Lecture 7 Tissues of the Body Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Epithelial Tissue
consists of sheets of cells that cover all the surfaces in the body.
Basement Membrane
Ancors the Epithelial TissueContains: Collagen IV, Proteoglycans, and a protein calles Laminin
Epithelial Mutations
Mutations in the genes for collagen or proteoglycans can lead to a number of heritable disorders affecting skeletonMore than 85% of all cancers arise from mutation in epithelial cells
Simple squamous epithelium
lines the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs, the interiors of blood vessels (where it is called vascular endothelium), and membranes in the thrax and abdomen. The cells are thin and flattened, so that substances diffuse easily through them.
Simple cuboidal epithelium.
A single layer of cube-shaped cells. Lines ducts of various glands, kidney tubules. Functions in secretion and absorption
Simple columnar epithelium
this epithelium is thicker.Found lining the gut and uterus. Aside from providing some protection for the underlying tissues, this type epithelium functions in secretion and abosortption.Usually have microvilli to help create surface area.
Pseudostratified columnar
Appears to be stratified, but is not. It also have goblet cells (produces mucus). The cells usually have cilia (hair sweepers)
Stratified squamos
has many layers of flat cells. The cells next to the basement are dividing and pushing older cells near the surface.Found in the mouth, throat, vagina, anal canal, (these cells are not keratinized.)Skin is Keratinized (made harder)
Transitional
Also known as uroepithelium because it lines the urinary bladder and urinary tract. its cuboidal cells provide an expandable and relatively impermeable lining to the bladder.
What are glands?
Glands are collections of cells that secrete substances. there are two major types of gland.
Endocrine Glands
secretions pass straight into the blood stream. (throid, pancreas, pituitary)the products they secrete (insulin, sex hormones, groth hormones.)
Exocrine Glands
Glands where the cells secrete into ducts that open into a surface(sweat glands, salicary glands)
Types of Glands:Merocrine glands (2 types)
Serous merocrine glands have watery secretions (e.g. seat glands, some salivary glands)Mucous merocrine glands hace this secretions (e.g. glands found in the respitory tubes, some salivary glands)
Type of Glands:Halocrine glands
Secrete entire cells laden with secretory cell product (e.g. sebaceous glands in the skin). the cells then disintegrate, releasing the secretory product.
Function of Connective tissue
1. Binds structures together2. Supports and protects3. Serves as a framework4. Fills up spaces5. Stores fat6. In some places, it generates blood cells7. Protects against infections8. Helps repair tissue damage
Connective tissue Matrix contains;
two types of fibers: collagenous and elasticGround substance
Connective tissue Matrix contains;
two types of fibers: collagenous and elasticGround substance
Collagenous fiber
white fibers compsed of collagen. Collagens are major body proteins, consising of three intertwined amino acid chains, where every third amino acid chain is a glycine. The amino acids proline and hydroxyproline are also important in holding the structure of the molecule together.
Elastic fibers
yellow fibers composed mainly of the protein elastin, buy also contain a protein called fibrillin
Ground substance
a gel-like material composed of special protein molecules to which are attached large amounts of carbohydrates. These molecules are called proteoglycans. They are present in all tisues and organs. They bind water, and play an important role in maintaing the hydration.
Fibroblasts cells
Function:
 
cells that produce fiber!
Macrophages
Motile phagocytic cellsFunction: Clear foreign particles from tissues. Also part of the immune system and important in inflamation
Mast cells
Large cells packed with granules, usually located near blood vessels.Function: Release substances that help prevent blood clotting and promote the inflammatory response
White blood cells
Move into connective tissue during the inflammation response
Specialized cells
Found in the lacunae of cartilage (chondrocytes) and bone (osteocytes)Function: Synthesis and maintenance of cartilage and bone
Loose Connective Tissue(areolar connective tissue)
Composed of both collagenous and elastic fibers randomly dispersed in the matrix. Numerous fibroblasts are present.Both flexibility and strength. It binds tissues together yet allows flexibility and elasticity. It is found surrounding blood vessels and nerves, muscle groups, and binding skin to underlying muscles.
Adipose Tissue
No fiber, made up adipocyte cellStore tryglycerides (fat cells) - represent the body's most important energy resourse(fills spaces, cushions and holds organs in place, acts as a shock absorber, insulates, and give shape.)
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Densely packed and arranged parallel to the direction of the force. Interspersed among the collagen fibers are elastin fibers. Tissue has a poor blood supply that makes the healing process slow.
Dense regular tissue: Tendons
attach muscle muscle to bone
Dense Regular tissue: ligaments
attach bone to bone
Dense Regular tissue: Aponeuroses
sheet-like tendons connecting one muscle with another or with bone
Dense Irregular connective tissue
interwoven in three dimensions like a basket weave. Provides strength in all different directions. locations: dermis of skin, sheaths covering muscles, nerves, the adventitia of blood vessels. Capsules, membrane covering cartilage (perichondrium) and bone (presidium)
Elastic Connective tissue
made by protein elastin. This tissue can be stretched to about one and a half times.Present in the walls of arteries, in the trachea and lungs, in the larynx, and between adjacent vertebrae
Reticular Connective Tissue
Made up of a network of thin collagen fibers. It provides a supporting framework for a number of organs: liver, spleen, and lymph nodes
Cartilage
contains collagen and elastic fibers.is avascular (contains no blood vessels. Nutrients are supplied from blood vessels in the perichondrium, a layer of dense irregular connective tissue that covers its surface.
Marfan syndrome
a disease caused by mutation or mutations in the gene fibrillin 1. Causes abnomalities in connective tissue
What is Muscle tissue?
Mucle tissue consists of elongated cells called muscle fibers. Muscle are highly specialized for contraction and the conequent generation of force.
Skeletal muscle
Its is attached to the bones of the skeleton. It is also called striated muscle, because its fibers are traversed with a pattern of alternating light and and dark linees, or striations. This muscle is voluntary, because it can be made to contract and relax by voluntary control.
Smooth musle
lacks striations. it is sometimes called nonstriated musles for that reason. Each cell has one nucleus. Found in the walls of hollow internal stuctures such as blood vessels, the stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder. Smooth muscle fibers contract involuntarily.
Cardiac Muscle
is fond only in the heart. It is striated like skeletal muscle, but is involuntary and spontaneously rhythmic. The cells in cardiac muscle are joined together by intercalated disks(send electrical escitment).
Nervous Tissue
makes up the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Nervous tissue is composed of two types of cell, neurons and neuroglia.
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