Gross Anatomy of the Human Muscular System Flashcards

Medial border of scapula
Terms Definitions
Epicranius: Frontal Belly
Origin: Epicranial aponeurosis
Insertion: skin of eyebrows
Action: raises eyebrows; wrinkles forehead horizontally
Antagonists: brow depressors
Epicranius: Occipital Belly
Origin: occipital and temporal bones
Insertion: epicranial aponeurosis
Action: pulls scalp posteriorly
Antagonists: none
Corrugator Supercilii
Origin: frontal bone (nasal part)
Insertion:  skin of eyebrows
Action: draws eyebrows together and inferiorly; wrinkles forehead vertically (frowning)
Orbicularis Oculi
 

Origin: Frontal and maxillary bones; ligaments around orbit
Insertion: tissue of eyelid 
Action: closes eye (blinking, squinting, and winking muscle)

 
Zygomaticus
(major and minor)
 

Origin:  zygomatic bone
Insertion: skin & muscle at angle of mouth
Action: Raises corners of mouth upward (smiling muscle)
Antagonists: orbicularis oris

 
Risorius
 

Origin: Masseter muscle
Insertion: skin at angle of mouth
Action: draws corner of lip laterally (tenses lip)
Antagonists: orbicularis oris

 
Orbicularis Oris
 

Origin: Maxilla and Mandible
Insertion: skin and muscle of mouth
Action: closes and protrudes lips (kissing muscle)
Antagonists: Risorius & zygomaticus

 
Buccinator
 

Origin: Maxilla and mandible
Insertion: orbicularis oris
Action: compresses cheeks (whistling and sucking); holds food between teeth while chewing
Antagonists: orbicularis oris

 
Platysma
 

Origin: fascia of chest in area of 2nd rib
Insertion: Mandible; skin and muscle at angle of mouth
Action: Pulls lower lip back and down; tenses skin of neck during shaving
Antagonists: Risorius & zygomaticus

 
Masseter
 

Origin: Zygomatic arch
Insertion: mandible
Action: Prime Mover of Jaw closure (elevates mandible)
Antagonists: all suprahyoid muscles)

 
Temporalis
 

Origin: Temporal bone
Insertion: Mandible
Action: Closes jaw
Antagonists: all suprahyoid muscles

 
Sternocleidomastoid
 

Origin: Manubrium of sternum and clavicle
Insertion: mastoid process of temporal bone
Action: bilaterally- flexes head forward; unilaterally- rotates chin toward shoulder on opposite side
Antagonists: Trapezius

 
External intercostals
 

Origin: inferior border of rub above
Insertion: superior border of rib below
Action: elevates rib cage (forced insiration); synergists of diaphragm
Antagonists:internal intercostals

 
Internal intercostals
 

Origin: superior border of rib below
Insertion: inferior border of rib above
Action: depress rib cage (forced expiration)
Antagonists: external intercostals

 
Diaphragm
 

Origin: Xiphoid Process, 7th-12th ribs and lumbar vertebrae 
Insertion: Central tendo 
Action: Prime mover of inspiration (flattens on contraction)

 
Rectus Abdominis
 

Origin: Pubic Crest 
Insertion: Xiphoid Process, 5th-7th ribs
Action: flexes & rotates lumbar region of vertebral column; compresses abdomen

 
External oblique
 

Origin: 5th-12th ribs 
Insertion: linea alba & iliac crest
Action: bilaterally- flexes & rotates lumbar region; compresses abdomen; unilaterally- trunk rotation and lateral flexion  

 
Internal Oblique
 

Origin: Lumbar Fascia & iliac crest 
Insertion: linea alba & 10th-12th ribs
Action: Same as External Oblique

 
Transversus Abdominis
 

Origin: 7th-12th ribs, lumbar fascia & iliac crest 
Insertion: linea alba & pubic crest
Action: Compresses abdomen Only

 
Pectoralis Minor
 

Origin: 3rd-5th (or 2nd-4th) ribs 
Insertion: coracoid process of scapula
Action: With ribs foxed: pulls scapula forward and inferiorly
With Scapula fixed: elevates rib cage

 
Serratus Anterior
 

Origin: 1st-9th ribs
Insertion: Medial border of scapula
Action: Rotates scapula so that its inferior angle moves laterally and upward; important in horizontal movements of arm (pushing and punching)
Antagonists: Trapezius & latissimus dorsi

 
Pectoralis Major
 

Origin: Clavicle, sternum, & aponeurosis of external obliques
Insertion: humerus 
Action:prime mover of arm flexion; adducts and medially rotates arm
Antagonists: deltoid

 
Trapezius
 

Origin: Occipital bonel spines of C7 and all thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: acromion & spine of scapula; clavicle 
Action: Extends head; adducts scapula
Antagonists: serratus anterior

 
Rhomboids
 

Origin: Spines of C7 & thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: medial border of scapula
Action: adducts scapula
Antagonists: deltoid and serratus anterior

 
Latissimus Dorsi
 

Origin: Spines of thoracic & lumbar vertebrae; iliac crest
Insertion: humerus
Action: Prime mover of arm extension (brings arm down in power stroke); adducts arm
Antagonists: deltoid & serratus anterior

 
Teres Major
 

Origin: scapula
Insertion: humerus
Action: extends, medially rotates & adducts humerus [synergist of latissimus dorsi]
Antagonists: deltoid

 
Deltoid
 

Origin: Clavicle; acromion, spine & lateral border of scapula
Insertion: deltoid tuberosity of humerus 
Action: Prime mover of arm abduction
Antagonists: latissimus dorsi, Teres major/minor; pectoralis major

 
Biceps Brachii
 

Origin: Coracoid process and humerus
Insertion: Radial tuberosity
Action: Prime mover of forearm flexion
Antagonists: triceps brachii

 
Brachialis
 

Origin:  humerus
Insertion: ulna
Action: Flexes forearm (lifts ulna as biceps lifts radius)
Antagonists: Triceps brachii

 
Brachioradialis
 

Origin: humerus
Insertion: styloid process of radius 
Action: synergist in forearm extension
Antagonists: brachialis, biceps brachii and brachioradialis

 
Triceps Brachii
Origin: Scapula & Humerus
Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna
Action: prime mover of forearm extension
Antagonists: brachialis, biceps brachii & brachioradialis
Gracilis
Origin: Pubis
Insertion: Medial aspect of tibia
Action: Adducts thigh at hip
Antagonists: tensor fasciae latae
Sartorius
Origin: Ilium
Insertion: medial aspect of tibia
Action: crosses legs ("Tailor's muscle")
Rectus Femoris
Origin: Ilium & Acetabulum
Insertion: Patella & Tibial Tuberosity
Action: Extends Knee
Antagonists: Hamstrings *
*[Hamstrings: biceps femoris, semimembranosus, & semitendinosus]
Vastus Lateralis
Origin: Greater trochanter of femur
Insertion: Patella & Tibial Tuberosity
Action: Extends Knee
Antagonists: Hamstrings *
*[Hamstrings: biceps femoris, semimembranosus, & semitendinosus]
Vastus Medialis
Origin: Linea aspera of femus
Insertion: Patella & Tibial Tuberosity
 
Action: Extends Knee
Antagonists: Hamstrings *
*[Hamstrings: biceps femoris, semimembranosus, & semitendinosus]
Vastus intermedius
Origin: Femur
Insertion: Patella & Tibial Tuberosity
 
Action: Extends Knee
Antagonists: Hamstrings *
*[Hamstrings: biceps femoris, semimembranosus, & semitendinosus]
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Origin: Ilium
Insertion: Iliotibial Tract
Action: Flexes & Abducts thigh at hip; rotates thigh medially
Antagonists: Biceps femoris Gracilis
Gluteus Maximus
Origin: Ilium, Sacrum, Coccyx
Insertion: Femur & Iliotibial tract
Action: Major extensor of thigh (climbing stairs)
Antagonists: rectus femoris
Gluteus Medius
Origin: Ilium
Insertion: Femur
Action: Abducts & medially rotates thigh
Gluteus Minimus
Origin: Ilium
Insertion: Femur
Action: Abducts & medially rotates thigh
Biceps Femoris
Origin: ischial tuberosity; linea aspera of femur
Insertion: proximal ends of tibia & fibula
Action: extends thigh at hip; flexes knee
Antagonists: Quadricepts **
[*Quadricepts: Rectus Femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis & vastus intermedius]
Semitendinosus
 

Origin: ischial tuberosity
Insertion: medial aspect of tibia
Action: extends thigh at hip; flexes knee
Antagonists: Quadricepts **
[*Quadricepts: Rectus Femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis & vastus intermedius]

 
Semimembranosus
 


Origin: ischial tuberosity
Insertion: medial aspect of tibia
Action: extends thigh at hip; flexes knee
Antagonists: Quadricepts **
[*Quadricepts: Rectus Femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis & vastus intermedius]


 
Tibialis Anterior
 


Origin: proximal tibia
insertion: 1st metatarsal
Action: Prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot
Antagonists: gastrocnemius & soleus


 
Extensor Digitorum Longus
 



Origin: Proximal tibia & fibula
insertion: Phalanges
Action: Prime mover of toe extension; synergist of dorsiflexion
Antagonists: gastrocnemuis & soleus



 
Fibularis longus
 



Origin: Proximal fibula
insertion: 1st metatarsal
Action: Plantar flexes & everts foot
Antagonists: tibialis anterior



 
Triceps Surae:
Gastrocnemius
[1 of 2]
 



Origin: lateral & medial condyles of femur
insertion: calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Action: plantar flexes foot & flexes knee when foot is dorsiflexed
Antagonists: tibialis anterior; Rectus femoris & hamstrings



 
Triceps Surae:
Soleus
[2 of 2]
Origin: Proximal tibia & fibula
Insertion: calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
Action: Plantar flexes foot
Antagonists: tibialis anterior
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