French Revolution Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Terror
1793
Voltaire
French philosopher
conscription
the draft
Louis XVI executed
1793
Storming of Bastile
...
Thomas Hobbes
English philosopher, leviathan
Storming of the Bastille
...
bourgeoisie
1.lawyers, doctors, writers, bankers
2.jealous of nobility, had much in common
3.members of the third estate
Republic
government ruled by elected representatives
estates
social class in pre-revolution France
Sans-culottes
(without breeches) patriots without fine clothes
General Blucher
lead the Prussian army
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
sans-culotte
working class men and women
faction
Dissenting groups of people who competed to gain power
Robespierre
French revolutionary. Leader of the Jacobins and architect of the Reign of Terror, he was known as an austere and incorruptible man. His laws permitting the confiscation of property and arrest of suspected traitors, many of whom were guillotined, led to his own arrest and execution without trial.
Absolutism
the monarch (king) had absolute control over the government
Constitution
A constitutation was a written document saying the rules of a country and how it is ran.
Right
conservatives - keeps things the same
John Locke
an Enlightenment thinker who influenced our founding fathers
consulate
diplomatic office headed by a consul
émigré
Nobles, clergy, and others who fled France and its revolutionary forces
Logical Thought
scientific thought applied to the people, because like science, people were governed by laws.
"liberty, equality, fraternity"
slogan of the french revolution
czar
What did Ivan the Terrible call himself?
blockade
involves shutting off ports to keep supplies from moving in or out
censored
cut or changed to remove material deemed objectionable
Estates-General
The legislative branch of the French government prior to the French Revolution; it could meet only with permission from the king (May 5th, 1789)
Death of Louis
Austria, Prussia, Portugal, Britain, and Netherlands outraged (war)
Social Contract
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
constitution of 1791
the national assembly's new constitution, set up a limited monarchy
Thomas Paine
known for involvement with the American revolution, wrote pamphlet common sense
Thermidorean Reaction
When the National Convention seized control of the Committee of Public Safety and established the Directory.
Great Fear
The rumors stating that the nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize the peasants, caused Great Fear which led to absolute chaos throughout France. The peasants would storm the nobles houses. They finally began storming the palace and attacking the King and Queen.
First Consul and Emperor
Napoleon directly controlled the entire executive authority of government
Louis XVI
King of France during the French Revolution; husband of Marie Antoinette. He was beheaded.
Great Britain
This country would join forces with the Portuguese and defeat Napoleon at Waterloo
Congress of vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Reign of Terror
Jacobin government killed everyone by guillotine that was suspected of treason.
La Marseillaise
This song became the French National Anthem has lines such as "Liberty, beloved liberty, Fight with your Defenders."
Absolute Monarch
Ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people.
Second estate
Noble knights, goverment jobs and in the army and courts.
Republic of Virtue
Robespierre's attempt to erase all traces of the monarchy, nobility, and Catholic Church
Declaration of Pillnitz
Austria and Prussia. If anything happened to the King and Queen they would invade.
Country Card
Grievance lists which were required by all regions of the country attending the Estates General were called what?
A: Cahiers
Napoleonic Code
A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon
austria, russia, Italy, spain, and prussia
countries Napoleon defeated
national convention
writes a new constitution that gives universal male suffrage
"scorched earth"
policy Russians used so that French couldn't live off land
lead to the French Revolution
bad harvests,slow down in manufactoring led to food shortages ,rising prices, unemployment
Jean Paul Marat
wrote a newspaper "Friend of the Republic" supporting French Rev.
reports threats to French Rev like the King's flag party
his answer was " blood and heads"
scortched earth policy
practice of burning crops and killing live stock during war time so that the enemy can not live off the land.
Pope Pius VII
pope who agreed to Concordat with Napoleon, crowned Napoleon emperor
Bastille
a fortress in France which served as a prison
napoleon bonaparte
was a millitary leader during the time of the revolution
Duke of Wellington
British commander who heads the army wanting to defeat Napoleon after his return from exile
St. Helena
the final sight in which napoleon was exiled and died
refactory
the half of the clergy that does not take an oath supporting the civil constitution
marie antoinette
hated by the french people and hated them; from austria; wore expensive jewelry while people of france starved
Concordat of 1801
Napoleon made peace with the Catholic Church in the Concordat of 1801. It kept the Church under state control and also recognized Catholic's religious freedom.
problems before rev
debt, poor harvest, failure to reform govt
gabelle
this was a tax placed on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate's list of grievances., a salt tax in France. This is an example of one of the ways monarchs could raise money by levying taxes on basic food and clothing, estate groundskeeper; asks Charles to come to France
Olympe de Gouges
A woman who wrote plays and pamphlets and fought to have equal rights as men. She wrote a Declaration of Rights of Woman and the female citizen which the National Assembly ignored.
Committee of Public Safety
12 member committee that had almost absolute power; Robespierre, Danton, Marat. Prepared France for all out war. Executed many people who they deemed were against the republic.
Divine Right
the King was chosen by God to have power over the people
Tennis Court Oath
Oath to write a new constitution, when the National Assembly was banished from Versailles
National Assembly (1781-1791), Radical Phase (1792-1794), Directory (1765-1799), and Age of Napolean (1799-1815)
Four phases of the French Revolution
what was the hundred days
time period where napoleon was exiled, and Louis XVII was in rule
A triumph procession
They brought Louis XVI, his wife & son back to Paris
Lettres de cachet(Secret Letters)
Used by French King Louis XVI; letters bearing the royal seal; used to imprison the king's enemies without charge, bail, or trial
What was the body called to meet for the first time in 175 years
The Estates General
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
issued in 1790, this document put the French Catholic Church under state control; bishops and priests became elected, salaried officials; many bishops and priests refused to accept this document
skilled crafts people, shopkeepers, and other wage earners
rise in consumer prices left them with little buying power
declaration of the rights of man and citizens
a statement of revolutionary ideals adopted by frances national assembly in 1789
What did the legislative assembly do
create laws and to approve or reject declarations of war
Why were the peasants in the country angry?
thought the estates general would make good things happen, but they didn't
Where do the the nobles go and why?
the nobles fear for their lives so they go to the noble estates
E n L i G h T m E n T i N f L u E n C e D :)
*ideas of natural law, natural rights, to liberty, property, and life.
Louvre
Great Museum
l'émeute
an outburst
Bm
separation of powers
mountains
less radical jacobins
Guillotine
machine for beheading people
Departments
administrative districts of France
auprès
next to, compared to
Conservatives
Right Side
limited monarchy, few changes,
counterrevolution
a revolution directed toward overthrowing a government or social system established by a previous revolution.
Left
liberal - change within system
Slogan of the Revolution
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
claimed land above china
action Romonovs took
Liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
Notre Dame and Coronation
Napoleon crowns himself.
agency
an orginization or company that provides some service for another
Enlightenment Influence
age of enlightenment helped influence the beliefs of the revolution, ideas of natural laws, natural rights to liberty, property and life
Abbe Sieyes
wrote,What is the third Estate? pamphlet saying that the third estate is nothing and demands to be something
1789
Beginning of the United States of start of French Revolution
Old Regime
system of feudalism/monarchy left over from the Middle Ages from the 1770's.
Revolution
violent attempt tp change structure of a gov.
Marie Louise
Napoleon marries her because Josephine does not give him a male heir; niece of Marie Antoinette
Third Estate
the bourgeoisie, san-culottes and the peasants; paid high taxes and had NO special privileges
Tribunals
Accused, tried, and convicted in 12 hours.
emigres
these French nobles fled the country and caused trouble for the republic
royalists
A pro-monarchy group that formed in parliment
dictatorship
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
The Great Retreat
After Napoleon invaded Russia they retreated and the Russians had burned down all the houses so Napoleons Grand Army didn't have any food and most of them starved on the way home.
"National Assembly"
The Thrid Estate declared itself this on June 17, 1789.
Consitution of 1791
king had limited power, legislative assembly
September Massacre
Sans Coulette break into a prison holding 1600 political enemies and slaughter them all
Cult of Personality
Robespierre developed a group of followers and became the revolution and therefore and idol.
coup d'etat
A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group
serfs
legally bound to a particular plot of land
napoleon, 1796
commander of the french armies in italy...who and when
Marat (martyr)
Used propoganda in the articles he wrote
Made newspapers
Martyr-(killed for religious beliefs)
scorched-earth policy
the tactic of destroying crops and anything else that might be of values to the invaders
Feudal Documents
a lord's papers showing who owes him what
ancien regime
a political and social system that no longer governs (especially the system that existed in France before the French Revolution)
Estates(First and second)
The first and second estates- Nobles had almost complete control over peasants the king had complete control over everyone.
Women's March on Versailles
October 4, 1789~women demanding bread for their families
Wars fought across Europe from 1805 - 1813 by Napoleon in an effort to create a French Empire and spread French Revolution ideas.
Napoleonic Wars
When does the third estate declare itself to be the national assembly?
June 10, 1789
Charlotte Corday
Killed Marat in bath tub because she thought that killing him would stop the violence.
Tycho Brahe
"Great Observer of the Night Sky" - Polish
Code Napoleon
(The civil code) Law of equal rights and simplifies law under the rule of Napoleon
sentance for privilege
the privilges that the monarchy had rather than every other social class were drastic and were a reason that the french revolution started.
higher clergy
shared the interests of and spent time with the nobility, members of the first estate
August 10, 1789
Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
anti-feudal, social contract (influence of Rousseau's Social Contract)
Positives and negatives of the Committee of Public Safety
Positives: Dealt with national emergency. Planned economy with social status. Controlled maximum prices in the marketplace. Supplied weapons/ ammunition. Harbored patriots and democrats.
Negatives: Caused "The reign of terror"
St. Petersburg
city the big Russian palace is on, on the Baltic Sea
balance of power
no one country has more power than the other
What is the fear that the nobles will attack the peasants in the country called?
The Great Fear
the declaration of rights of men
ended feudalism,all man were all equal
What does the king do for advice?
he calls together the estates general
What was the Peninsular War
An invasion into Spain by Nepoleon and his troups
What happened on June 10, 1789?
the third estate declares itself to be the national assembly
Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
Laid out basic principles of French Revolution; "liberty, equality, fraternity."
How do Robespierre and the Reign of Terror gain control of France?
Causes much havoc but kills off nobility (guillotine). Causes a lot of crimes.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
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