Final Exam Study Flashcards

Cr
Terms Definitions
In order to demonstrate the first two cervical vertebra in the AP projection, the patient is positioned in what position?
Ap open mouth odontoid
Colles Fracture
distal radius fx posteriorly displaced
In which positions/projections will the talocalcaneal joint be visualized?
lateral foot, calcaneous, ankle, plantodorsal
Which projection requires that the sholder be placed in internal rotation?
lateral humerus, elbow, and internal rotation shoulder
What structures are part of the bony thorax?
sternum, thoracic spine, 12 pair of ribs
Which projection is most likely to demonstrate the carpal pisiform without superompositon?
carpal tunnel, ganor hart, AP oblique
Which projections of the ankle would best demonstrate the distal tibiofibular joint?
AP oblique 45 degree medial rotation
The ridge that marks the bifurcation of the trachea into the right and left bronchi
carina
For the AP projection of the scapula
arm is abducted 90 degrees and flexed 90 degrees, CR centered 2 inches inferior to coracoid process
Whats structures articulate with the base of the metatarsals?
1st, 2nd, 3rd cuneiforms and the cuboid
What structures are demonstrated in the lateral projection of the cervical spine?
zygapophyseal joints
The coronoid process should be visualized in profile in which of the following positions?
medial oblique elbow
Which projections of the abdomen may be used to demonstrate air or fluid levels?
left lateral decubitus, dorsal decubitus, upright abdomen
To best visualize the lower ribs the exposure should be made:
with the patient lying supine, on full expiration, high kVp
What are the characteristics of the hypersthenic body habitus?
massively built, shallow from top to bottom, deep from front to back
What is demonstrated on the AP projection of the cervical spine?
C3-T2, vertebral bodies, space btw pedicles and intervertebral joint spaces, transverse processes, and spinous processes in midline
When examining a patient, whose elbow is in partial flexion, how should the AP projection be obtained?
perform partial flexion series with humerus parallel to IR, then forearm parallel to IR
Which fracture classifications best describes one fracture composed of several fragments?
comminuted fx
Which should the patient be instructed to remove prior to an xray of the chest?
shirt, bra, piercings or jewelry in the chest and abdomen, necklaces, dangling earrings
A lateral projection of the hand in extension is often recommended to evaluate?
foreign bodies
What is recommended when positioning the patient for a lateral projection of the chest?
 
raise arms completely above head, lift chin
xray film identification markers inculde:
date, R or L, tech initials, facility
In which projection of the foot are the sinus tarsi, cuboid, and tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal best demonstrated?
oblique foot
What criteria is used to evaluate a PA projection of the chest?
entire lung from apices to costophrenic angles, 10 ribs, air filled trachea from T1 down, hilum, heart shadow, bony thorax
Which of the following is an important consideration in order to avoid excessive metacarpophalangeal joint overlap in the oblique projection of the hand?
use a 45 degree sponge, do not over or under rotate
In the posterior oblique positon of the cervical spine, the intervertebral foramina best seen are those:
farthest from the IR
Which criteria are required for visualization of the greater tuberosity in profile?
humerus in lateral position, external rotation
In the lateral position of the foot:
the lateral edge of the foot is placed  parallel to the IR, knee slightly flexed, entire foot is demonstrated w/ 1 inch of distal tib/fib, metarsals nearly superimposed, tibiotalor joint
What should be performed to rule out subluxation or fracture of the cervical spine?
cross table lateral
The ulna articulates with what portion of the humerus to help form the elbow joint?
Trochlea
The pars interarticulars is represented by what part of the scotty dog seen in a correctly positioned oblique lumber spine?
Neck
What position/projection will separate the radial head, neck, and tuberosity from superimposition on the ulna?
external oblique elbow
Which structures are demonstrated in the lateral projection of the thoracic spine?
intervertebral foramina
The two palpable bony landmarks generally used to accurately positon the hip are?
symphysis pubis, and ASIS
What is used to evaluate the shoulder in its anatomic position?
greater tuberosity in profile
Oblique positions of the chest
60 degress LAO - heart and great vessels, right atrium
45 degrees RAO - left lung
The pedicle is represented by what part of the scotty dog seen on an accuratley positioned oblique of the lumbar spine?
Eye
Which porjections will best demonstrate the tarsal navicular free of superimposition?
lateral oblique foot
What are the components of a trimalleolar fracture?
fractures of the medial, lateral, and posterior malleoli
In the lateral projection of the knee:
patient is lying on affected side with unaffected leg forward, knee flexed 20-30 degrees, femoral epocondyles superimposed, patella in lateral profile
Which positions is used to demonstrate vertical patellar fractures and the femoropatellar articulation?
lateral patella, PA patella, hughston
The apophyseal articulations of the thoracic spine are demonstrated with what position?
obliques
Which position/projection is used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint?
Grashey, inferosuperior, Scap Y
Radiograhic examination of the AC joints:
w/ and w/o weights, both joints on one film, entire clavicles including SC joints
A patient lying down is said to be:
recumbent
What is most likely to be the correct routine for a radiographic examination of the forearm?
AP and lateral
The uppermost portion of the iliac crest is approximately at the same level as:
L4-5
The scapular Y projection of the shoulder demonstrates:
subluxation of the glenohumeral joint, acromion, coracoid process
The 5th metacarpal is located on which aspect of the hand?
medial
The plane that passes vertically through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior halves is:
midcoronal plane
Which is recommended in order to better demostrate the tarsometatarsal joints in the dorsoplantar projection of the foot?
10 degree posterior angle
Which bony landmark is in the same transverse plane as the symphysis pubis?
greater trochanter
Which will best demonstrate AC joint separation?
AP AC joints with weights
Which vertebral groups form the lordotic curves?
cervical and lumbar
With which of the following does the trapezium articulate?
trapezoid, scaphoid, amnd 1st metacarpal
Which projection will best demonstrate the carpal navicular?
modified stetcher method, ulnar devation
The manubrial notch is approximately at the same level as:
T2-3
In the lateral projection of the ankle the:
 
the lateral side of the foot parallel to IR, 1/3 of distal tib/fib, talus, calcaneous will be in profile, tuberosity of 5th metatarsal, cuboid, and navicular will be visualized
Which positions is required to demonstrate small amounts of air in the plueral cavity?
PA chest, Lat chest, decubitus affected side down
Which position/projection can be used to demonstrate the intercondyloid fossa?
Camp-Coventry, Holmblad, Beclere
In the lateral projection of the knee, the CR is angles 5 degrees cephalad in order to prevent superimposition of which of the following structures on the joint space?
medial femoral condyle
The body habitus characterized by a long narrow thoracic cavity and low, midline stomach and gallbladder is the:
asthenic
In the lateral position of the scapula, the:
to view the body of the scapula arm is placed across chest
to view the acromion or coracoid arm is behind back
Which is recommended to demonstrate small amounts of air with in the peritoneal cavity?
PA chest, upright abdomen, KUB
Which is valid criteria for a lateral projection of the forearm?
olecranon process in profile, complete radius and ulna, slight superimposition of heads and bases of radius and ulna
In which projection is the talofibular joint best demonstrated?
AP oblique mortise, AP oblique ankle
Which projections of the elbow should demonstrate the coronoid process free of superimposition & the olecranon process within the olecranon fossa?
medial oblique elbow
Movement of a part away from the midline of the body is termed:
abduction
The term that refers to parts closer to the source or beginning is:
proximal
Which of the positions will demonstrate the right axillary ribs?
RPO & LAO
The location of the sacrum varies in the lateral position due to individual pelvic curves. The sacrum is located:
distal part of the spine, located in pelvic region posteriorly
Which patient positions will best demonstrate the SC joints?
prone, RAO, LAO
Describe the male pelvis
narrow, deep, less flared, acute pubic arch, narrow, heart shaped inlet
During chest radiography, the act of inspiration:
fills lungs with air, depresses diaphragm to best visualize entire lung field
The manubrial notch, a bony landmark used in radiography of the SC joints, is located at the same level as:
T2-3
Which bones participates in the formation of the acetabulum:
ilium, ischium, and pubis
The AP projection of the sacrum requires that the CR be directed:
midway between the ASIS and symphysis pubis, 15 degrees cephalad
With the patient recumbent and the CR directed horizontally, the patient is said to be in the:
decubitus position
Which precautions should be observed when radiograohing a patient who has sustained a traumatic injury to the hip?
do not rotate or flex the hip
Which positions would be obtained with the patient lying prone recumbent on the radiographic table, and the CR directed horizontally to the iliac crest?
cross table lateral hip
In the AP projection of the ankle, what anatomy is seen and how is it positioned?
tibia, fibula, talus
Which positions best demonstrate the left axillary portion of the ribs?
LPO & RAO
What articulates with the base of the first metatarsal?
1st cuneiform
Which bones participate in the formation of the knee joint?
tibia & femur
The medial oblique projection of the elbow demonstrates the:
coronoid process in profile, the olecranon process within the olecranon fossa, (bunny face)
In the posterior oblique position of the cervical spine, the CR should be directed:
15-20 degrees cephalad
Posterior displacement of a tibial fracture would be best demonstrated in the:
lateral projection
Which positions would best demonstrate the left apophyseal articulations of the lumbar vertebra?
LPO & RAO
The short thick processes that project posteriorly from the vertebral body are the:
pedicles
To better demonstrate ribs below the diaphragm, the patient is instructed to:
lie down supine, completely exhale
Which projection of the calcaneous is obtained with the leg extended, plantar surface of the foot vertical and perpendicular to the film, and CR directed 40 degrees caudad?
plantodorsal
Which tube angle and direction combinations is correct for an AXIAL projection of the clavicle, with the patient in the AP recumbent position on the xray table?
15-30 degree cephalad
A lateral projection of the elbow should demonstrate:
the olecranon process in profile, radial head superimposed over ulna, humeral epicondyles superimposed
Which procedures use quiet, shallow breathing during the exposure to obliterate prominent pulmonary vascular markings?
lateral thoracic spine, and RAO sternum
The best projection to demonstrate the articular surfaces of the femoropatellar articulation is the:
sunrise (settegast or hughston)
The sternoclavicular joints will be best demonstrated in which of the following positions?
prone, RAO & LAO
With the patient positioned on the radiographic table in the Camp-Coventry position, how should the CR be directed in order to best demonstrate the intercondyloid fossa?
40-50 degrees caudad
The carpal navicular (scaphoid) may be demonstrated in which projection of the wrist?
ulnar deviation, modified stetcher method
Free air in the abdominal cavity is best demonstrated in which of the following?
upright abdomen
The AP oblique projection (medial rotation) of the elbow demonstrates?
the coronoid process in profile, olecranon process seated within olecranon fossa, (bunny face)
The greater tubercle should be visualized in profile in which of the following?
lateral humerus, AP forearm, external rotation shoulder
Which surface of the forearm must be adjacent to the film in order to obtain a lateral projection of the fourth finger with optimal recorded detail?
medial
The AP axial projection of the pulmonary apices requires the CR to be directed?
15-20 degrees cephalad
Which anatomy is demonstrated in the lateral projection of the cervical spine?
zygapophyseal joints
What is the evaluation criteria for a PA chest for heart and lungs?
entire lungs from apices to costophrenic angles, air-filled trachea, 10 ribs
With the patient supine, the left side of the pelvis elevated 25 degrees, and the CR entering 1 inch medial to the ASIS, which of the following is demonstrated?
left SI joint
Which are valid criteria for a lateral projection of the forearm?
olecranon process in profile, radial head, neck, and tuberosity slightly superimposed over ulna, entire radius and ulna including carpals
To better demonstrate the interphalangeal joints of the toes, which procedures may be employed?
15 degree posterior angle
Which is located on the proximal aspect of the femur?
greater trochanter, femoral head, femoral neck, lesser trochanter
An accurately positioned oblique projection of the 1st-4th lumber vertebra will demonstrate the classic "scotty-dog." What bony structure does the scotty dog's neck represent?
pars interarticularis
Which positions would demonstrate the right lumber apophyseal articulations closest to the film?
RPO & LPO
It is essential to question female patients of childbearing age regarding the:
last menstrual cycle
Gonadal shielding should be provided for male patients in which exams?
ALL
The RAO position is used to project the sternum to the left of the thoracic vertebrae in order to take advantage of the:
heart shadow
In the 15 degree medial oblique projection of the ankle the:
open talotibular joint, distal tibia and fibula, open tibiofibular joint
Which of the following is the most proximal structure on the adult ulna?
olecranon process
What is the best position/projection to demonstrate the longitudinal arch of the foot?
weight bearing lateral
Which position/projection is used to obtain a lateral projection of the upper humerus on patients unable to abduct their arm?
transthoracic lateral
Which anatomy is located on the distal aspect of the humerus?
humeral condyles, capitulum, trochlea, coronoid fossa
Which projections require that the shoulder be placed in external rotaion?
lateral humerus, external rotation shoulder, AP forearm
Which anatomy is demonstrated in the AP projection of the thoracic spine?
T1-12
Describe the AP projection of the knee and anatomy demonstrated:
Patient supine, knee extended, CR directed 1 inch inferior to patellar apex, femur, tib/fib
Which anatomical landmarks may be used as landmarks for an AP projection of the hips?
ASIS & symphysis pubis
The AP projection of the sacrum requires the CR to be directed:
15 degrees caudad
What is the most superior portion of the scapula?
acromion
An axial projection of the clavicle is often helpful in demonstrating a fracture not visualized using a perpendicular CR. When examing the clavicle in the AP position, how is the CR directed for the axial projection?
15-20 degrees cephalad
Which positions would best demonstrate the left apophyseal articulations of the lumbar vertebrae?
LPO & RAO
The RAO of the cervical spine requires which of the following combinations of tube angle and direction?
15 degrees caudad
In the AP projection of an asthenic patient whose knee measures less than 19cm from ASIS to table top, the CR should be directed:
5 degrees caudad
Which shoulder projections may be used to evaluate the lesser tubercle in profile?
AP humerus, internal rotation shoulder
The AP axial projection of the chest for pulmonary apices:
requires that the patient lean back or the tube be angled 15-20 degrees cephalad
A joint formed by the anterior end of a rib cartilage and the notch on the lateral margin of the sternum would be correctly called which of the following?
costosternal
A joint formed by the sternal end of the clavicle and the clavicular notch of the sternum would be correctly called which of the following?
sternoclavicular
The largest bone in the foot is:
calcaneous, os calcis, heel
The distal expanded end of the fibula is called the:
lateral malleolus
Which of the malleoli is part of the distal tibia?
medial malleolus
Which anatomy should not be seen in an AP radiograph of the hip if the lower extremity is rotated correctly?
lesser tubercle
When radiographing the cervical spine, which exam should be done to rule out subluxation or fracture?
cross table lateral
The patient is in the 45 degree oblique LPO position. There is a 15 degree cephalic angle on the tube and is centered to C4. Which anatomic part is visualized?
right intervertebral foramina
The patient is in a 45 degree oblique LAO position. The CR is perpendicular to the film through L3. Which anatomic part is visualized?
right zygapophyseal joints
What are the optimal breathing instructions to a cooperative patient to facilitate better visualization of the odontoid on a radiograph?
stop breathing
What is a lateral curvature of the spine?
scoliosis
The first pair of ribs articulates with the ______ of the sternum.
manubrium
How many distal phalanges are in the foot?
5
What are the bones in the palm of the hand called?
metacarpals
Identify the proximal row of the carpals in order.
scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
A pediatric patient presents to the radiology department with a 2 bone fracture of the forearm, which 2 bones are involved?
radius and ulna
You are asked to perform radiographic examination on a young female patient. What question do you ask her?
When was your last menstrual period?
Where is the CR directed for an upright KUB?
2 inches above iliac crest
For the AP projection of the femur:
the foot is rotated internally
For demonstration of the radial head, how would you position the part if the extremity was casted?
partial flexion
Weight bearing projections of the knees are frequently performed to evaluate:
arthritis
What type of fracture is demonstrated in several pieces?
comminuted
Where is the subtalar joint located?
foot
What is the rounded process on the proximal, lateral aspect of the femur called?
greater trochanter
The "frog" lateral is a common name given to a position for which of the anatomical areas?
hip and pelvis
The majority of the ribs articulate posteriorly with a thoracic vertebra at the:
transverse process (costotransverse)
What passes through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae?
vertebral artery
The term for movement away from the body's midline:
abduction
What is the term for a large roughened process?
tuberosity
What is another name for the first cervical vertebra?
Atlas
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