HUMAN ANATOMY-EXAM II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
EYE: Associated Structures
eyebrow/eyelashes/eyelid, conjunctive, lacrimal gland, nasolacrimal duct, extrinsic muscles of the eye
EYE: Conjunctive
-thin mucous membrane that covers underlying part of eyelid and eyeball-helps reduce friction btwn eyeball and eyelid
EYE: Nasolacrimal duct
-Excess of tears makes nose run-passes from medial corner of orbit and nose to the eye cavity
EYE: Extrinsic muscles of the eye
Skeletal muscles attached to eyeball (can be controlled) that helps move it
Conjunctivitis ("pink eye")
-dilated blood vessels->cause red color-inflammation of conjunctive due to bacteria-contagious; tears move from lateral to medial side
EYEBALL: 3 Layers
Outermost, Middle (vascular), Innermost
EYEBALL: Outermost (surrounds eyeball)
Sclera and Cornea
EYEBALL: Sclera
white of eye (extrinsic muscles attached to it)
EYEBALL: Cornea
transparent (in front of sclera)
EYEBALL: Middle (vascular)
choroid, ciliary body, iris
EYEBALL: Choroid
contains blood vessels supplying interior of eyeball and sclera
EYEBALL: Ciliary Body
contains muscles which change shape of lens; smooth (involuntary muscle) and connects to lens (constantly moving to keep things in focus)
EYEBALL: Iris
colored part, contains muscle (smooth: 2 types ->constrict/dilate) that changes size of pupil to protect retina from strong light
EYEBALL: Innermost (Retina)
-has 9 NERVOUS layers + 1 PIGMENTED layer (color)-3 layers needed for conduction of visual image: rods + cones, bipolar cells, ganglionic cells
EYEBALL: Fovea Centralis
dead center of back of the eyeball; SHARPEST vision ->intense focus (acute vision)
EYEBALL: Optic Disc
-has no rods/cones-> "blindspot"where optic nerve attaches and blood vessels extend from it
Rods
dim light, dark vision
Cones
bright light
EYEBALL: Chambers
anterior: iris->corneaposterior: iris->lens
Aqueous Humor
btwn cornea and lens; holes release excess fluid that build up in chamber
Glaucoma
fluid being made but hold are plugged and can't get released (inc. pressure)
Vitreous humor
-gelatinous (clear)-formed during embryonic development; same amount from birth-adult-eyeballs stay same throughout life
EYEBALL: Lens
-contains elastic connective tissue-changes shape to focus image-crystal clear=lets light in-contains some protein (if amt inc., lens become cloudy
Cataracts
pupil grows big to try to maintain light passage
LENS: Visual Response
look at something distant=lens move posteriorly (thin)look at near object=lens move anteriorly (thicker)
Convergence
eyeballs rotate medially to allow for better focusing of light when viewing an object close up
Dilation
Dim light; pupils bigger in diameter
Constriction
Bright light; pupil smaller in diameter
EAR: 3 Regions
External ear, middle ear, and inner ear
External ear
auricle, external meatus, tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Middle ear
tympanic cavity, auditory (eustachian tube), ossicles
Inner earing
receptors for hearing and equilibrium; sometimes called the labyrinth consists of an outer bony portion and membranous portion
External Ear: auricle
may be used to gather sound (not useful in humans)
External Ear: external auditory meatus
s-shaped tube; outer 2/3 is made of cartilage, inner 1/3 made of bone-contains hairs and glands, cerumen (earwax)
Otitis Externa
inflammation of external auditory meatus (swimmer's ear)
External Ear: Tympanic Membrane (eardrum)
separates outer ear from middle ear; translucent enough to see malleous attached to inner surface
Tympanic Membrane: 3 Layers
1. outer-modified skin2. middle-fibrous later3. Inner-mucous later
Middle Ear: auditory (eustachian tube)
connects middle ear and nasopharynx; horizontal children and vertical in an adult
Middle Ear: Ossicles (bones)
Malleus, Incus, Stapes
Ossicles: Malleus
attached to tympanic membrane; shaped like a hammer
Ossicles: Incus
Interposed between malleus and stapes; anvil
Ossicles: Stapes
Inserted into oval window of inner ear; smallest of the 3 bones
Otitis Media (middle ear infection)
in children, bacteria can easily travel from nasopharynx to middle ear
Cochlea
organ for hearing
Cochlea: endolymph
inside of membranous portion
Cochlea: perilymph
inside of bone is fluid
Organ of Corti
series of cell with hair that goes around the coil tube; bending of hairs-> electrical impulse-> brain to be analyzed
Auditory Pathway
cochlear division of CN VIII-> nucleau f VIII in the medulla-> thalamus-> auditory cortex of temporal lobe
Vestibular apparatus
Semicircular canals, utricle and saccule, vestibular pathway
Vestibular apparatus: Semicircular canals (3)
sense dynamic equilibrium; hair cells move and create and electrical impulse when we are moving such as in an elevator or a car
Vestibular apparatus: utricle and saccule
sense static equilibrium; sense position of head in space
Vestibular apparatus: Vestibular Pathway
cochlear nerve+vestibular nerves*vestibulo-cochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve)
HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM: 2 branches
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord (both contain components of autonomic NS)-Sensory and Dorsal=Afferent-Motor and Ventral=Efferent
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic (voluntary) and Autonomic (involuntary)
Nervous System
composed of conducting elements or cells called neaurons and accessory elements called neuroglia (supporting cells) and meninges (coverings)
Neurons: Functional Classification
sensory (afferent), motor (efferent), associative (interneuron)
Neurons: sensory (afferent)
neuron that delivers info to CNS
Neurons: motor (efferent)
neuron that carries info to PNS
Neurons: associative (interneuron)
neuron located btwn sensory and motor neurons=>modifies message
Neurons: Structural Classification
multipolar, bipolar, unipolar
Neurons: Multipolar
neurons found throughout brain and spinal cord
Neurons: Bipolar
found in retina of eyes and inner ear
Neurons: unipolar
found in ganglia clusters of neurons adjacent to spinal cord
Neurons: Cell body
contains most of the organelles typically found in cells ego nucleau, mitochondria, golgi complex, ect (*NO CENTRIOLE, NO reproduction)
Cell Body: Nissi bodies (chromatorphilic bodies)
clusters of free ribosomes that produce proteins (in RER)
Cell Body: Neurofibrils
represents cytoskeleton of neuron; helps maintain shape of nerve
Neuron: Fibers
Dendrites and Axon (nerve fiber)
Fibers: Dendrites
-more than one per neuron-transmits INTO cell body
Fibers: Axons
-only ONE per neuron-transmits FROM cell body
Nerve Fibers: characteristics
Myelin sheath, neurilemma, nodes of ranvier, synaptic vesicles,
Myelin sheath
-cells wrap around axon that conduct electrical impulses-produced by oliogodendrocytes (in CNS) and schwann cells (in PNS)-composed of lipid
Neurilemma
cell wall of oligodendrocytes or schwanna cell (every cell has a cell wall specific to the 2 cells)
Nodes of Ranvier
area of axon NOT covered by myelin sheath (activity occurs btwn myelin sheath)
Neuroglia (in CNS)
oligodendrocyte, microglia, astrocyte, ependymal cells
Neuroglia (in PNS)
schwanna cells and satellite cells
Neuroglia (CNS): Oligodendrocyte
produces myelin covering around nerve fibers (axons) in CNS
Neuroglia (CNS): Microglia (smallest)
phagocytic cell of CNS; ingest dead of damaged tissue (ex. hitting head)
Neuroglia (CNS): Astrocyte
assists in nourishment of neurons in CNS; helps for Blood-Brain Barrier*Foot Processes: closer together in adults, infants-less effect BBB, premies-extra material in CNS/blood bc of faulty BBB
Blood Brain Barrier
composed of:1. astrocyte2. basement membrane3. endothelial wall of capillaries-regulates what substances pass from blood stream into CNS; bigger gap between astrocytes=more things able to pass thru
Neuroglia (CNS): Ependymal Cells
lines cavities or ventricles of brain filled with fluid; forms a wall btwn fluid and brain
Neuroglia (PNS): Schwanna Cells (neurolemmocytes)
produces myelin covering around nerve cells (axons) in PNS
Neuroglia (PNS): Satellite Cells
regulates nourishment to neurons in PNS
Nuclei
cluster of neurons in CNS
Ganglia (ganglion)
cluster of neurons in PNS
Nerve
bundles of axon in PNS
Tract
bundles of axons in CNS (spinal cord)
Foot Processes (of astrocytes)
Synapse
communication btwn neurons; space between the axon of pre-synaptic neuron and dendrite of postsynaptic neuron
Synapse: components
Presynatpic neuron, synaptic cleft, post synaptic neuron
Synapse: presynaptic neuron
neuron before synapse; sends the signal
Synapse: synaptic cleft
space between two neuron
Synapse: post synaptic neuron
neuron after synapse; recleves signal
Neuromuscular Junction
composed of a terminal part of axon and receptor site on a muscle fiber; causes muscle weakness-neurotransmitter=Ach
Synapse: Nerve Impulse
-Na+ moves in, K+ moves out-impulse travels alongside of surface of axon-continuous conduction vs. saltatory conduction
Nerve Impulse: Continous conduction
travels in a continuous flow along axon (type C)
Nerve Impulse: Saltatory Conduction
impulse jumps or is transmitted from one node of ranvier to another (type A)
Nerve Fibers: types
A fibers, B fibers, C fibers
A Fibers
most heavily myelinated; sharp stabbing pain and fastest conducting
B Fibers
Intermediate in the amount of myelin; dull pain depending on system
C Fibers
least amount of myelin; dull pain
Excitatory neurotransmitters
cause depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron
Acetylcholine (Ach)
-NT of neuromuscular junction-controls skeletal muscle
Myastenias Gravis
body produces antibodies that block binding of ACh to muscles
Inhibitory neurotransmitters
hyperpolarize the postsynaptic neuron preventing the transmission of the nerve impulse across the synapse
Enkephalins and Endorphins
natural pain killer made in the body
Spinal Cord
located on the vertebral column; extent from foramen magnun to intevertebral disc btwn L1-L2**
Conus Medullaris
a cone-shaped terminal part of spinal cord
cauda equine ("horse's-tail")
composed of nerve fibers or axons
filum terminale
from tip of conus medullaris a connective tissue fiber extends to the sacrum- composed of pia mater
Cervical Enlargements
need a lot of neurons to control upper limbs (for FINE movement)
Lumbar Enlargements
thickened regions of spinal cord
Meninges
connective tissue coverings; 3 layers-dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
Meninges: Dura Mater
outermost layer; tough as parchment (strongest)
Meninges: Arachnoid
most delicate, very thin middle layer; like cellophane (transparent web-like)
Meninges: Pia Mater
connective tissue covering that touches spinal cord and brain
SUBarachnoid Space
-located deep to arachnoid btwn arachnoid and pia mater-filled with CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID
Cerebralspinal Fluid (CSF)
-CLEAR, COLORLESS, ODORLESS-produced by specialized capillaries called the choroid plexus produced in ventricles of brain
Epidural Space
located EXTERNAL to dura mater; contains fat
Subdural Space
located INTERNAL to dura mater; normally nothing found in this space-arachnoid is pressed against dura
Meningitis
inflammation of themeninges (arachnoid and pia mater)diagnosis: spinal tap or lumbar puncture
Spinal Tap: vertebral level at which this procedure can be done safely
*L4-L5 OR L3-L4; use illiac crest to draw imaginary line (where L4-L5 is)
Spinal tap: order of structures to reach subarachnoid space
skin-> subcutaneous tissue-> ligaments-> dura mater-> arachnoid mater
Spinal Segments (31)
cervical (8), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacral (5), coccygeal (1)
White Matter
composed of fibers (bundles of axons->tracts)
gray matter
contains CELL BODIES of neurons (ventral gray horn-motor neuron cell bodies)
dorsal root
contains SENSORY nerve fibers
dorsal root ganglion
contains SENSORY neuron CELL BODIES
ventral root
contains MOTOR fibers
Spinal Nerves
dorsal AND ventral root (has both sensory/afferent AND motor/efferent fibers)
Withdrawal Reflex
Receptor-> Sensory Neuron-> Interneuron (associated neuron)-> Motor Neuron-> Effector (muscle) *3 neurons, 2 synapses connecting neurons
Stretch Reflex Arc
-contract to prevent overstretchReceptor-> Sensory Neuron->Motor Neuron-> Effector (muscle)
Dorsal (posterior) primary ramus
supplies to lower spinal area (deep back muscles)
Ventral (anterior) primary ramus
larger in diameter bc supplies upper and lower extremities
Nerve Plexuses (4)
Cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral*Lumbar and Sacral= Lumbo-sacral plexus
Nerve Plexuses: Cervical (C1-C4)
Phrenic nerve (major branch)"C3, 4, 5 Keeps You Alive"-innervates diaphragm
Nerve Plexuses: Brachial (C5-T1)
-supplies upper extremities-Axillary, Musculocutaneous, Radial, Ulnar, Median
Brachial Plexus: Axillary
-supplies DELTOID; deep in armpit-can't abduct-lose flexion/extension
Brachial Plexus: Musculocutaneous
-supplies BICEPS BRACHII-lose most of supination -lose flexion of arm at elbow
Brachial Plexus: Radial (posterior)
-supplies TRICEPS-lose extension of elbow, wrist, finger-"Wrist-Drop": can't grab
Brachial Plexus: Ulnar (medial, anterior aspect of forearm)
-supplies LUMBRICALS-weakness in wrist flexion-"Claw-Hand": nerves of lumbricals on ulnar side
Brachial Plexus: Median
-supplies THENAR EMINENCE (thumb, 1st, 2nd digit)-"Ape-Hand" and "Carpal Tunnel Syndrome"
Nerve Plexuses: Lumbo-Sacral Plexus (L1-S4)
Femoral, Obturator, Sciatic (Tibial+Common Fibular), Pudendal
Lumbo-Sacral Plexus: Femoral
-anterior; quadraceps-lose extension of knee
Lumbo-Sacral Plexus: Obturator
-foramen of ox coxae-muscles on medial aspect of thigh-lose adduction of thigh
Lumbo-Sacral Plexus: Sciatic
posterior aspect of thigh; hamstrings
Lumbo-Sacral Plexus: Tibial (larger branch of SCIATIC)
posterior aspect of calves; gastronemius
Lumbo-Sacral Plexus: Common Fibular (SCIATIC)
-anterior lateral component of leg; tibualis anterior and muscles of dorsiflexion-"Foot-Drop": dorsiflexion-lose eversion
Lumbo-Sacral Plexus: Pudendal
-blocked during childbirth-innervated by pelvis-lose continence (i.e of urinary bladder)
(LECTURE 16-NS: BRAIN I)BRAIN: 3 Major Parts
Cerebrum, Brain Stem. Cerebellum
Cerebrum (cerebral hemisphere)
-divided into two hemisphere (left+right)-tracts (fiber bundles) provide connections between the cerebral hemispheres->corpus collosum
Cerebrum: Corpus Collosum
-a large fiber bundle connecting one cerebral hemisphere with the other-allows for a transfer of info
Cerebrum: Gray Matter (cerebral cortex)
contains NEURON CELL BODIES-gyri: ridges-sucli: grooves
Cerebrum: White Matter
contains AXONS most of which are myelinated
Cerebrum: Frontal Lobe
motor function
Cerebrum: Parietal Lobe
Sensory in function (general sense)
Cerebrum: Temporal Love
auditory function (special sensory)
Cerebrum: Occipital Love
Visual Function
Cerebrum: Insula (lobe)
deep to the lateral sulcus (fissure); although its function is not completely known, it is thought to integrate nervous activity
Cerebrum: Central Sulcus
located btwn frontal and parietal lobes
Cerebrum: Lateral Sulcus (fisher)
separates temporal from frontal and parietal
Brodmann's Areas
primary motor area (4), primary sensory area (3,1,2), area for hearing (41,42), visual area (17,18,19), Broca's area (44,45), Wernicke's Area (22)
Primary Motor Area/Pre-Central Gyris (4)
gyris parallel to central sulcus in frontal lobe; initiates movement
Primary Sensory Area/Post-Central Gyris (3,1,2)
gyris posterior, parallel to central sulcus; touch, pressure, pain, temperature
Area for hearing (41,42)
41->sound, 42->where sound is; in temporal lobe for perception and identifying sound
Visual Area (17,18,19)
17->flashes of light, 18->location of colors, 19->picture
Broca's Area (44, 45)
primary motor area (speech); located in frontal lobe
Wernicke's Area (22)
composing the written word (order of words); in temporal region -disorder: dyslexia
Homunculus ("little man")
A body map of the primary motor cortex and the somatic sensory cortex. *size of cortex does not correspond to the size of body part--- it depends on NEURONS that are needed to control eacjh function (biggest: hand+face)
Arterial Supply (brain's blood vessels)
Internal Carotid and Vertebral Arteries*forms Circle of Willis
INTERNAL Carotid
Middle cerebral artery and Anterior cerebral artery
Internal Carotid: Middle Cerebral Artery
supplies the LATERAL surface of the cerebrm; supplies neurons that control UPPER LIMB
Internal Carotid: Anterior Cerebral Artery
supplies the MEDIAL surface of the cerebrum; supply neurons that control LOWER LIMB
Venous Drainage
veins draining the brain empty into folds of dura called dural VENOUS SINUSES.blood is carried to the INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN
cerebral spinal fluid
produced within cavities of the brain called ventricles-> into the subarachnoid space and protects brain and spinal cord
choroid plexus
VASCULAR structure; filters blood (cells and liquid) to clear watery fluid
Path of Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
Lateral Ventricle-> Third Ventricle-> Cerebral Aqueduct-> Fourth Ventricle-> Subarachnoid Space
Hydrocephalus
an abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles and or subarachnoid space
(LECTURE 17-NS: BRAIN II)Brain Stem: 3 Parts
-Medulla Oblongata-Pons-Midbrain
Brain Stem: Medulla Oblongata
location: foramen magnumcontents: cardiovascular and respiratory centers
Brain Stem: Pons
location: superior to medullacontents: part of respiratory system
Brain Stem: Midbrain
location: superior to ponscontents: auditory and visual reflex centers
Diencephalon: 2 parts
Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Diencephalon: thalamus
location: superior to midbrain (beneath corpus collosum)contents: relay center for all sensations except smell
Diencephalon: Hypothalamus (below)
location: superior to midbrain (inferior to thalamus) and connects to pituitary glandcontents: nuclei control sleep/wake cycle, control eating, autonomic NS
Reticular Activating Center(RAS)
column of neurons that are located in middle of brainstem from the thalamus to the medulla. These neurons maintain a conscious state. When damaged, coma may result
Cerebellum
coordinated movement (e.g controls flexor and extensor muscles)
Basal Ganglia
initiates movements in an adult (controls movements of newborn babies)-substantia nigra (black substance): involved in gross movements. when damaged, PARKINSON'S disease develops
Limbic System
Formed by many parts of the brain; functions include sex drive, major memory center
Tracts/Pathwayss
composed of ascending or descending bundles of nerve fibers which conduct info between the brain and spinal cord-sensory pathway: fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus-motor pathway: corticospinal tract
Fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus (sensory)
stimulus received from right side-> synapsed-> stimulus (left side)-> thalamus (RELAYS INFO)-origin: spinal cord-decussation (where it crosses over): medulla-destination: area 3,1,2
Corticospinal Tract (motor)
descending tract: left side of brain-> pons-> medulla-> bends/crosses over to left (does not synapse)-origin: area 4 (upper motor neuron)-decussation: medulla-destination: spinal cord
upper motor neurons
-cell body usually located in GRAY matter of cortex (precentral gyris-area 4)-its axons synapses on a LOWER motor neuron
lower motor neurons
-cell body is in the brain STEM or SPINAL CORD-its axon synapses on SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS
Paralysis
damage to either upper/lower motor neurons. the specific effects this damage has on muscular activity depends upon # of neurons damaged and location
Poliomyelitis (Lower Motor Neuron Lesion)
results from viral infection which damages the lower motor neurons located in the ventral gray horn of the spinal cord. neurons in lumbar enlargement are more affected resulting in symptoms in lower limb (flaccid paralysis, reflexes absent, muscles atrophy)
Cerebrovascular Accident-CVA/Stroke (Upper Motor Neuron Lesion)
blockage or rupture of blood vessels supplying the brain may result in ISCHEMIA (inadq. BF). neurons will die resulting in LOSS OF FXN.if damage occured in neurons of motor cortex or corticospinal tract these symptoms may occur: spastic paralysis, reflexes intact (but abnormal-exaggerated), babinski response present (big toe-> dorsiflex; other toes-> fan out)
(LECTURE 18-NS)Cranial Nerves
12 pairs of motor and/or sensory nerves emerge from the inferior surface of the brain. nerves supply head, neck, or trunk.*olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal
Cranial Nerves: Olfactory
-SENSORY-sense of smell
Cranial Nerves: Optic
-SENSORY-axons gather at eyeball to form nerve -formed by ganglionic cells
Cranial Nerves: Oculomotor
-MOTOR-controls skeletal muscle (move eyeball)-controls smooth muscle of iris and ciliary body
Cranial Nerves: trochlear
-MOTOR-controls ONE muscle that moves the eyeball
Cranial Nerves: trigeminal
-BOTH-supplies teeth (toothache)-muscles of massification (masseter, temporalis, later/medial pterygoid)-sensory nerve to face, skin, teeth
Cranial Nerves: abducens
-MOTOR-controls one extrinsic muscle of eyeball
Cranial Nerves: Facial
-BOTH-muscles of facial expression (obicular oris/facilis)-sensory for the earlobe-carries taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue to brain-controls lacrimal gland secretion (tears) and salivary glands (submandibular+sublingual)
Cranial Nerves: vestibulocochlear
-SENSORY-hearing and balance (equilibrium)
Cranial Nerves: Glossopharyngeal
-BOTH-controls skeletal muscle in pharynx (gag reflex/pain)-carries posterior 1/3 of tongue-one salivary gland: parodal
Cranial Nerves: Vagus
-BOTH-controls skeletal muscle in larynx-autonomic fxn: supplies smooth muscle and cardiac muscle (heart)-sensory to larynx and ear
Cranial Nerves: Accessory
-MOTOR-controls sternalclydomastoid and trapezius
Cranial Nerves: Hypoglossal
-MOTOR-supplies muscles of the tongue
autonomic nervous system
a MOTOR system which regulates activity of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands (not carried out at a conscious lvl)-components of CNS and PNS: hypothalamus, brainstem, and spinalcord-2 neuron chain: neuron #1=PREglanglionic (visceral->CNS)neuron #2=POSTganglionic (efferent->PNS)
ANS: Somatic Motor (Skeletal Muscle)
motor unit= 1 motor neuron and ALL the skeletal muscle fibers in innervates-most nerves are thick/myelinated, rapid conduction
ANS: Visceral Motor (smooth/cardiac muscle, glands)
autonomic NS 2 neuron chain (pre and post ganglionic)-most post nerves are thin and unmyelinated, slow conduction.
ANS: Sympthatic
"Thoracolumbar"-where 1st and 2nd neurons are located
Sympathetic: LOCATION
-PREganglionic: at all thoracic lvls and some of lumbar (L1+L2); neuron=Ach-POSTganglionic: sympathetic chain or paravertebral ganglia OR prevertebral ganglia
Sympathetic: NEUROTRANSMITTER
norepinephrine
Sympathetic: EFFECT
"Flight or Flight" response (excited)
Adrenal Medulla
contains cells derived from postganglionic neurons-location: center of adrenal gland (on top of kidneys)-secretions: norepinephrine (neurotransmitter) and epinephrine(hormone)
ANS: Parasympathetic
"CranioSacaral"- brain and sacral lvl of spinal cord
Parasympathetic: LOCATION
-PREganglionic: nuclei of CRANIAL NERVES located in brainstem cranial nerve (3)facial nerve (7)glossopharyngeal (9)Vagus (10)and sacral region of spinal cord (lvls 2,3,4)-POSTganglionic: inside/next to target
Parasympathetic: NEUROTRANSMITTER
Acetylcholine
Parasympathetic: EFFECT
"resting and digesting"
Effects on Organs: Heartrate
sympathetic: INCparasympathetic: DEC
Effects on Organs: Smooth Muscle of Bronchioles
sympathetic: DILATEpara: CONSTRICT
Effects on Organs: Urinary Bladder
sympathetic: FILLpara: EXPEL
Effects on Organs: Digestive Tract
sympathetic: DEC movementpara: INC movement
Effects on Organs: Sweat Glands
sympathetic: INCpara: NO EFFECT
Effects on Organs: Arrector pili m.
sympathetic: INC (goosebumps)para: NO EFFECT
Effects on Organs: Eye
sympathetic: DILATEpara: CONSTRICT
vasoconstriction
generally in sympathetic division constricts most blood vessels. INC BP-> divert blood away from skin/abdominal organs-> more blood for heart/skeletal muscles-> dilate blood vessels
(LECTURE 21: HEART I)foramen ovale
-opening in septum between atria-closes to form fossa ovale
pericardium
-double walled sac enclosing heart and vessel roots-visceral and parietal
visceral pericardium
-inner sac-attached to heart like skin of an apple
parietal pericardium
-outer sac
serous fluid
-thin layer of watery fluid that reduces friction when heart pumps
atrioventricular sulcus
-seperates atria from ventricles-contains CORONARY ARTERIES AND CIRCUMFLEX ARTERIES
anterior and posterior interventricular sulci
-seperates ventricles-contains interventricular arteries
heart wall (3 LAYERS)
-epicardidium-myocardium-endocardium
epicardium
-outer-composed of fibrous CT
myocardium
-middle-composed of cardiac muscle
endocardium
-inner-composed of simple squamous epithelium and covers valves
ways to enter heart
-superior/inferior vena cava-coronary sinus
Flow of blood
-right atrium-tricuspid valve-right ventricle-pulmonary trunk-pulmonary semilunar valve-pulmonary arteries-lungs-pulmonary veins-left atrium-bicuspid (mitral) valve-left ventricle-base of aorta-aortic semilunar valve-arch of aorta
papillary muscles
-finger-like projections from wall of heart-prevents valve inversion-stabilizes valve
chordae tendonae
-cord-like tendons that attach papillary muscles to tricuspid and bicuspid valve
pulmonary trunk
-divides into two pulmonary arteries
(LECTURE 22: HEART II)SA node
-pacemaker-collection of specialized "conducting cells" in RIGHT ATRIUM-initiates heartbeat
AV node
-receives message from SA node and sends to bundle of His-located in right atrium
bundle of His
-collection of nerve fibers (tract) located in interventricular septum-transmits message to Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers
-located in walls of ventricles-conduct impulse to myocardium-results in ventricular contraction
sympathetic stimulation
-releases norepinephrine-acts on SA node-INC HR/strength of contraction
parasympathetic stimulation
-releases acetylcholine-inhibitory-DEC HR/strength of contraction
cardiac cycle
-SA node initiates-atria contract, force blood into both ventricles-complete heartbeat
systole
-ventricles contract-AV valves close/semilunar valves open-blood in right ventricle exits through pulmonary arties-blood in left ventricle exits through aorta-blood is under highest pressure
diastole
-ventricles relax-semilunar valves close/AV valves open-blood fills atria waiting for signal from SA node
cardiac cycle occurs
-70 times per minute-systolic/diastolic = 120mmHg/80mmHg
amount of blood pumped every minute
-5 Liters
auscultation
-act of listening to sounds of body
1st Heart Sound: "lubb"
-AV valves closing
2nd Heart Sound: "dupp"
-Semilunar Valves closing
ausculatory areas (lateral sides of heart)
-aorta-pulmonic-tricuspid-mitro/bicuspid*A Physical ToMorrow
aorta area
-aortic semilunar valve-2nd intercostal space-right side
pulmonic area
-pulmonic semilunar valve-2nd intercostal space-left side
tricuspid area
-right AV valve-5th intercostal space-right side of sternum
bicuspid valve
-left AV valve-5th intercostal space-left side of sternum(apex of heart)
coronary veins
blood is drained from heart tissue through here
coronary sinus
coronary veins enter here and empties into right atrium
right coronary artery (SA NODE)
-marginal-supplies myocardium of lateral side of right heart-posterior interventricular-travels in septum to supply posterior ventricles-right atrium/ventricle
left coronary arteries (BUNDLE OF HIS)
-circumflex-supplies left atrium-anterior interventricular-supplies interventricular septum and anterior walls of both ventricles
(LECTURE 23: Blood Vessels I)
Arteries-> Arterioles-> Capillaries-> Venules-> Veins-> HEART
blood vessels transport...
-oxygen-nutrients-waste-hormones
general structure of blood vessels
-tubular structure containing a lumen (opening)surrounded by walls composed of layers (tunics)
tunica intima
-inner layer "endothelium"-composed of simple squamous epithelium
tunica media
-middle layer-composed of smooth muscle
tunica externa
-outer layer-composed of connective tissue (collagen)
vaso vasorum
-vessels of vessels-supply vessel walls
arteries
-3 tunics-thick tunica media-elastic fibers in wall (for INC BP)-tansport blood from heart
arterioles
-3 tunics-tunica media regulates blood flow to capillaries
capillaries
-endothelium only-very thin permeable walls-tunica intima
venules
-3 tunics-very thin-take blood TO heart
veins
-3 tunics-fewer smooth muscle than arteries-larger lumen-contain "valves" to direct blood flow (low BP)
sympathetic stimulation (autonomic system)of blood vessels
-constricts blood vessels of abdominal viscera (most vessels)-dilates blood vessels of heart and skeletal muscle-accomplished by acting on smooth muscle of tunica media
aortic arch
-supplies brachiocephalic and right/left coronaries (righ-supplies right atrium and posterior both ventricles; left-supplies left atrium and anterior both ventricles)
brachiocephalic
-supplies right subclavian and right common carotid
right common carotid
supplies internal (brain) and external carotid (face and neck)
right subclavian (shoulder)
supplies vertebral (supplies brain) and axillary
axillary (muscles of pectoral region)
supplies brachial
brachial (arm)
supplies radial and ulnar
radial and ulnar (forearm)
supplies palmer arteries
palmer arches (thumb and fingers)
supply digits
abdominal aorta
-celiac trunk-superior mesenteric-inferior mesenteric-renal and gonadal-common illiac
celiac trunk
supplies stomach (gastric), spleen (splenic), liver (hepatic)
superior mesenteric
supplies intestines
inferior mesenteric
supplies colon and rectum
common illiac
supplies internal/external illiac
internal illiac
supplies pelvis
external illiac
supplies femoral
femoral
supplies popliteal
popliteal
supplies anterior and posterior tibial
anterior tibial
supplies dorsalis pedis and dorsal/plantar arches
dorsal and plantar arches
supply digits
posterior tibial
supplies dorsal/plantar arches
(LECTURE 24: Blood Vessels II)special circulation
pulmonary circuit and hepatic-portal circulation
pulmonary circuit
-right ventricle-pulmonary trunk-pulmonary arteries-lungs-pulmonary veins-left atrium
hepatic portal circulation
-blood enters liver from hepatic artery (brings O2 to liver) and portal vein (receives blood from superior/inferior mesenteric vein and splenic vein)*Blood is DRAINED from the liver by the hepatic vein which empties into the INFERIOR Vena Cava
Smooth Muscle Sphincters (AV Shunts)
-located at the junction of arterioles and capillaries and the junction of arterioles and veins.-constriction of these sphincters determine direction of BLOOD FLOW.-controlled under sympathetic (autonomic) system
dural sinuses
-(brain, deep face, neck)-drains into internal jugular
internal jugular
drains into subclavian
superficial veins
-(face and neck)-drains into external jugular
external jugular
drains into subclavian
subclavian
drains into brachiocephalic
brachiocephalic (2 branches)
drains into superior vena cava-> HEART
axillary
drains into subclavian
brachial
drains into axillary
radial and ulnar
drains into brachial
dorsal palmer arches
drains into radial and ulnar
cephalic
-(lateral upper limb)-drains into subclavian and basilic
basilic
-(medial upper limb)-drains into axillary
medial cubital
connects cephalic and basilic
venapuncture
-vein for drawing blood: MEDIAL CUBITAL -easy to find;superficial-low BP
Brachial-cephalic
-1 Brachial-Cephalic ARTERY-2 Brachial-Cephalic VEINS
superior/inferior mesenteric/splenic (filter blood)
drains into portal vein
portal vein
drains into hepatic (liver)
hepatic/renal gonadal/common illiac
drains into inferior vena cava-> HEART
internal/external illiac
drains into common illiac
femoral
drains into external illiac
great saphenous
-(medial lower limb)-drains into femoral-superficial vein in leg commonly used for coronary bypass surgery
popliteal
drains into femoral
anterior/posterior tibial
drains into popliteal
venous arches (foot) digitals
drains into anterior/posterior tibial
(LECTURE 25: Lymphatic System)
consists of lymphatic vessels which carry a fluid, lymph. clusters of lymphoid tissue called lymph nodes are located along vessels.
lymphatic vessels
-widely distributed throughout body-run alongside blood vessels within loose CT
lymphatic capillaries
-begin as blind ended tubes
medium large lymphatic vessels
-thicker walled than capillaries-smooth fibers surround vessel-valves; permit fluid to flow in one direction ONLY
lymphatic ducts
-right (20% of people) lactealsand thoracic-largest lymph vessels-thickest walled-valves
lacteals
-found only in intestine-transport products of fat digestion
function of lymphatic system
-removal and transport of tissue fluid-immunological defenses-drainage system (one direction)
lymph drainage
tissue-> lymph capillaries-> lymph vessels-> lymph ducts-> venous system
right lymphatic duct
-drains right upper extremeties (limb,thorax,face)-empties into right subclavian vein
thoracic duct
-drains right abdomen/lower right limbs and whole left side of body-empties into left subclavian
lymph
-clear, watery-plasma-plasma proteins-lipids-lymphocytes-misc debris (bacteria, malignant cells, viruses)
formation of lymph
-due to differences in pressure, more fluid leaves capillaries than is returned
transport of lymph
-rhythmic contraction of skeletal musclesand abdominal organ muscles push fluid along-negative pressure in thorax helps drain fluid up through thoracic duct-valves
lymph nodes
-small, oval, clusters of lymphoid tissue
lymph node function
-filtration of foreign particles-production of lymphocytes
structure and contents of lymph nodes
-enclosed in fibrous capsule-afferent/efferent vessels-reticular fibers-macrophages-aggregation of t-cells-germinal centers
reticular fibers
-meshwork which traps debris
germinal centers
area where B cells develop and become plasma cells which make antibodies
spleen
-left upper quadrant-between 9th and 11th ribs-lateral posterior to stomach
spleen structure
-red pulp-white pulp-reticular fibers-sinusoids
red pulp
-blood flowing though meshwork of fibers
white pulp
-clusters of lymphoid tissue
sinusoids
-irregular passageway of blood
spleen function
-production of blood cells (fetal-all, adult-lymphocytes)-storage: platelets, WBC, RBC, iron-filtration: disposes old RBCs-immune function: produces lymphocytes and antibodies
thymus
-bilobed mass of lymphoid tissue-in thorax
thymus function
-during prenatal and postnatal it produces T cells-usually degenerates with age
tonsils
-clusters of lymphoid tissue-guard entrance to resp/dig system-pharyngeal-paletine-lingual
pharyngeal tonsils
-roof of nasopharynx (adenoids)-can cause ear infection if inflamed
palatine
-"the tonsils"-each side of oropharynx
lingual
located posterior 1/3 of tongue
(LECTURE 28: Blood)FUNCTIONS
-transport-protection-regulation
protection
WBCs and clotting
regulation
-body temp (water it contains provides means for dissipation of heat)-volume of body water-pH
composition of blood
-55% plasma-45% cellular components
plasma
-90% water-plasma proteins-ions-compounds
plasma proteins
-albumin-fibrinogen-globulin
albumin
-many functions including transport and BP regulation-very large, affects osmotic pressure
fibrinogen
-necessary for clotting
globulin
-transport of lipids-antibody formation
ions
K, Na, Cl
compounds
glucose, urea
cellular elements
-erythrocytes-leukocytes-thrombocytes (platelets)
erythrocyte function
uses hemoglobin for oxygen transport
neutrophil function
-phagocytosis of bacteria/debris
eosinophil function
-fights parasitic infections and allergies
basophil function
-contain histamine-affects vascular permeability-increase in number in some leukemias
monocyte function
-phagocytosis-moves into tissues and becomes macrophage
lymphocyte function
-immune defense-fight viral infection
thrombocyte
-small, granular fragments-portion of cytoplasm of a megakaryocyte in bone marrow
granulocytes
-neutrophil-eosinophil-basophil
hemopoiesis
-blood cell production
location of fetal hemopoiesis
-yolk sac, liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, bone marrow
location of adult hemopoiesis
-red bone marrow-sternum, ribs, vertebrae, pelvis, head of humerus/femur, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes
at birth all bone marrow is
red
adults have this much red bone marrow
half
erythropoietin
-hormone produced in kidney-influences rate of production of new blood cells
Pleuripotential stem cells
gives rise to all blood cells
Hemostasis
stopping of bleeding to prevent blood loss
Blood Clot Process
tissue damage-> platelets adhere to collagen-> constriction of clood vessels at tunica media-> becomes sticky and release thrombin-> fibrinogen-> fibrin-> forms clot with calcium and vitamin K
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