Visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope. Endoscopy is used for biopsy, surgery, aspirating fluids, and coagulating bleeding areas. The endoscope is usually named for the organ, cavity, or canal being examined, such as gastroscope, sigmoidoscope, etc. A camera and video recorder are commonly used during the procedure to provide a permanent record.
Visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
Examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs. Thorascopy is an endoscopic procedure usually performed for lung biopsy, repairing perforations in the lungs, and diagnosing pleural disease.
|Complete blood count||
Common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; measures hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells); estimates red cell volume; and sorts white blood cells into five subtypes with their percentages. CBC can be performed using a manual or automated method.
Common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine.
|Computed Tomography (CT)||
Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called competerized axial tomography. IN CT scan, the computer generates a detailed cross-sectional image that appears as a slice. Tumor masses, bone displacement, and accumulations of fluid may be detected. This technqie may be used with or without contrast medium.
Ultrasound technique used to detect and meause blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells. Doppler ultrasound is used to identify irregularities in blood flow caused by blood clots, venous insufficiency, and arterial blockage.
Radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a flourescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures. Fluoroscopy is used to view the motion of organs, such as the digestive tract, heart, and joints, or to aid in the placement of catheters or other devices.
|Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI)||
Non-invasive imaging technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images. MRI is used to diagnose a growing number of diseases because it provides superior soft tissue contrast, allows multiple plane views, and avoids the hazards of ionizing radiation. MRI commonly proves superior to CT scan for most central nervous system images, particularly those of the brainstem and spinal cord as well as the musculoskeletal and pelvic areas. The procedure ususally does not require a contrast medium.
Diagnostic technique that uses a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures. A nuclear scan is the reverse of a conventional radiograph. Rather than being directed into the body, radiation comes from inside the body and is then detected by a specialized camera to produce an image.
|Positron emission tomography (PET)||
Scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease. PET is particularly useful in scanning the brain and nervous system to diagnose disorders that involve abnormal tissue metabolism, such as schizophrenia, brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer disease as well as cardiac an pulmonary disorders.
Imaging technique that uses x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on a film; also called x-ray. On the radiograph, dense material, such as bone, appears white, and softer material, such as the stomach and liver, appears in shades of gray.
|SIngle Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)||
Radiological technique that integrates computed tomography (CT) and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs. SPECT differs from a PET scan in that the tracer remains in the blood stream rather than being absorbed by surrounding tissue. It is especially useful to visuzlize blood flow through arteries and veins in the brain
Radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section or slice of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth. Types of tomography include computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor, also called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and echography. US, unlike most other imaging methods, creates real-time moving images to view organs and functions of organs in motion. A computer analyzes the reflected echoes and converts them into an image on a video monitor. Because this procedure does not use ionizing radiation (x-ray), it is used for visualizing fetuses as well as the neck, abdomen, pelvis, brain, and heart.
Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis.
*Frozen section (FS) - ultral thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination- determines how aggressive surgeon will treat the patient.
*needle: removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe.
*punch: removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument (punch)
*Shave: Removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions.
Removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency (RF)
Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another.
Destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
Scraping of a body cavity with a spoon shaped instrument called a curette (curet)
|Incision and Drainage (I&D)||
INcision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity
Surgical technique employing a device that emits intense heat and power at close range to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissues.
Surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of recurrence: An example of radical dissection procedure is radical mastectomy, in which the entire breast, surrounding lymph nodes, and sometimes adjacent muscles are removed.
Partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure.
|Abbreviations: Chapter 4||
Bx, bx: biopsy
CBC: Complete blood count
CT: Computed tomography
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
FS: frozen section
I&D incision and drainage
LAT, lat: lateral
LLQ: Left lower quadrant
LUQ: Left upper quadrant
MRI: magnetic resonance imaging
PET: positron emission tomography
RF: Rheumatoid factor; radio frequency
RLQ: Right lower quadrant
RUQ: right upper quadrant
SPECT: single photon emission computed tomography
U&L, U/L: upper and lower
US: ultrasound ultrasonography
Any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it.
Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observing the skin for a subsequent reaction. (I.e. tb test)
Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by topical application of the substance to be tested (such as food, pollen, and animal fur), usually on the forearm and observing for a subsequent reaction.
Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by placing a small quantity of the suspected allergen on a lightly scratched area of the skin.
Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination. Skin biopsies are used to establish or confirm a diagnosis, estimate prognosis, or follow the course of disease. Any lesion suspected of malignancy is removed and sent to the pathology lab for evaluation. Can be a needle biopsy, punch, shave, or fozen section.