horse, and what does it transmit?
Located at the caudal part of the foramen lacerum. Transmits CN IX, X, and XI.
What are the 3 notches in the cranial part of the foramen lacerum?
Medial notch = carotid notch (for internal carotid a.)Middle notch = oval notch (for mandibular n. of CN V) - no oval foramen in horse!Lateral notch = spinous notch (for middle meningeal artery)
What are the only 2 animals having an alar canal?
Horse and dog.
What 3 foramina are in the alar canal?
1) Orbital fissure (for 3, 4, opthalmic of 5, and 6 CNs)2) Combined round foramen (for mandibular of V) and rostral alar foramen (.
What 2 foramina are next to the large alar canal entrance?
Ethmoid foramen (small, oval - for ethmoid blood vessel and ethmoid branches of opthalmic of V) and optic canal (larger, for optic n.).
Which 3 foramina are found in the pterygo-palatine fossa (ventral to orbit)?
1) Caudal palatine foramen (for entry of palatine vessels)2) sphenopalatine foramen to nasal cavity (for caudal nasal nn and vessels)3) Maxillary foramen - beginning of intraorbital canal.
Which teeth are related to the maxillary sinus?
PM4, M1, M2, M3. (PM4 and M1 are usu. in rostral max. sinus, and M2 and M3 are in caudal max. sinus)
What is the wolf tooth?
PM1 on maxilla, occasionally present.
The rostral frontal sinus communicates with which other sinus?
Dorsal conchal sinus. Together they are called the conchofrontal sinus.
What does the frontmaxillary aperture connect?
Frontal sinus with caudal maxillary sinus. A large aperture present only in horse.
What separates rostral from caudal maxillary sinus?
Oblique septum (position is variable).
For trephination of rostral maxillary sinus, where should the opening be made?
Caudal to rostral termination of facial crest and ventral to a line drawn from medial canthus of eye to infraorbital foramen (to avoid infraorbital nn and lacrimal duct).
The caudoventral conchal sinus is A.K.A. what?
Medial compartment of the rostral maxillary sinus.
The caudal maxillary sinus is in communication with what other sinus?
Sphenopalatine sinus.
How do you avoid the large veins when attempting to trephine the frontal sinus?
Palpate the supraorbital foramen and groove, which is where the veins are located.
What extends into the bovine lacrimal bulla?
Caudal maxillary sinus
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