final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bacterial infection is especially likely to elevate what count?
A patient with a snakebite is given an an antivenom in horse serum.  His blood pressure quickley drops why?
Anaphylactic shock
In sunburn the redness of the skin is from?
The antigen binding sites of an anitbody molecule are found where?
at the tips of the variable regions.
What is the autoimmune disease in which antibodies damage the capillaries of the kidneys?
acute glomerulonephritis
MALT is lymphatic tissue found in such places such as?
the digestive mucosa
Which of the following is not a form of nonspecific resistance?
Most circulating antibodies, and the only ones that cross the placenta are?
Special lymphatic vessels. called lacteals absorb dietary?  that cannot be absorbed into the capillaries
what lymphatic organ is very large in the fetus.  It begins to shrink after the age of 14 and is replaced almost entirely by fibrous and fatty tissue in th elderly.
Neutrophils produce a respiratory burts, which destroys more bacteria than can be destroyed by phagocytosis.  A respiratory burst results from the formation of a(n)  ?   that reacts with H* to fomr ? 
superoxide anion; hydrogen peroxide
An individual has been losing weight and showing sings of anemia.  A differential WBC count revealed an elevated eosinophil count.  What are these symptoms of?
parasitic infection
These pholpeptides stimulate cells to produce antiviral proteins and activate NK cells and macrophages.
The mother is Rh- , has Rj antibodies, and is carrying an Rh+ fetus.  The movement of Rh antibodies across the placenta causes?  immunity.  Rh- mothers should be given RhoGAM after every fetal event where the fetus is Rh+.  INjecting the mother with R
natural passive; artificial passive
It is allergy season and you have tremendous nasal congestion, water eyes, and a runny nose.  These symptoms are caused when allergens bind to IgE on teh membranes of ? and stimulate them to release ?
mast cells and basophils, histamine
The most abundant nitrogenous waste of the blood is?
Urine normally doesn't contain?
The blood vessels of the renal medulla that run alongside the nephron loops are?
the vasa recta
the kidneys do not
secrete hormones that stimulate thirst
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by?
the proximal convoluted tubule
A simple squamous epithelium is found in?
the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule and thin segment of the nephron loop
Uric acid is formed by the catabolism of ? while creatine is formed by the catabolism of ?
nucleic acids,  creatine (phospate)  may be crossed off couldn't tell on worksheet or may have just been smudged.
The tubule has a simple cuboidal epithelium nearly devoid of microvilli.
distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
The afferent and efferent arterioles come in contact with the DCT just outside the glomerular capsule.  This complex is called?
juxtaglomerular apparatus
The glomerular filtrate most resembles?
Which molecule would you expect to have the most difficulty crossing the glomerular filtration membrane?
You found a high level of albumin in the urine.  This was most likely caused by?
kidney trauma or infection
A low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) will caue the juxtaglomerular cells to release?  Which will ?
renin; increase blood pressure
Many diuretic drubs such as furosemind (Lasix) produce osmotic diuresis by?
inhibiting Na+ reabsorption
The internal urethral phrincter is made up of ? muscle and contracts in response to ? stimulation.
smooth, sympathetic
Which of the following conditions is likely to produce the highest daily ouptut of sodium in the urine?
Aldosterone receptors are found on the cells of?
distal convoluted tubule.
What disease is most likely to produce metabolic acidosis?
diabetes mellitus
Women may retain watr at certain times of the month because estrogen?
mimics aldosterone
What will be the result if the numbmer of Na+K+ pumps in the distal convuluted tubule is increased?
potassium concentration of the urine will rise.
Edema is least likely to result from?
increased blood osmolarity
You are getting ready to go cross country skiing.  Before you go what would be best to drink?
You are working outside on a hot day, sweating prfusely, and drinking alot of water. YOu may be subjecting yourself to?
hypotonic hydration
You are getting really concerned about takin gin enough fluids.  YOu decide to double your fluid intake from 2 to 4 liters per day.  Your blood wovume would ?  and your urine volume would?
stay the same, increase
You are trying to hold your breath as long as you can, but after about 2 minutes you have to breathe.  At this point you are in ?
respiratory acidosis
What does the flaciform ligament do?
attaches the liver to the abdominal wall
What are Peyer's patches and where are they located?
lymphatic follicles of the ileum
Most of the water entering the digestive tract each day comes from?
gastrointestinal secretions
Inflammation of the greater or lesser omentum, mesentery or mesocolon is called?
Gingivitis is a ? and is the leading cause of ?  in adults
gum inflammation, tooth loss
The 2 living parts of a tooth are?
dentin and cementum
The esophagus pierces through the diaphragm at the ?  and its submucosa contains?  glands that secrete mucus.
hiatus,  esophangeal
Pepsin digests ?  to ?
proteins, peptides
The ileocecal valves open in response to?
food in the stomach
In the gastric pits, ? cells secrete HCI and intrinsic factor and ? cells secrete pepsimogen.
parietal; chief
What type of person would not exhibit a positive nitrogen balance?
a person dying in a famine.
This is not met by our own intestinal bacteria.
An excess of Vitamin ? can cause anorexia, hair loss and birth defects.
retinol (A)
Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of?
ATP hydrolysis
Most of the carbohydrates in the body are found as?
Muscle glycogen
This is unsaturated fat
vegatable oil
The final cellular transformation in the prouduction of spermatozoa is called?
Men only have 1 ? gland.
Mitochondria are found in the ? of a spermatozoon
Vasectomy, a procedure for surgical sterilization of the male, entails removal fo part of the ?
ductus deferens
Penile cancer has been lnked to human papilloma cancer. What other conditions is this cancer related to?
non-retractable foreskins
The forcible expulsion of semen in ejaculation results from spasmodic contractions of?
the bulbocavernosus muscle
Viagra prolongs erection by?
injibiting degradation of cGMP
A normal sperm count is?
50 to 120 million sperm/ml semen
Sterility refers to the?
inability to fertilize an egg
In the first 2 to 3 days postpartum, the mammary glands secrete ? rathr than milk.
Ovulation is triggered by?
At the time a woman begins her next ovarian cycle, the former mature follicle of the previous cycle is?
a corpus albicans
The layer of uterine mucosa that is shed in menstruation is called?
stratum functionalsis
Milk is not secreted until after birth, mainly because?
the mammary gland cells do not respnd ot prolactin until then.
Human milk has advantages over cow's milk except for
It has more protein
What is an advantage to breast feeding for the mother?
promotes involution of the uterus
In early pregnancy ? stimulates growth of the corpus luteum.
human chorionic gonadotropin
In a woman who is neither pregnant nor nursing, milk secretion is inhibited by?
prolactin inhibiting factor
Eggs are moved along the uterine tube by
cilia and peristaltic waves
The vaginal secretion has a pH of about 3.5 to 4.0.  This pH ? and is primarily caused by the production of ?
inhibits pathogens; lactic acid
Menarche is often delayed in girls who seriously train for athletic events.  This is delayed because they?
maintain low body fat.
IN women, the cessation of menstruation is called?  and the decrease in estrogen and progesterone production is called?
menopause; climacteric
Most fetal blood bypasses the liver by way of a shunt called?
the ductus venosus
Skin and hair become drier in old age because of?
senscence of the sebaceous glands
The round ligament of the adult liver is a remnant of the ? of the fetus.
umbilical vein
During or immediately after birth, and infant is normally stimulated to breathe by?
the accumulation of CO2 in the blood
A teratogen is most likely to cause?
A healthy 65 year old person compared to a 25 year old will not show a difference in?
RBC count
Older people may require lower drug doses than younger people because?
They have lower rates of renal clearance
Urine retention is a greater problem in older men than for older women because?
Men usually develop bening prostatic hyperplasia
The fetal colon accumulates thick, tarry feces called?
This organ system shows the greates structural change in the transitional period after birth.
A couple is trying conceive a child.  The best chance of fertilizing an egg is ? hours before ovulation or ? hours after ovulation.
48; 14
In order to fertilize an egg, spermatozoa must release the enzymes hyaluronidase and acrosin that erode away 2 layers around the egg calld the?
corona radiata and zona pellucida
In amniocentesis, a sample of amniotic fluid is removed, and the fetal cells are analyzed.  Over 20 congential conditions can be identified by this procedure.  Amniocentesis is best done during what time frame of pregnancy?
14 to 15 weeks
In the fetal circulation, the  ? bypasses the liver and the ? bypasses the lungs.
ductus venosus; ductus arteriosus
One of the major factors that contributes to osteopenia, or loss of bone, in the elderlyis ?
significant decrease of cutaneous Vitamin D production
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