french revolution vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Girondins
...
First Estate
clergy
Bastille
A jail.
kosacs
Russian cavalry
Flight to Varennes
...
Jacques Necker
financial expert
marseillaise
the French national anthem
Modern Revolutionary Model
Four phases.
legislative branch
made the laws
1769
Water Frame(Richard Arkwright) used water to power the spinning jenny.
legitimacy
restoring hereditary monarchies which had been unseated
Republic constitution
after Robspierre was executeed
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789; a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people
traitor
a person who betrays another
John Locke
English Philosopher, Father of Liberalism, right to "life, health, liberty or possessions", separation of powers
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. (See also Robespierre, Maximilien.) (p. 588), The dominant group In the National Convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondist. It was headed by Robespierre.
Metternich
wanted to prevent future french aggression, restore balance of power, restore royal familys. Foreign minister of austirea
the lawmaking body of pre-Revolution France.
Estates-General
Social Classes
-3 social divisions...
First Estate (less than 1% of pop.)
-clergy
-rich and privileged
-paid no direct tax
- owned vast land
Second Estate (less than 2% of pop.)
-nobility
-held top gov't positions
-unhappy with monarch
-paid no taxes
Third Estate (97% of pop.)
-middle class and peasants
-burdened by heavy taxes (most could only afford to buy bread)
Sans-culottes
the opposites of Emigres, Parisian workers and small shopkeepers who wanted the Revolution to bring even bigger changes to France, there name means "those without knee breeches"
Liberalism
a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties. Spread by Napoleon's advancing armies and considered to be a major consequence of the French Revolution.
DeChristianization
in November 1793, the convention proclaimed a new calendar dating from the first day of the French Republic. The new calendar had 12 months of 30 days each, which were associated with the climate, and in which every 10th day was a holiday. Notre Dame was renamed a Temple of Reason. The legislature sends officials to enforce dechristianization by closing churches, persecuting clergy, forcing priests and nuns to marry, desecrating churches, and other antireligious behavior. This aroused enormous public opposition, and was even opposed by Robespierre because he felt it would erode the loyalty of the public.
thurmadorian reaction
people guillotine robespierre, there is no more democracy, but a constitution is put back in place
versailles
the palace court and primary residence of Louis XIV
Scandal
an attitude or behavior which leads another to do evil
louis XIV
absolute ruler of france before revolution, built palace of versailles
where was the old regime in effect
france
peasants
lowest group in French society, had very hard lives
Philosophes
Educated people who had theories about society and goevernment
Marquis de Lafayette
~French nobleman and military commander
~aristocratic "hero of two worlds"
~wrote the first draft of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
~fought alongside George Washington in the American Revolution
~ in charge of the National Guard, a Largely middle-class militia organized in repsonse to the arrival of royal troops in Paris
~it was the first group to don the tricolor- red, white, and blue badge that was eventually adopted as the national flag of France
scorched earth
russia retreats ( leaves nothing- burns food and takes or slaughters animals)
guerrilla warfare
hit-and-run raids from/in Spain that kept french troops occupied and separated from France
cahier
a notebook used during the French Revolution to record grievances
lous xvi
very weak ruler (absolute monarch); afraid to offend nobility so did not tax properly; wife embarrassed him; irresponsible
Reign of Terror
Robespierre controls france, kills 40,000 people (mostly from 3rd estate)- marie antoinette is executed- robespierre changes calander
guillotine
a tool used to chop off heads
Great Fear
pesants burned tax records between July and August 1789
Balance of Power
an equilibrium of power between nations
Consulate
3 consuls, Napoleon was one of them but he took dictatorial powers
Nobility
The Second Estate, people of high rank or social position
Declaration of Verona
Louis XVIII miserable attempt at trying to return to the "Old Regime."
Enlightenment
Age of reason when thinkers called for the use of reason to analyze and improve society.
enlightened despots
one of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects
Estate General
all 3 estates had represenatives, each estate got 1 vote
Tithe
One thenth of one's annual income or produce form land
Olympe de Gouges
~journalist
~demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen
~announced: "woman is born free and her rights are the same as those of man."
~thought that women should be equally eligible for all public offices, positions, and jobs
~imprisoned and executed for expressing their views in public
Lords
The Lords were the people the king gave land to in exchange for money they were the second highest in the Social structure of France.
The Great Fear
Summer 1789 fear of aristocratic conspiracy: famine & invasion
1) 1788: single worst harvest of 18th C, after series of poor harvests
pacte de famine: aristocrats believed to be hoarding grain
because prices (espec. bread) rise 3 times higher than wages
"brigands:" famine, unemployment generate 3 million vagrants;
belief that aristocrats using them against people
2) fear of invasion: emigres, aristocrats allied w/ foreign interests
defensive military reaction, preventative arrests, executions
scorched-earth policy
Russians burned crops and villages as they retreated eastward; caused the retreat of the grande armee
Clergy
This privileged group paid no tax and were known as the 'First Estate' in pre-revolutionary France. They were the largest employer and landowner in the country.
Concert of Europe
Alliances devised by prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent outbreak of revolutions.
Constitution of 1795
Constitution passed by the National Convention in 1795. Called for a government that had no monarchy and an executive called the Directory, made up of three members.
What was the intellectual movement that influenced French thinking about reform
The Old Regime
continental system (napoleon)
the system of commercial blockade aiming to exclude England from commerce trade with the continent
Suffrage
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
Second (2nd) estate
less than 2% of population; paid little taxes;had important jobs in military and government;peasants di all the work in their country houses
where was the tennis court oath
indoor tennis court, france
Maximilien Robespierre
The leader of France during the Reign of Terror
Where did the radicals/moderates sit in the national assembly?
Radicals=left / Moderates=middle rows
Tennis Court Oath
the national assembly broke into an indoor tennis court, only meeting place large enough availlable, refused to leave until new constitution was written
Marie Antoinette
Austrian wife of Louis XVI, not well liked
National Convention
- Faced with the threat of Parisian radicals, the Legislative assembly gave up the idea of a constitutional monarchy.
- Dissolved themselves and called for a new assembly.
- This new government body took place
- It proclaimed France as a republic.
- Members were mostly jacobins and most were well-educated middle class.
- Divided into two sides over what to do with the king. (Mountain, plain, and Girondins)
Who composed the First Estate
The Roman Catholic Church's clergy
meeting of the Estates- General
creation of the National Assembly
Congress of Viena
a series of meetings in Vienna called to set up policies to achieve stability and collective security, established a new balance of power, legitimacy and to maintain the status quo. Metternich was the dominate figure. Restored
Legislative Assembly
A body of power created under the new constitution that had the power to create laws and to approve or reject declarations of war
Women's March to Versailles
Oct. 5, women stormed Versailles to kill Marie Antoinette, saying that their children were starving. forced king to accept new decrees. royal family escorted to national assembly.
Battle of Trafalgar
Military blunder, a sea battle off the coast of Spain; defeated by Britains strong navy
Who were victims of the September Massacres
Many priests, royalist sympathizers
Gens de couleur libres
Free people of color, wanted to be included in "Rights of man" regardless of skin color.
Committee of Public Safety
A 12 member committee that had almost absolute power as it battled to save the Revolution. It was established to deal with the threats to France. The 12 members were also in charge of trials and executions.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The loyalty oath the National Assembly forced the Catholic clergy to take. It subordinated the church to state and reduced the power of bishops.
active and passive citizens
, a system of indirect elections was designed to thwart direct popular pressure on the government. Citizens were divided into active and passive categories. active citizens were those paying annual taxes equaling three days of local labor wages. These people chose electors, who could vote for members of the legislative assembly. There were property requirements for a lecturers and members of the Legislature. Only 50,000 citizens qualified as electors. Women had no political status. . These arrangements based on property rather than birth reflected changes to French society over the past century, and allowed more social and economic interests to have a role in governing the nation.
Immediate and lasting results of the French Revolution
the middle class. Gain the power.
Ruling Styles and economic shortcomings of Louis XIV-XVI
All 3 rulers were terrible at handling money, should have had a financial advisor. Many problems with the estate system developed in this time and was abolished
What was the significance of The Declaration of the Rights of Man
1st step towards equality, no social classes
Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
modeled off of the Declaration of Independence that insisted that governments exist to protect the natural rights of citizens.
the declaration of the rights of man
the document made to get equal rights for men
What was the tennis court oath and why did the third estate take it?
It was meeting of the third estate because the king had locked them out.
Concordat
an agreement
Loyalists
opposed independence
mercenary
a paid soldier
Robespierre
lead reign of terror
Waterloo
(1815) Napoleon's final battle.
plebiscite
popular vote by ballot
series of inventions
modernize textile manufacturing.
what was Robespierre nickname?
the incorruptible
horrible leader before napoleon
Louis 16th
Estates
3 estates in pre-revolutionized france. But were disproportional and not fair. Brought about the French Revolution.
conscription
compulsory enrollment, especially for the armed forces
Guilotine
machine to chop peoples heads off.
battle of waterloo
napoleon's final defeat; exiled
lacking an inability to pay debts.
Bankrupt
Estates-General
an assembly of the representatives from all three estates to improve the high taxes Louis XVI put on nobility
Constitution
A document providing the structures, roles and limitations on government. In the context of revolutionary France, a constitution would mean the king surrendering significant power and privilege.
1789
When did the National Assembly formally end feudalism?
Napoleon
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
The Directory
Following the beheading of Robespierre the National Convention drafted a new plan for government. The Directory called for a two-house legislature and an executive body of five men. The five directors were moderates, not revolutionary idealists.
absolute monarchy
system of government (monarchy) in which a single person is completely in control
where was the national assembly put into effect
france
Diplomatic Revolution
farming of new alliances without restorting to war
Feudal System
A system of ownership usually associated with pre-colonial England, in which the king or other sovereign is the source of all rights. The right to possess real property was granted by the sovereign to an individual as a life estate only. Upon the death of the individual, title passed back to the sovereign, not to the decedent's heirs.
Emigres
French nobles or aristocrats that left France because of the French Revolution.
Bourgeoisie
A term for the educated middle classes, who aspired to greater social position prior to the French Revolution. They were grouped collectively with peasants and urban workers in the 'Third Estate'
radical
a person with extreme views; wanted more change in the french revolution
peninsular campaign
portugal refused to follow the continental system
napoleon conquered spain
the people of spain were upset at a foreign ruler and a revolt erupted
drained french military resources when they were needed elsewhere
American Revolution
challenged Divine Right and prospered, inspired others to challenge the superstition
third esate
peasants 75-80% owned 75-80 percent of land, shop keepers and craftspeople, bourgeosisie 8% of population owned 20-25 of land
Napoleon Bonaparte
French general who became emperor of the French
proposed a plebiscite ( vote of the people) of new constitution
tax system, national bank, equal taxation, loans, currency
appointed officers by merit, schools, recognized of church
Continental System
It closed European ports to British goods. Britian then replied by blockading European ports.
blockade
a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy
Napoleonic Code
A unified set of laws spread throughout the Empire.
San-Culottes
a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government power comes from employment, lower prices, and an end in food shortages
Four stages of revolution
Incubation stage, moderate stage, radical stage, recovery stage
Absolute Monarch
ruler with complete control over the government and the lives of the people.
Regin of Terror
the period between 1793-1794 in revilionary france when suppticted tratiors were beheaded in great numbers
Civil Constitution of Clergy
ideological source in Enl. anti-clericalism
formation of STATE CHURCH, with salaried and elected priests & Bishops
OATH required of all clergy = constitutional clergy (1/3 of lower clergy)
those who refuse = refractory clergy (all but 7 of 160 Bishops)
1791: Pope condemns Revolution, Civil Constitution and freedom of thought
church becomes enemy of Revolution & leader of Counter-Revolution
The Convention
Governed by the French Republic from 1792-95, members were elected through universal male suffrage and became divided along political lines. Declared the end of the monarchy. Brought Louis XVI to trial and executed him and his wife.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
Jean-Paul Marat
One of the prominent radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution
Who appointed Nepoleon to lead a French army against the Austria and the kingdom of Sardinia
The Directory
oath
the form of words in which such statement or promise is made
ancien regime
the old order of society, how people lived in order of importance
how many divisions of power were there?
there was 3
Who was the second group in France's cities
The workers
Invasion of Russia
deaths of hundreds and thousands and the downfall of Napoleon
Estates General
an assembly made up of the 3 estates. Met to approve new taxes.
Georges Danton
a lawyer who was among the club's most talented and passionate speakers. He was known for his devotion to the rights of Paris' poor people
coup d'etat overthrow by napoleon
napoleon seizes power in age 30
That were cahiers?
List of grievances drawn up by the estates general. Complaints presented to the king
What is a Guillotine
A device form of capital punishment that would chop off someone's head
Storming of the Bastille
On July 14, 1789 around 800 people surrounded the Bastille and stormed the medieval fortress where many people were killed.
flights of Varennes
on the night of June 20, 1791. Louis and his immediate family (disguised as servants) fled Paris. They were met by a royalist military force at Varennes. on June 24 at company of soldiers escorted the Royal family back to Paris. This was seen as an abdication, and the king lost moral authority.
Cause of the French Revolution
the third estate wanted everyone to be equal, wanted a new government, take away economic problems, overthrow the rulers
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
states that political sovereignty rests not in the king but in the Nation; all men have rights that are the basis of citizenship (life liberty and property)
What created a barrier between the peasants and bourgeoisie?
assembly took over Church.
1. didn't wanna tax bourgeoisie b/c tsey were strong supporters of French Rev so used church land to pay off debts
1. church lost political independence
2. officials and priest are elected and paid as state officials
4. englightened idea: church as part of state
All offended conservative catholics, believed pope should rule over church independent from state, oppose futher Rev. ideas
Was the consulate an actual republic?
No. it was suppose to but Napoleon made an absolute monarchy
Who forced King Louis XVI to accept the new decrees
Thousands of women who stormed to Versailles to talk about how their children were starving
Why did many of France's European neighbors go to war with France?
They wanted to take France over since France was weak. They also wanted the revolution to spread to them
T h O m A s , H o B b E s :)
* english philosopher.
tailles
taxes
Louis XVI
???
Alexander I
defeated Napoleon.
guerrilla
bands of peasants fighters
Revolutionary Radicals: sansculottes, Jacobins, the Girodin, the Mountain
...
third esate caster a new
consitution
when did maximilien rule
1793- 1794
Baron de montesquieu
seperation of powers
corporal
what Napolean started out as
Moscow
The city where Napolean's expansion was stopped
Lycee
French secondary school for students supported by the French government for preparing students for university.
coup d'etat
a sudden overthrow of the government
the wealthy members of the third Estate of France which included doctors, lawyers, merchants, etc.
Bourgeoisie
What was more important: wealth or status?
status
ideas for change
enlightment ideas; economic problems- taxes, bad harvest, government debt; marie antoinnette
Peninsular War
Napoleon and troops invaded Spain, lost and lives to regret it. Napoleon called this the Spanish ulcer meaning a wound that weakens the victim without ever being fatal.
What ultimately drove the Revolution into a more radical stage?
Foreign invasion
nationalism
the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion and national symbols
1792
When was the War declared on Austria?
4
how many countries attacked France at one time
Deficit Spending
when the government spends more money than it takes in
coup d'etate
a sudden over throw of a government
a strong feeling of loyalty for one's own culture, including language and customs.
Nationalism
Second Estate
A social group in France that respresented the nobility
inflation
a situation in which the price of goods rises quickly
The Sans-Culottes
literally this means someone without a knee breech. It signifies the urban working poor that stormed the Tuileries Palace and kidnapped the royal family. Leads to monarchy being abolished in Aug 1792
Directory
the system of government set up after the French Revolution. Five Directors holding executive power, not one king, and there was the Council of 500 to be the house of legislation of France. Napoleon, however, went and destroyed it and became the dictator of France
July 14, 1789
Paris mob storms the Bastille
The "Great Fear"
Coup of Brumaire
When Napoleon overthrew the French directory and replaced it with the French consulate
social contract
agreement by which freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos
the enlightenment
movement during the 1700s which many philosophies focus on five main ideas in order to improve the system of government.
concordat of 1801
peace between french gov and catholic church
Louis XVI as King
Monarchy spent too much. Queen intergered. Louis spent a lot of money on the American Revolution. Put off dealing with an emergency until he had no money left. Wanted to tax nobles - but he could not fforce them to. He had no intrest in being king better off hunting and lockmaking.
Concert of Europe-W5
This was the series of alliances devised by Metternich. It assured that nations would help one another if any revolutions broke out. This during the late 1815's. This was in Europe, and was created because it was a "just in case" plan if certain countries broke out on each other.
"self-denying ordinance"
in the Constitution of 1791 nobody who had been in the Third Estate which became the National Assembly which became the Constituent Assembly to write the Constitution- none of those people were allowed to stand for election in the new legislative assembly.
natural rights
rights that belong to all humans from birth
Law of general Maximum
established price on goods declared of first necesity, ranging from food and drinks to fuel and clothing
where was the concert of europe enforced
different countries around europe
Women's March on Versailles
Six thousand women marched from Paris to Versailles angry at Marie Antoinette for having a more privileges and luxuries than them; the women refused to leave until the king came back to Paris with them, which he did
The Royal Family
The royal family had th pumer during the time of the French revolution. While most of France was broke and starving they were seen living a luxurious life.
Constitution of the YearIII
(1795) During the third phase (modern burn out phase). Directory is established. Moderate to conservative constitution.
Council of Five Hundred
The lower half of the new Legislative Assembly.
Society for Revulitionary Republican women
1793, 2 women founded. working class women involved, men still didn't want women in these affairs.
principles that guieded the decisions of the congress of vienna
legitimacy, balance of power, france to be weakened, countries that suffered b/c of napoleon to be compensated
Napoleon's Downfall and Defeat
All power that Napoleon did or did not conquor turned on Napoleon and started to fight him. Napoleon tried to fight back but did not have a good army, so he lost. They banshied him to Elba. Then he came back to power again for 100 days. He was defeated at the battle of Waterloo with the british.
Who was the leader of Public Safety? What tactic did he use?
Robespierre. Harsh treatment for anyone who threatened the republic. 40,000 people were executed by guillotine- Reign of terror
why was the national convention important
it gave some people the chance to speak up for what they wanted, which was important because why would someone revolt if they dont even speak about what they want fixed
Declaration of the Rights of Man
- On August 27, 1789, the National Assembly issued this document
- it stated that men are born free and remain free and equal in rights
- It called for equality before the law, representative government, and individual freedom.
- Reflected influence of Enlightenment ideas and Declaration of Independence
- This document, the US declaration, and the Bill of Rights both called for natural rights
- Did not apply to women
Explain the term coup d'etat and how Napoleon came to power in 1799
By 1799, the Directory had lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the French people. Only the directors' control of the army kept them in power. Napoleon met with influential persons to discuss his role in the Directory, while Josephine used her connection with the wealthy directors to influence their decisions. The action began on November 9, 1799, when Napoleon was put in charge of the military. His troops drove out the national legislature, who voted to dissolve the Directory. Napoleon was one of the three consuls, and he quickly assumed he had dictatorial powers as the first consul of the French Republic. Napoleon's seizure of power was a coup.
what was the committee of public safety
it was a group formed by the jacobins to eliminate all threats to the revolution
R o B e S p I e R r E :)
* one of the most influenced figures of the french revolution.
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