French Revolution Vocab 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Napoleon's Reign
+- france
wanted King dead
July 14th, 1789
Estates General meet at
3rd Estate
*Peasants-worked the land
*Business-Lawyer's/doctors had some money, but paid it all out for taxes
* Urban Workers-worked in factories, owned by the aristocrats (ability).
Napoleons Rise to power
Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe and the people Napoloen conquered were tired of suporting all things French...
Moderate political faction among leaders of the French Revolution; were not the radical group, but the moderates; favored keeping the king alive
*Voltaire (Francois Marie Floruet)
*He believed in Freedom of Religion, Speech, and Separation of Church and State. Emphasized tolerance and the individual's right to self-expression.
wanted no chnage in gov.
Great Fear
France/countryside, rebellion spread from paris to the countryside rumors that nobles were hiring outlaws to scare the peasants, peasants become outlaws, broke into nobles house of manor with pitchforks and destroyed legal papers that bound them to pay feudal dues, burned down some houses
tax paid to the church
Representatives from all three estates combined.
dissenting groups of people who competed for power
the class system in pre-revolutionary France
Napoleonic Code
law which embodied Elightenment principles such as equality of citizens, religious toleration, and merit based advancement
a meeting of intellectuals to discuss
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Indirect/direct taxes
Indirect- tariffs, sales tax, ect.
Direct-comes directly to you and demands for money
national convention
1.governed france for three years
2.divided into three main groups (girondists, jacobins, delegates with no specific views)
3. tried louix XVI for plotting against the security of the nation
When was the arrest/trial/education of Danton and his followers?
royal families restored to power after Napoleon defeated
working class men and women in Paris
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
Marshal Suvorov
"Cisalpine" Republic destroyed by this man.
laissez faire
policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
Civil Code
most important of Napoleon's legal codes
Something that helps oter things to change.
the area of responsibility of a government official for example, defence, the budget
persons who do not hold extreme political views
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
The stop exports and imports to Britain' which was unsuccessful
Marie Antoinette
Daughter of Maria theresa
wife of louis XVI
unliked by the french people
books of greivances of the 3 estates
palace in France, built by Louis XIV
First Coalition
The first concerted effort by European powers to bring down the Revolution in France, it was formed in 1793 by Austria, Prussia, the UK, Sardinia, Naples, Spain, and Portugal. The participants would continue to fight until 1797, when Bonaparte signed the Treaty of Campo Formio.
Batle of Leipzig
In Germany,
Britain, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, Austria, defeat Napoleon, parade through Paris, banish Napoleon to Elba, Italy then to St. Helena's in South Atlantic
continental system
system designed to weaken the british economy by stopping british goods froom reaching continental europe
Reign of Terror
When Robespirree ruled through the committe of public safty, he started the Reighn of terror. Protected the revolution by killing "enemies". Had "enemies" tried in morning and guillitioned in the afternoon. Justified use of terror by sujjesting that it enabled French citizens to remailn true to the ideals of the Revolution. Saw connection between virtue and terror. Many people guillitioned were people less radical than Robespirre. Killed 40,000 people. 85% were peasants or members of urban poor or middle class - for whos benefit the Revolution had been launched.
class men and women who pushed the revolution towards radical action
The Republic government of France from 1792 - 1795 that tried, convicted and executed the former King and Queen of France for treason.
National Convention
the roads, canals and other means of communication and travel within a community
All marriages took place in the church and no where else.
Legislative Assembly
a body of the new limited constitutional monarchy which had the power to create laws and approve or reject declarations of war
one of the 3 social classes in france
Cult of Reason
An atheistic belief system established in France and intended as a replacement for Christianity during the French Revolution and advocated by Hébert. It was mostly supported by the sans culottes. (CHECK)
Napoleon meet his first real defeat in this country beucase of its size and weather
When was the Convention draft
February 1793, 300,000 drafted
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
One of the two halves of the divided National Convention., a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain
Congress of VIenna
Seriese of meetings in vienna. Called to set up to achieve thsi gaol. Went on for foour monts. Wnated Europewan order security and stability.
Louis XVI
king of France from 1774 to 1792; rejected reforms that eventually led to a revolution.
1795 -- new plan, power was in the hands of the upper middle class, two house legislature, and executive body of 5 men
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat, Located in Belgium, the place where the british army and the prussian army forces attacked the french. Napoleon's final defeat against the British and Prussians
Tennis Court oath
popular acceptance of a governing law or regime as an authority
"Liberty,Equality, and Fraternity"
slogan adopted by declaration of the rights of man, we're all equal
What were the groups of the Legislative Assembly
Radicals, Moderates, Conservatives
Maximillian Robespierre
Leader of a faction in the Jacobins that were known as "The Mountain" because they sat very high in the assembly hall. Took Charge of france in the "Reign of Terror"
Olympe de Gouge
wrote A Declaration of the Rights of Woman
ideas were rejected and lost her head as a enemy of Rev.
Effects of the French Revolution
Balance of Power between Europe, Legitimacy for Europe, Containment of France, Concert of Europe
Women's March on Versailles
On their march back from Versailles, the women of Paris happily sang that they were bringing "the baker, the baker's wife, and the baker's lad" with them. They expected the "baker"-Louis-to provide the cheap bread that they needed to live.
Instability of the Directory
There were five dictators which meant that the government couldn't make decisions.
sentace for divine right
the divine right of the monarchy estabilished the people to follow their rule, because they believed they were chosed by god to be in this position
What trades was Louis XVI good at
lock-making, metalworking and bricklaying
policy of dechristianization
used to create a new order based on reason - removed "saint" from street names, pillaged churches; encouraged priests to marry
Battle of Waterloo
the british army led by the duke of wellington prepared for battle near the village of waterloo
The crisis of the French monarchy
the French Revolution shattered the political, social, and ecclesiastical structures. In the late 1780s, the French government could not finance itself. As a result the government was forced to hold and estates general which had not met since 1614. This exposed to the limits of the existing political institutions.
why was the old regime important
their wanting for equality was what started the revolution which was important because if the nobles would have treated them equally, none of what went on would have happened
Response by Portugal and Russia
They did not follow his command to blockade
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Inspired by the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. It claimed all citizens have the rights to 'liberty, prosperity, security, and resistance to oppression'. As well as proclaiming freedom and equal rights for everybody, access to public office based on talent, and no exemptions from taxation; also the freedom of speech and press and the right to take part in making laws.
What were the October Days?
The women of Paris marched 12 miles to Versailles to protest the lack of bread to the national assembly and the king
How did the state, under the control of the National Assembly, limit the power of the Church (Civil Constitution of the Clergy)?
The National Assembly took over church lands and declared that church officials and priests were to be elected by property owners and paid as state officials. Thus, the Catholic Church lost both its lands and its political independence. The reasons for assembly's actions were economic. Delegatees were willing to sell church lands to help pay off France's large debt. This got peasants angry, and offended such Catholics.
Why was the Estates General called to meet together?
King Louis XVI called them together, hoping they would vote to raise more taxes
What was the king forced to do to deal with the financial crisis?
He used the states general to bring about reforms. He brought them into session
-society is ruled by legislature whose laws must preserve propety and be in the interest of public good
-need a covenant between the legislature and the people that the legislature will protect their property
-need to write down laws so they are settled and know->constitution
-society must exist outside nature b/c/ law of nature is unwritten so misinterpretable
-man must give up some liberties to join society: right to preserve one's self and right to punish because that is the government's job
second estate
first estate
Nickname was "incorruptible"
resistant to change
ancien régime
old order
upper clergy
bishops and abbots
Filial Piety
Respect for parents
Storming of the Bastille
Absolute Monarchy
King has full power
favouring one viewpoint without reason
Georges Danton
leader of the sans-culottes
the bastille
a symbol of injustice
a government run by representatives elected by the people
September Massacres
-September 1792
-people were afraid that political prisoners would help out the Austrian and Prussian army
-revolutionaries broke into prisons and killed thousands (most were innocent bystanders)
2nd estate
Made up of the nobles
a government-run public school in France
Napoleon Bonaparte
Man born in Corsica (English-controlled) that was trained in Royal Military, mocked by nobles
National Assembly
a step towards a government
parisian workers who wanted extremely radical change in government.
The Directory
1975-1799, weak yet dictatorial, failed to resolve problems
radical gropu that opposed the jacobins, fought against by robespierre
leader of Haitian slave rebellion in the 1790's and the individual who succeded him securing independence
True or False:
(If False, answer with the correct answer)
Radicals accepted the importance of most Liberals demands, but they also wanted wider voting rights.
land tax
The notables were asked to approve
Wen was the National Assembly formed?
June 1789
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country.
deficit spending
when expense is greater than profit
Prince Metternich
Austrian, leader of Congress of Vienna
expressive of or exciting sexual love or romance
A form of the French Republic instituted in 1799
fabrics that are woven or knitted; material for clothing
Gallican Church
Roman Catholic church in France, headed by the monarch, not the pope
forced labor that required peasants to work for a month out of the year on roads and other public projects
murder device to behead many thousands of French during the Reign of Terror
consititution, stick together, third estate only, constitutional monarchy decision
tennis court oath
A radical republican during the French Revolution
First president of Committee of Public Safety
A military and political leader of France whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century.
brunswick manifesto
1792, during the radical stage. Austria and Prussia made this saying that they would destroy Paris if any harm came to the French king(Louis XVI)
at the top of the third estate; city-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals such as lawyers and doctors. They had no role in the government and some were highly educated and quite rich.
Quadruple Alliance
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
sans culottes
artisans in Paris who developed a radical reputation
King Louis XIV
The Sun King. Palace of Versailles
estates general
had not been called for 174 years
-necessary to pass tax reform
-but the king was considering having the different estates vote by order rather than be head so though the 3rd estate had as many delegates as the 1st and 2nd combined they were out numbered (this was very stupid of the king who has not realized that the nobles are not on his side and do not want to solve the debt crisis with taxes)
-democratic elections were held and the estates general convened
maxmilien robespierre
one of the best known influential figures of the french revolution
Feudal System
The economic and social system of medieval Europe. Lords received land from the ruler and serfs worked the land for the lord
Storming of Bastille
Parisians invade Bastille to steal ammunition, free prisoners. Symbolic of overthrowing government, begins war
Olympe de Gouges
French journalist who published "the declaration of rights of women and the female citizens." The National Assembly did not accept her ideas and she was later executed.
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
an individual qualified to vote in an election
estates general(what)
deputies from 3rd estate demanded all estates meet together with each person having 1 vote. king louis xvi insisted estates meet separately, 3rd estate declared itself the national assembly
unskilled workers of the city of paris and took control of national convention, those who did not wear knee bridges.
abbey sieyes
wrote pamphlet that said 3rd estate was everything
Jacques Necker
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
what did the bastille symbolize
royal despotism, horror, oppression
The American Revolution
The war that plunged France into deeper debt
Louis XV
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)
Feb, 1801. Austrians signed this with France after been defeated by Nap at Marengo. Terms of Campo Formio confirmed . In 1802 a peace was also signed with the Brits.
Population Growth
18th century boom put huge strain on country --> starvation
Storming of the Bastille
Radicals storming the Bastilles Fort to free prisoners and take weapons
Republic of Virtue
Ideal of French Revolution where all traces of the old order were wiped out
TGennis Court Oath
pledge made by members of France's National Assembly in which they vowed to continue meeting until new constitution drawn up
Concordant of Bologna
France accepts supremacy of Pope over Church council and king is given right to elect French bishops
A direct popular vote on a program or issue.
the colonies declared their independance from where, who, and when?
Britain, King George III, 1776
_____ allied with _______ to conqueror Paris in 1814
Europe and France
Who rose to power as a result of the shambles of the Revolution?
Battle of the Nile
naval battle that the English defeated France led by Horatio Nelson
le Traité de Versailles
traite de paix entre amerique et angleterre
Debts and Bankrupt
Economic problems of the tax system on the French government
Concordat with the Catholic Church
agreement made between Napoleon and the pope by which Napoleon acknowledged Catholicism as the religion of most French cities, and the church gave up claims to property in France that had been seized and sold during the Revolution
Why does the revolution stick?
Food shortage + political uncertainty, spreads from cities to countryside
German confederation
A group of 39 ____ states that were loosely joined and was dominated by Austria
Done at the congress of Vienna
Committee of Public Safety
led by Robespierre; enemies of the republic were executed
urban workers in the Estates?
poorest citizens who were always outvoted and faced starvation (paid all the taxes)
The Reign of Terror
Period when many people were executed in France who were seen as opposing the government known as the Committee of Public Safety.
demands of 3rd estate
3rd estate was angry at unequal division of land, burden of taxes, status quo system in estates general
Peninsular War
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
moves to confiscate the property of suspects (not merely of Church or convicted emigres) and give such property to "indigent patriots". Drafted in an unworkable form. Not effective. Committee was busy attempting public improvement. Did free slaves in the colonies.
Prussia and Austria Hungary signed this to give the king back full power of France
What was the Declaration of Pilnitz?
Privileges of the Second Estate
nobility; population of 400,000 out of 25 million total population; taxed lightly; had manorial rights and honorific privileges; held the most important positions in the Church, government, and army; were advisers to the king; many were give gifts and pensions by the king; lived on luxurious estates or lived with the king at Versailles; nobles who owned estates had peasants working for them, they collected money and crops from the peasants; nobles did little work, dressed in the latest fashions, and spent most of their time enjoying the good life
What did Napoleon do to Russia?
Napoleon fled russia, the british and pressians intercept his retreat.
Divine Right of Kings
he idea that God has given kings their power to rule over the people
14Civil Constitution of Clergy
-say you work for the gov instead of the catholic church now
-priest swear loyalty to gov not church
-not popular(priests not following-arrested and killed)
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
priests were to be elected and paid as state officials (state-employed), which greatly offended devout Catholics
Describe the 3 divisions of France's social structure before the French Revolution
The Old Regime consisted of three estates; First Estate, Second Estate, and Third Estate. The First Estate consisted of the Clergy. The Clergy lived wealthy lives and owned 10% of all the land in France. The Second Estate consisted of the Nobility of France. Richelieu and Louis XIV had crushed the nobles' military power but given them other rights under strict royal control. The Third Estate consisted of 90% of the people in France. They were the peasants and the bourgeoisie. The Third Estate did not like their place in social society and wished for change which was a long term cause for the Revolution.
When the Parisian women marched to Versailles, they...
made the royal family return to Paris
"Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen"
A declaration adopted by the National Assembly of France on 27 August 1789, espousing individual rights and liberties for all citizens.
declaration of the rights of man
____ ___ ___ ___ __ __ was passed by national assembly, peasants refuse to pay taxes
Second Estate
paper money
Characterized by lust
la plainte
grievance/ complaint
France's chief tax
seven years war years
Coup d'etat
overthrow of government
wages economic warfare against
prison and arsenal
July 14, 1789
100,000 members of this estate
mixed european and african ancestory
Location in Southern Germany where Napoleon defeated the Austrian and Russian armies under Alexander I. This defeat of the Third Coalition against Napoleon enabled him to establish a new European order in which enlightenment and revolutionary ideas were spread.
small groups competed to gain power
universal suffrage
the universal right to vote
Policy that Russia used against Napoleon where lands and supplies were burnt to provide no supplies for the enemy.
Guerrilla Warfare
fighting carried on through hit-and-run raids
Naval battle between France and England, England won
Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
-Right to fair/speedy trial.
- Against torture and capital punishment (inquisition)
The National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789
The Consulate
govt. established after overthrow of directory in 1799, with Napolean as first consul in control of the entire govt.
A radical supporter of the French Revolution who used his newspaper to demand more blood; he was eventually murdered & martyred, was crazy
Official who ruled over the regional departments. Under direct orders from Minister of Interior. Part of Napoleons administrative machinery which allowed him to centralize control of France.
Political group that wanted a monarchy (a constitutional one). The group was more conservative and did not want as many changes. It was right on the political spectrum.
Old Regime
Social structure and Absolute monarchy - before revolution
The philosophe who was often quoted for his ideas regarding the "general will" was ___.
Who did the declaration not apply to
Nobles who fled France and didn't support the revolution
the ability to think critically and draw logical conclusions
To Deduce
to infer from a general principle
US merchant ships recruited by Genet to attch unarmed ships against Washington's wishes....big business
Thermidorian Reaction
extended Political Reign of Terror. Goal was increasingly an ideal democratic republic where justice would reign and there would be neither rich nor poor. their lofty goal was unrestrained despotism and guillotine. In Mar. 1794, to the horror of many sans-culorres, Robespierre's Terror wiped out many angry men who had been criticizing Robespierre for being soft on the wealthy. it recalled the early days of the Revolution
Edmund Burke
"Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) an englishmen's response to the events of the french revolution: a classic statement of conservatism
the 83 equal districts that France was divided into
stripping of the sacred aura of God's anointed on earth and becoming reinvented in the popular imagination as a degenerate
eminent property
right held by every manor owner
even though one owned their land, they still had to pay an annual rent fee to lord
Committee got rid of cycle of Christian holidays and seven day week cycle. Went to 10 day decade. Months of the year were renamed - e.g. Thermidor, Brumaire.
Sept 20, 1792. Disorganised French armies won a moral victory (not really much more than an artillery duel) vs. the Prussians. Blocked the Prussian march on Paris. French armies then went on to occupy the Austrian Netherlands, Savoy(king of Sardinia had joined Austrians) and Mainz.
Georges-Jacques Danton
was a leader during the French revolution
August 10, 1792
Storming of the Tuileries Palace. Louis XVI of France is arrested and taken into custody
Thermodorean reaction
The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety to execute Robespierre, Saint-Just and several other leading members of the terror...
Napoleon Bonaparte, Directory
_________'s coup d'etat overthrew the ____________ to establish his consulate.
A strong feeling of pride in one's country is known as
Problems in France
1) War
2) Inflation - Financial Crisis
3) Food Shortages
4) Corruption
The form of government, common to most European countries at the time of the French Revolution, in which one king or queen, from a designated royal dynasty, holds control over policy and has the final say on all such matters. In France, the Bourbon family held the monarchy, with Louis XVI as king at the time of the Revolution.
city workers
wanted hope of referent and of poverty
The Third Estate
The Middle Class-lower and upper, peasants, and urban lower Classes (sans-culottes)
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizents
Coup d'Etat Brumaire
Napoleon and his forces drove legislators from the Legislative Assembly
In what year did the French Revolution begin?
Declaration of Verona
By Louis XVIII - announced his intention to restore L'Ancien Regime and punish all the revolutionaries. Obviously he had "learned nothing and forgotten nothing".
flight to varennes
Louis tries to flee, gets caught undermining the revolution, sans propose to execute him
After the Thermidorean Reaction members of the Convention wrote a new constitution. Went into effect at end of 1795. Set up a Directory and a Bicameral legislature.
What was the name of the first president of the Commitee on Public Safety that was eventually beheaded because he thougt the Reign of Terror was going to far?
Georges Danton
Cult of the Supreme Being
Robespierre's attempt to an alternative to Christianity with this DEISTIC cult
economic policy of National Assembly
they forbid workers organizations, confiscated church lands, and issued govt bonds backed by church lands
Third Estate
The social class in France that was made up of the common people but it included the bourgeoisie
The Constitutional Monarchy
Forced Louis XVII to accept the constitutional that the legislative assembly wrote
George Danton
in favor of the french revolution, a leading figure in the early stages of the french revolution, a lawyer and excellent speaker, a Jacobin, devoted to the rights of paris' poor people, less radical than robespierre, killed during the Reign of Terror for being less radical, at his trial he spoke so skillfully that authorities eventually denied him to speak.
Orders in Council
British followed the Essex decision in 1806, the new policy that declared broken voyages illegal, with first of several trade regulations known as Orders in Council which established a blockade of part of the continent of Europe. It allowed American vessels to trade with French possessions as long as they carried their cargoes to Britain rather than to a continental port controlled by France.
Wanted to place tax on the property of all three estates
King Louis XVI
The king of France during the French Revolution. He was beheaded
The third estate contained members whose had proffesions such as
lawyers, doctor, wealth business men
What political/economic reforms did the National Assembly enact?
1. new constitution was drafted
2. clergy was put on a state payroll
3. nobility was no longer a hereditary class
4. use of torture ended
5. trial by jury
6. laissez-faire economic principle
7. Seperation of the Church and state
The Convention
In the attempt to find a new gov't, the Jacobins and Robespierre take power
Where was Napolean born?
off of the coast of Italy, Corsica
What reforms did Napoleon introduce?
Efficient method of tax collection, national banking system, end corruption, set lycees (government run public schools), signed a concorad that allowed the church to have influence but no control in national affairs, napoleonic code.
cash crop
a crop that is grown for export, not to feed the population
causes of french revolution
a) Enlightenment
b) King Louis XVI (16)'s lack of leadership
c) King' debt
d) Nobles demand for power
e) crop failure
f) absolutism
g) bread shortages
Reflections on the Revolution in France
Written by Edmund Burke, the philosophical conservative, in England. He had previously advised SLOW adaptation of liberties for England and commenting on the revolution in France he predicted anarchy and dictatorship as result of too rapid advance of liberties. Said each country should shape its government based on national circumstances and historical background and character. Advised against wholesale liberalization. Book translated and read by Catherine the Great and Gustavus III.
These were the social divisions within L'Ancien Regime. First - Clergy; Second - aristocracy; Third - merchant class,professionals, manufacturers, urban workers and peasants(i.e. everyone who wasn't in First or Second Estate). A person's individual, legal rights and personal prestige depended on category to which one belonged. By 1780s this structure in France was becoming politically and socially obsolete because of the changing structure of society and the economy.
National Assembly June 17th
After the 6 Week Deadlock, the Estates General changed their name to this. Created the Declaration of the Rights of Man
what was important to enlightenment thinkers?
science and human intelligence was important to them. They were not very religious.
Cimmittee of Public Saftey
group that rounded up oposition to the revolution
Declaration of Rights of Man
proclaimed all men equal and right to hold public office, taxes to be paid according to ability
why didnt the continental system work
russia pulled out and traded with great britain
Civil Constitution of the Clergy, July 1790
• Monasteries and religious orders suppressed
• Bishops and pastors of parishes to be elected by the people
• All clergy would be employed by the government
• Many clergy left after that
No central bank, no paper currency, no means of creating credit.
Why couldn't France declare partial bankruptcy?
What policy did Louis XIV adopt that slowed France's economic growth?
Believing that the Huguenots disturbed the unity of the country; he canceled the Edict of Nantes, which protected the religious freedom of Huguenots. As a result, thousand of Huguenot artisans and business people fled the country.
-> Louis policy thus robbed France of many skilled workers.
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
The most important come out of the revolution, it committed the state to protect individual freedom and respect the rule of law
Who was Robespierre and what was the Reign of Terror?
A Jacobian leader. He and his supporters set out to build a "republic of virtue" by wiping out all aspects of the "Old Regume"/ traditional France.
- Changed the calender; had no Sundays because radicals considered religion dangerous.
- Closed all churches in Paris
Soon became leader of the Committee of Public Safety.
-> He governed France as a dictator, and the period of his rule became known as the Reign of Terror; a systematic program to suppress all opposition and revolt.
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