french revolution/napoleon Flashcards

Terms Definitions
factions
dissenting groups
annex
take by conquest
relics of feudalism
aristocratic privileges.
nationalism
extreme pride in one's country
Ferdinand VII
restored to Spanish throne.
Bismarck
Prussia's Prime Minister who schemed to unify the German states into a single nation.
consulate
government established in France after the overthrow of the Directory in 1799
Radicals
Left wing of the legislative assembly
Who crowned Napoleon Emperor
He crowned himself
Scorched Earth
military policy of destroying everything in the path so it can't be used by the enemy
Kaiser
"Emperor," the title given to Wilhelm I when Germany became a nation.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Dominated French and European history from 1799 to 1815. In a sense, he brought the French Revolution to an end in 1799.
Legislative Assembly
Made up of 745 representatives, affluent members of society would be elected. First Assembly on October 1791. Goal was to make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob.
Robespierre
-wiped out every trace of monarchy
-they closed all churches and changed the calendar
Directory
Oligarchy that was formed after the French Revolution formed a republic
Legitimacy
Hereditary right of a monarch to rule.
Thermidorean Reaction
reopened churches for public worship, freedom of worship to all cults, new constitution- Council of 500, Council of Elders (Had to own property for both), executive authority- directory
Russian raiders
attacked the retreating army of Napoleon.
continental system
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Coup D'Etat
(French) a sudden, powerful political stroke, esp. the forcible overthrow of government.
Guillotine
fast falling blade that cut off the head instantly
Old Regime
the social and political system in France where the people were divided into three social classes or estates
elector
An individual qualified to vote in an election.
Great Fear
-Rumors started to spread, that nobles were torturing peasants
-Peasants became angry outlaws them self and broke in nobles houses
-6,000 women rioted the rising price of bread
-Their anger soon turned against the king, they killed guards, once thing started getting serious the king anf his family left France forever
Concert of Europe
a peacekeeping organization in Europe. and obviously it worked, because there weren't any conflicts until WWI!!!
Maximilien Robespierre
was dominated by the Commitee of Public Safety. created the Repupublic of Virtue-- a decratic republic composed of good citizens.on July 28,1794 he was guillotined b/c he became to powerful National Covention feared him.
Third Estate
Least powerful social class before the Revolution
Grand Empire -
area controlled by Napoleon, the French Empire (France, the Low Countries, the Left Bank of the Rhine, much of Italy, the north German coast) and the dependent states (the Swiss federation, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, the Confederation of the Rhine)
Olympe de Gouges
french journalist who demanded equal rights for women, wrote Rights of Women
goals of the Revolution
Equal taxation and Lower inflation.
Deficit spending
spending more than is being taken in
Total War
The channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort.
Alexander I
The Czar of Russia who withdrew from Napoleon's Continental System.
Napoleon Bonaparts
Rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general; led a coup that ended the French Revolution and established the French Empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815.
Bastille
A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. 18 died, 73 wounded, 7 guards killed, and it held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals and 2 madmen] July 14, 1789. It was an armory and prison in Paris that was stormed by Parisians.
Republic of Virtue
a democratic republic composed of good citizens.
Blockade
The shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out.
Taille -
the tax paid by the peasantry of France, very large and unfair, as the two upper Estates and some of the bourgeoisie did not pay taxes
Coup de Etat
Using force to seize power. Napoleon used his army to seize power from the Directory.
Battle of Trafalgar
an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson.
Marseilles
a city where a song was sung and it eventually became the French national anthem.
Committee of Public Safety
Special Committee of 12. At first Georges Danton held the power and then Maximilien Robespierre.
Louis XVI
king of France at the time of the French Revolution; executed
Reign of Terror
A time when thousands of citizens were executed
Declaration of Man and Citizen
charter of basic liberties reflected the ideas of the major philosophes of the Enlightenment, "rights of man...to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression" "general will of the people" "innocent till proven guilty" "freedom of religion"
Flight to Varennes
Louis decided to flee to Austria after mob stopped him from going to church. Fersen planned escape. Bought a Berlin (large carriage). Royals dressed as servants. Berlin parked across town so no one was suspicious. Got away unseen. Carriage was heavy and slow. Soldiers waiting ahead to help left. Louis was seen as he paid for horses at posting station.Posting master chased after him . caught at village of varennes. Soldiers came to help. Louis said no. Taken to Paris. The Terror began soon after.
Committe of Public Safety
formed to deal with threats to France, this 12-member group had almost absolute power during the revolution
Tennis Court Oath -
sworn by the members of the National Assembly, stating that they would not disband until a constitution was drafted; so called because they met in a tennis court since they were not allowed into official meeting places
How did Napoleon come to power?
• Embraces the
Jacobins in F.R.
• 1793-Repels British
fleet from Toulon
• Promoted to B.G.
• 1794-Arrested (T.R.)
• 1795-Saves the
Revolution with a
"whiff of grape shot"
• Promoted to General
How did the third Estate empower itself?
- Had the largest population
- Declared themselves the National Assembly
The Declaration of the Rights of Men and Citizens
August 26, Nat'l Assembly adopted this new constitution, this constitution proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men,access to public office based on talent,& end to exemption from taxation.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Issued on August 26, 1789. It affirmed the principles of the new state: rule of law; equal individual citizenship, collective sovereignty of the people. "Men born and remain free and equal in rights" (LIBERTY, PROPERTY, SECURITY AND RESISTANCE TO OPPRESSION). Became catechism of the revolution. Printed and disseminated in large numbers. Translated into many other languages.
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