American Anthem Chapter 23-Chapter 30 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Benito Mussolini
(1838-1914) Italian Fascist leader; he ruled as Italy's dictator for more than 20 years beginning in 1922 and made Italy a totalitarian state. His alliance with Adolf Hitler brought Italy to WWII (p. 740)
a system of government that focuses on the good of the state rather than on the individual citizens (p. 740)
Totalitarians: Adolf Hitler
(1889-1945) totalitarian dictator of Germany; his invasion of European countries led to WWII. He believed in the supremacy of the German Aryan race and was responsible for the mass murder of millions of Jews and others in the Holocaust. (p. 741)
Francisco Franco
(1892-1975) Fascist dictator of Spain; he led the nationalists to victory in the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s and controlled the Spanish government for nearly 40 years (p. 742)
Benito Mussolini
(1838-1914) Italian Fascist leader; he ruled as Italy's dictator for more than 20 years beginning in 1922 and made Italy a totalitarian state. His alliance with Adolf Hitler brought Italy to WWII (p. 740)
Joseph Stalin
(1879-1953) Totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union; he led the Soviet Union through WWII and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war (p. 742)
Hideki Tojo
(1884-1948) Japanese nationalist and general; he took control of Japan during WWII. He was later tried and executed for war crimes (p. 750)
giving in the the demands of uncompromising powers to avoid war (p. 747)
the alliance of Germany, Italy and Japan in WWII (p. 750)
alliance between Britain, France, and Russia in WWII (p. 748)
-stages of America during WWII; isolationist in order to preserve America's freedom to choose the time and place for defending their country; FDR on the other hand didn't believe in this, but Congress passed the Neutrality Act to prevent the nation from going to war (p. 753)
FDR speeches
good speaker, hard because of paralysis
Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941, Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Oahu and killed many; was military base; 2,400 Americans died
took over men's jobs, Rosie the Riveter image
African Americans
served in war (1st time as marines), factory jobs, march on Washington and FDR issued an order to outlaw discrimination in government and defense jobs
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1890-1969) Thirty-fourth president of the US, led the Allied invasion of North Africa and D-Day invasion of France and commanded the Allied forces in Europe during WWII. Faced many Cold War challenges. (p. 773)
Convoy system
a military technique of transport in which ships were surrounded by destroyers or cruisers for protection (p. 594)
Operation Torch
(1942) code name for the Allied invasion of North Africa during WWII (p. 773)
Operation Overload
(1944) the code name for the Allied invasion of mainland Europe in WWII, starting with the D-Day landings (p. 775)
(1944) June 6, 1944, the first day of the Allied invasion of Normandy in WWII (p. 775)
Battle of the Bulge
(1944) WWII battle between Germany and the Allied forces; the German advance created a "bulge" in the Allied battle lines, through the Allies eventually prevailed (p. 776)
Race to Berlin
competition between two Soviet marshals to be the first to enter Berlin during the final months of WWII
the killing of an entire people (p. 780)
anti-Jewish beliefs (p. 779)Holocaust- the killing of millions of Jews and others by the Nazis during WWII (p. 783) Final Solution- the Nazi Party's plan to murder the entire Jewish population of Europe and the Soviet Union (p. 780)
Concentration camps
a detention site created for military or political purposes to confine, terrorize, and in some cases, kill civilians (p. 779) ex. Germany and the Jews
Nuremberg Trials
Nazi trails in Nuremberg, Germany where the International Military Tribunal held court and tried 22 Nazis for crime, ex. Hermann Göering; sent to die or prison (p. 783)
Douglas MacArthur
(1880-1964) American general, he commanded US troops in the Southwest Pacific during WWII and administered Japan after the war ended. He later commanded UN forces at the beginning of the Korean War until he was removed by President Truman (p. 787)
Chester Nimitz
(1885-1966) American admiral; he won major victories in the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Battle of Midwar, stopping the Japanese advance during WWII (p. 788)
Battle of Midway
(1942) a key naval and air battle between Japan and the US in WWII (p. 788)
Battle of Iwo Jima
(1945) a WWII battle between Japanese forces and invading US troops (p. 792)
Yalta Conference
(1945) meeting between FDR, Churchill, and Stalin to reach agreement on what to do with Germany after WWII (p. 802)
Potsdam Conference
(1945) meeting among leaders of the Allies near the end of WWII (p. 807)
The Bomb
atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 from the Manhattan Project; Enola Gay released it and killed hundreds of thousands (p. 805-806)
a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives
the power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants without hindrance or restraint
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
a social theory favoring freedom of action for individuals over collective or state control
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole
of or relating to a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state
the state of being equal, esp. in status, rights, and opportunities
the practice or principle of giving a group priority over each individual in it
Iron Curtain
term coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe an imaginary line dividing Communist countries in Western Europe during the Cold War (p. 819)
Truman Doctrine
(1947) President Truman's pledge to provide economic and military aid to countries threatened by communism (p. 819)
Domino Theory
a belief that if Vietnam fell to Communists, other countries of Southeast Asia would follow (p. 950)Marshall Plan- (1947) plan for reconstruction of Europe after WWII; announced by the US Secretary for State George C. Marshall (p. 820)
United Nations
an international organization that encourages cooperation among nations (p. 806)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an international defense alliance formed in 1949 (p. 822)
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Leader of the Chinese Communists, he led a successful revolution and established a Communist government in China in 1949 (p. 830)
House Un-American Activities Committee of the House of Representatives in 1930s; used to investigate full range of radical groups in the US but focused on communism in America (p. 830-831)
led by Senator Joseph McCarthy of WV, search for Communism (p. 833)
Korean War
38th parallel- USSR controlled Korea over the 38th parallel while Americans would be in charge of the south; both countries wanted to unite but based on their own beliefs (p. 836)
a strategy that involves countries getting to the verge of war without actually going to war (p. 850)
Central Intelligence Agency; collects intelligence information and takes part in secret actions against foreign targets (p. 850)Eisenhower Doctrine- (1957) declared the right of the US to help, on request, any nation in the Middle East trying to resist armed Communist aggression (p. 853)
a nuclear weapon that gets it power from the fusing together of hydrogen atoms (p. 855)
NASA vs Sputnik
arms race in both space and arms; ex. H-bomb, nuclear sub, missile, satellite, space programs, Gary Power's U-2 plane shot down (p. 857)
a New York town of mass-produced homes, which became a symbol for many similar suburban towns built during the post-WWII years (p. 866)
helped connect US to world and politics ex. hearings, advertising, programming, and concerns over children (p. 862)
behavior in accordance with socially accepted conventions or standards
Interstate Highway System
a network of high-speed roads built to make interstate travel faster and easier (p. 86
(1917-1963) Thirty-fifth president of the United States; he was the youngest person and the first Roman Catholic elected president. He was assassinated in Dallas, Texas in 1963. (p. 879)
New Frontier
the nickname given to President Kennedy's plans for changing the nation (p. 888) successes- space program, Area Redevelopment Act in 1961
killed by Lee Harvey Oswald; Warren Commission investigated (p. 892)
Cuban missile crisis
USSR gave nuclear weapons to Cuba (SAMs) and US promised to never invade Cuba again and USSR left (p. 885)
Flexible Response
strengthening conventional American forces so the nation would have other options than nuclear weapons in times of crisis (p. 886)
Berlin Wall
USSR separated East and West Berlin to keep East Europe to one side (p. 882)
Great Society
Johnson's term for the domestic programs of his administration (p. 897)
War on Poverty
Johnson's plan to end poverty in US; Economic Opportunity Act passed in 1964 (p. 895)
program that provides free health care for poor people (p. 898)
a health care program for people over age 65 (p. 898)
Committee of Racial Equality; an organization dedicated to the practice of nonviolent protest (p. 910)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People fought to bring an end to racial violence; attacked racism through the courts ex. Brown vs. Board (p. 909-912)SCLC- Southern Christian Leadership Conference; a group formed in Georgia in 1957 to organize civil rights protest activities (p. 915)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee; student civil rights organization in the 1960s (p. 918)
Black Power
an African American social movement in the late 1960s that advocated unity and self-reliance to address injustice (p. 935)
Thurgood Marshall
(1908-1993) American jurist; he was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court (p. 910)
Brown v. Board
under Warren ruled that separate schools were unconstitutional (p. 911)
Little Rock Nine
9 AA students who went to Little Rock's Central High School; riot outside (p. 912)
Rosa Parks
(1913-2005) American civil rights activist; she was arrested in 1955 after refusing to give her seat on a public bus to a white man. Her arrest led to a widespread bus boycott that was an important chapter in the civil rights movement. (p. 914)
Non-Violent Direct Action
practice under Gandhi to use peaceful tactics (p. 917)
Albany vs. Montgomery
Albany had no affect because there was no violence but in Montgomery had violence (p. 917)
Martin Luther King
(1929-1968) American civil rights leader; he was a celebrated and charismatic advocate of civil rights for AAs in the 1950s and 1960s. Leader of SCLC. He was assassinated in 1968. (p. 914)
Malcolm X
(1925-1965) Well-known supporter of the Nation of Islam and black leader; he spoke in support of black separatism, black pride, and the use of violence for self-protection, but switched views after a trip to Mecca (p. 936)
24th Amendment
banned states from taxing citizens to vote (p. 926)
Voting Rights Act of 1965
federal gov. had the power to give everyone a chance to vote (p. 93)
Freedom Summer
SNCC and other workers/volunteers who helped Southern AA families vote and get a better education, but some were killed (p. 927)
Black Panther Party
group that rejected nonviolence and called for violent revolution as a means of AA liberation (p. 935)
Ho Chi Minh
N. Vietnam communist leader that helped revolt against French occupation (p. 949)
Ngo Dinh Diem
S. Vietnam leader who was proved to be corrupt and was assassinated (p. 951)
Viet Cong
Vietnamese Communists, NFL's military forces who tried to unify N. and S. Vietnam with violence (p. 953)
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
enabled the president to take "all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the US" (p. 955)
Doves and Hawks
doves opposed the war and hawks approved of the war
Operation Rolling Thunder
a bombing campaign over North Vietnam in March 1965 (p. 956)
Ho Chi Minh Trail
network of paths that began in N. Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, and ended in S. Vietnam; N. Vietnam used this to get supplies, soldiers, and food and NVA forces to South Vietnam (p. 957)
goal to win the harts and minds of the S. Vietnamese; and pacify opposition by driving out the Vietcong (p. 958)
Tet Offensive
a series of massive coordinated attacks throughout S. Vietnam (p. 965)
My Lai Massacre
led by Lieutenant William Calley who entered village of My Lai on a search-and-destroy mission and killed many innocent civilians including women, children, and elderly men (p. 975)
plan to end the war by getting rid of some US troops slowly (p. 973)
War Powers Act
reaffirms Congress's constitutional right to declare war (p. 979)
Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique, Head of National Organization for Women, Equal Rights Amendment pg 990
Hispanic Americans
Chicanos movement, La Raza Unida Party, Brown Berets (pg 998)
Native Americans
American Indian Movement-improved education, land, and money (pg 992)
Counter Culture
Sumer of Love Drugs, LSD, Anti War Peace, Love, Harmony Society Scared (pg 1006)
Richard Nixon
(1913-1994) Thirty-seventh president of the US and VP under Eisenhower; resigned from second term due to Watergate (p. 849)Realpolitik- Basing foreign policies on realistic views of national interest rather than on broad rules or principles (pg 1020)
Ease tensions with cold war enemies (pg 1020)SALT I- discussion between the US and USSR to slow the ongoing arms race in the late 1960s and early 1970s (p. 1021)
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; organization that coordinates petroleum policies of major producing countries (p. 1022)Watergate- a political scandal that resulted in President Nixon's resignation in 1974 (p. 1029)
Saturday Night Massacre
Nixon ordered his attorney general to fire special prosecutor Cox, she refused and he fired her. He went on to next one and next one until finally one fired him (pg 1030)
Jimmy Carter
(1924-) 39th president; negotiated peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for work in international diplomacy in 2002. (p. 1033)
continuing discussions in 1979 between the US; SALT II set limits on certain kinds of nuclear weapons (p. 1036)
Camp David Accords
(1978) peace agreement mediated by President Carter between Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin (p. 1036)
Hostage Crisis
the Iranian former shah was allowed to come to the US for cancer treatment and this angered Iranians, so they attack the American embassy in Tehran and took hostages until Carter was out of office (p. 1038)
Ronal Reagan
(1911-2004) American politician and 40th president; focused on arms control, economics, and end of Cold War (p. 1046)
Star Wars
when others shot up missiles, US would blow up their missiles
unfolded when members of the National Security Council staff secretly diverted money from the illegal Iran arms sakes to the Contras in Nicaragua (p. 1058)
End of the Cold War
velvet revolution occurred and got rid of Communist leaders and Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika opened the USSR; wall fell; Gorbachev resigned
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