Geol 101 Final-spring 2011 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
solidification of lava
Which of the following is NOT a typical environment in which a metamorphic rock forms?
B
Where is subduction occurring on this map of South America?
Sedimentary
What type of rock would the materials shown in this photograph produce
Transform boundary
An earthquake generated on this type of fault would most likely be associated with a:
B
On the accompanying figure, which letter is likely over oceanic crust that is similar in age to that beneath letter E?
Near a boundary between tectonic plates
In this map, areas of significant earthquake risk are shaded. Most high risk areas will be located
Contaminated groundwater
Which potential geological hazard is NOT represented by feature on this figure?
~E. All of the above
A. The location of the earthquake
B. The star at depth is the place where the earthquake is generated
C. The star at depth is the hypocenter
D. The star on the surface is the epicenter
What do the two stars near the center of this block represent?
Mid-ocean ridge
On this map of the south Atlantic, what is the feature that makes a zigzag pattern on the seafloor?
B
On this map, identify which letter is over a mid-ocean ridge?
A
Which are on this world map is likely to have volcanoes above sea level?
Examine complexities of each feature rather than grouping features into types
Which of the following is NOT a recommended strategy for observing a landscape?
They compress and then expand the rock in the direction the wave travels
The characteristics of P-waves include:
~E. All of the above
A. why continents have different regions
B. Why a landscape looks the way it does
C. How life in the past was different than today
D. How global climate has changed since the ice ages
Which of the following is a way geology can help us learn about earth's past?
ISCO situation is closest to the earthquake
The diagram on the right shows the record of one earthquake on seismograms at three different situations in a seismic network. These three seismograms show:
Oceanic Crust
Which of the following earth layers is the thinnest?
Lower layer, middle layers, upper layer, fracture
What order did the rock layers and features form in this photograph? (listed from oldest to youngest)
Comparing the characteristics of the rock to deposits from modern environments
What strategy was described for inferring the environment in which a rock formed?
There was no mechanism to move continents through the oceanic crust
The main reason why the hypothesis of continental drift was not widely accepted was:
~D. All of the above
A. the abandoned stretch of highway
B. The bend in the highway and the new bridge
C. The linear stretch of river
Evidence of past faulting in this figure is shown by:
Meteorites
Which of the following is NOT one of the main families of rocks?
P-waves arrive first, followed by S-waves
This diagram indicates that:
A
On the accompanying figure, which letter is over the oldest oceanic crust?
The horizontal offset of the drainage channel
what feature suggests that this is a strike-slip fault rather than some other kind of fault?
~E. All of the above
A. strike-slip fault
B. Normal faulting
C.Reverse Faulting
D. Movement of magma near the rift
The continental block shown in this figure has a transform boundary, a reverse fault, and a continental rift. What type of activity could cause and earthquake here?
Continental collision
Why does the Tibetan Plateau, shown in this figure, have a high elevation?
The earthquake was no felt in the southern Florida
This Modified Mercalli Intensity rating map shows intensity values that range from more than X to less than lll. What does this map show?
Oceanic divergent boundary
What type pf boundary is depicted in this figure?
A boundary between the two units indicates that for a time there was either erosion or no deposition
This figure shows a disconformity between an upper darker layer (being deposited by the sea) and a lower light0colored later. What happened to form this disconformity?
Rock avalanche
What type of slope failure is shown in this figure?
~D. All of the above
A. Bouncing sand grains along the surface
B. Rolling sand grains along the surface
C. Carrying finer material, like dust and silt, in air currents
Wind moves sediment by:
~D. All of the above
A. The upper unit is younger because it is on top
B. The upper unit is younger because it contains pieces of the underlying unit
C. The lower unit is older because it was tilted and eroded before deposition of the upper unit
This photograph shows an upper unit with fragments and a lower unit with tilted layers. Which rock unit is youngest and why?
Pick up moisture and then cause precipitation, allowing rain forests along the coast
The east Australian current is shown by the sweeping arrow flowing south along the continents eastern shoreline. Winds blowing across this current onto land are shown as a series of westward arrows. These winds:
The steepest angle at which loose material remains sable
what is the angle of repose?
Alluvial Fan
Which of the following landscape features is shown in this photograph?
The unconformity is older than the age assigned to the fossils
What would fossil ages from the geologic timescale and an isotopic age on the granite tell us about the age of the unconformity?
~E. B and C
B. clockwise in the northern hemisphere
C. Counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere
In a low pressure system, the Coriolis effect causes wind to rotate:
Atmoshperic warming started well before 1900
This graph shows an interpretation of temperatures based on tree-ring data. This graph implies that:
The left section represents older rocks than the right section
This figure shows two sections that partially overlap in age. Dashed lines show how the two sections correlate. What can you conclude from these correlations?
Water evaporates at point A, rises, and then cools and condenses at point B
What is the relationship between water vapor at point A and water droplets at point B?
Rock slide
What type of slope failure is shown in this figure?
Florida
Which of the following has the lowest potential for landslides?
for half of the parent atoms to decay into daughter atoms
The term Half life represents the time it takes:
~D. All of the above
A. Current temperatures are by far the hottest based on this record
B. Atmospheric warming stared as early as the late 1700's
C. The coolest time period on this data set was from around 1500 to the last part of the 1700's
This graph shows an interpretation of temperatures based on the changing in isotopes in ice-core date. This graph implies that:
Moist air is forced to rise and cool over the mountains, decreasing he amount of water vapor available to point C
In this model of atmospheric water, why is location C a desert?
~E. All of the above
A. Alluvial Fan
B. Playa
C. Rock varnish
D. Dry wash
Which of the following landscape features is NOT common in deserts?
The surface area increases as the rock is fractured
What happens to the surface area of exposed rock if a rock is fractured?
Creep
What type of slope failure is shown in this figure?
A site where two large-scale circulation patterns converge, causing air to rise and cool
Which of the following settings is most likely to have high precipitation?
Gravity
What is the main force involved in the stability of slopes?
the layers on the lower left part of the photograph
Where is the oldest layer in this tilted sequence of sedimentary rocks?
~E. All of the above
A. Are exposed to water
B. Formed in high- temperature environments
C. Formed in high-pressure environments
D. Are exposed to oxygen
Some rocks and minerals are not stable at the surface because they:
Units at the top of two sections will automatically be correlative
This figure shows two sections of rocks. Which of the following is NOT a Valid way to correlate one of the numbered units from one section to another?
~D. All of the above
A. Uplift of granite to the surface
B. Solidification of granite at depth
C. Formation of an erosion surface
In this photograph, Paleozoic sandstone rest depositionally on Precambrian granite. What events must have occurred before deposition of the sandstone?
~E. All of the above
A. Millions of layers of light and dark-colored sediments that record yearly cycles
B. Rates of sea floor spreading compared to the width of the Atlantic Ocean
C. A 4-billion-year age on a rock in Canada
D. Thousands of isotopic ages
Which of the following is evidence that Earth's history is not short?
~D. All of the above
A. Ice crystals can form across a range of temperature at high altitudes
B. Water droplets from across a range of temperatures
C. While rain is falling at lower elevations, ice crystals, can exist at higher elevations
This diagram suggest that:
High fractured granite
Which of the following materials probably has the highest permeability?
The magma has a higher viscosity
Which of the following is likely to be true about the left volcanic feature compared to the right one in this figure?
Sill
The vertical igneous feature shown in the photograph to the left is a:
A composite volcano
The classic volcano shape is displayed by:
Solid asthenosphere rises as plates move apart
Which of the following is true about igneous processes along oceanic divergent boundaries as shown in the figure to the right?
+2
Elements in column IIA commonly of the periodic table will have a charge (oxidation number) of
A
This site on the figure to the right that would most likely from a rock with large crystals is:
Basalt mostly formed in lava flows
What types of rocks would be most common in the volcano shown in the photograph to the right?
There was a lot of gas n the magma
A vesicular igneous texture indicates that:
have 8 outer shell (valence) electrons
In accordance with the Octet Rule, atoms are the most stable (happiest) when they
~E. All of the above
A. Liquid water
B. Crystals grown in a laboratory
C. Volcanic glass
D. Piece of wood
Which of the following is NOT a mineral?
Viscous lava and pyroclastic eruptions
What type of eruption formed the volcano in the photograph to the right?
C
Which of the sites shown in the figure would melting probably be caused by introduction of water into hot rocks?
B
The map to the right shows elevations of water table beneath an area. Which of the following maps is the correct contour map for the water table elevations shown?
Silicon and oxygen
The two elments most abundant in the crust are:
Well-sorted gravel
Which of the following materials has high porosity and high permeability?
The number of electron shells
Rows in the Periodic Table (abbreviated version shown on right) correspond to?
Fractures are the main way groundwater moves through some rocks, such as granite
Which of the following is a valid statement with relevance to groundwater?
~E. None of the above
A. Felsic minerals crystallize first
B. Mafic minerals are light and float in most magma chambers
C. Felsic crystals are heavy and sink in most magma chambers
D. All crystals form at about the same time
Which of the following is common during crystallization of a magma?
~E. All of the above
A. Through fractures that can form dikes
B. Pieces of the wall rocks that break off and provide space
C. Tectonic forces can help open pathways
D. Magma is hotter and less dense than its surrounding
Which are important ways that magma can rise through the crust?
Silicates
The most important class of rock-forming minerals on earth is:
Are composed of lava flows, pyroclastic material, and mudflows
Composite volcanoes are so called because they:
D
This figure shows a new well that will pump out grounwater faster than it can be replaced, What will the water table look like after pumping?
Scoria cone
The kind of volcano shown in the photograph to the right is a:
C. A and B
Which of the following sites would most likely have composite volcanoes? A is on an island arc, B is in the Andes, C in near Hawaii, D is along a mid-ocean ridge, as seen in the figure to the left.
Partial melting produces a magma that is more felsic than the source
When melting forms magma:
Factory C
The map to the right shows contours of the water table, the location of four factories (labeled A, B, C and D) and contaminated (X) and uncontaminated wells (-). Which factory contaminated the groundwater?
Caldera
What kind of volcano is in the figure to the left?
Lake at 5
Which of the following sites below would have the slowest moving or least energetic current?
A weak current
Which of the following environments would likely have clasts smaller than sand?
Strike-slip fault
What type of fault is shown in the figure
The amount of stress is greater in some directions than in others
If a rock is subjected to differential stress, then it means that:
A scrap along a strike-slip fault
What type of feature is probably shown in this photograph?
Coal- deep-sea organic-rich black shales
Which of the following does NOT correctly match a rock with a possible environment in which that rock forms?
Shear
What type of stress could form the fault in the figure on the right?
Lava flow and granite
Which of the following features is younger than fault 1 below?
Channel of a braided river
Which environment is least likely to deposit siltstone or shale?
Syncline
What type of fold is shown on the cross section below?
Compression
What type of stress formed the structures shown in the figure below?
Compression, tension, and shear
What are the three main types of stress?
Shear
What type of stress formed the structure shown in the figure to the right?
Unit 1
Which of the following units to the right was most likely deposited along an ancient mountain front?
Brittle deformation
Which of the following is most likely to occur at shallow crustal levels?
The clasts become more rounded
What typically happens to the size, shape, and sorting of clasts as they are transported from steep mountains toward more gentle settings?
~E. All of the above are ways to from layers
A. Occurrence of a discrete event like a flood
B. A change in the strength of the current
C. A change in the supply of sediment
D. A change in climate of the region
Which of the following is NOT a way to form layers in a sedimentary rock?
Steep slopes n a mountain
Which of the following situations would result in angular clasts?
~E. None of the above
A. The area was experiencing a transgression
B. Sea level was stable but the temperatures were getting colder
C. sea level was stable but the temperatures were getting warmer
D. A and B only
In this section on the right, a lower limestone is successively overlain by lagoon mudstone and a beach sandstone, What is the best interpretation of what was going on?
Anticline
What type of fold is shown in the figure below?
Compression
What type of stress is the cause of most folding?
A fault displaces the rocks on one side relative to another
What is the difference between a joint and a fault?
Open ocean away from land
Which environment is least likely to deposit sand?
Horizontal compression
What type of stress could from the fault in this figure on the right?
Compression
What type of stress formed the structure shown in the figure below?
Tension
What type of stress formed the structure shown in the figure below?
Delta at 4
Which of the following sites below would have sand and silt deposited by slowing of the current?
Large cross beds in a well-sorted sandstone usually indicate deposition by wind
Which of the following is a good interpretation of the environmental significance of an attribute of a sedimentary rock?
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