AP Comparative Government China Flashcards

People's Republic of China
Terms Definitions
Black cat, white cat...
Mandan Chiefs who gave information to L & C
one china policy
China's view that there is only one legitimate China, but that it can incorporate different systems, like Hong Kong (a former colony of the UK), and Taiwan.
all-china federation of trade unions
The ACFTU was founded on May 1, 1925. It is a mass organization formed by the Chinese working class on a voluntary basis.
all-china women's federation
an organization of women established in China in March 1949 constructed as a mass organization supported by the Communist Party of China, and based on Marxist theory. The basic functions of the federation are to represent and safeguard the rights and interests of women and promote equality between men and women.
authoritarian
characteristic of an absolute ruler or absolute rule
capitalist roader
Derogatory term used to label moderate Chinese Communist Party leaders during the Cultural Revolution.
bourgeoisie
the social class between the lower and upper classes
civil society
a complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organizations, and many other kinds of groups that exist independently from the government
command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
cooptation
granting favors in exchange for benefit; "buying off" critics
cult of personality
Promotion of the image of an authoritarian leader not merely as a political figure but as someone who embodies the spirit of the nation and possesses endowments of wisdom and strength far beyond those of the average individual.
cultural revolution
a radical reform in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 and carried out largely by the Red Guard
communist youth league
The CYL is a mass organization of advanced youth led by the CPC, a school for the broad masses of youth to study communism in practice and an assistant and reserve of the CPC. The CYL resolutely supports the program of the CPC, takes Marxism-Leninism,
danwei
One of the two systems created to deal with population problems. All workers were attached to a workgroup and the workgroup was the only was to get approval and have access to anything.
decentralize
to transfer government power to smaller regions
democratic centralism
The Leninist organizational structure that concentrates power in the hands of the party elite.
democratization
the spread of representative government to more countries and the process of making governments more representative
deng xiaoping
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong. (p. 862)
falun gong
a spiritual movement that began in China in the latter half of the 20th century and is based on Buddhist and Taoist teachings and practices
fdi
"Foreign Direct Investment is the purchase by the investors or corporations of one country of non-financial assets in another country. This involves a flow of capital from one country to another to build a factory, purchase a business or buy real estate."
floating population
China's 150 million moving peasants who left the countryside to find urban employment. They have no danwei affiliation.
four modernizations
Deng Xiaoping's plan to change China after the disaster of Cultural Revolution. Improve- agriculture, science/technology, defense and industry
freedom house
The non-profit organization that categorizes nations as having a free, partially free or not free press is...
general secretary
top party official with all the power, currently Hu Jintao, of the standing committe of the Politboro, who is formally in charge ofthe Secretariat, which handles daily affairs of the party leadership
great leap forward
Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed because there was no incentive to work harder, ended after 2 years
guanxi
a Chinese term meaning "connections" or "relationships" and describes personal ties between individuals based on such things as common birthplace or mutual acquaintances; important factor in China's political and economic life.
harmonious society campaign
"A harmonious society should feature democracy, the rule of law, equity, justice, sincerity, amity and vitality,
hong kong
a British colony in China, received after the first Opium War and returned to China in 1997
household responsibility system
deng's 1980s' highly successful rural reform program that lowered production quotas and allowed the sale of surplus agricultural produce on the free market
hu jintao
china's current communist party leader and head of state
hukuo household registration
maoist program that tied all chinese to a particular geographic location
iron rice bowl
mao's promise of cradle-to-grave health care, work, and retirement security that has largely disappeared under reform and opening
jiang zemin
deng's successor in the 1990s as communist party leader and head of state
kuomintang KMT
china's nationalist party founded by sun yat-sen and led by chiang kai-shek, who was overthrown by mao's communists in 1949 and forced to flee to taiwan
lenin
founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.
long march
the communist party's 3,000-mile heroic retreat (1934-35) to northwestern china during its civil war with the chinese nationalist KMT
Mao Zedong
leader of the chinese communist revolution who dominated chinese politics from the founding of the PRC until his death
Marxism
the political, economic, and social principles and policies advocated by Karl Marx that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
mass campaigns
Types of media:
Television and radio
Pamphlets and posters
Slide presentations, DVD/videotaped programs
World Wide Web
mass organizations
Through media and propganda the masses were targeted into being good Communists. Million were sent to work camp or were killed
may fourth movement
student-led anti-imperialist cultural and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in beijing on may 4, 1919
military affairs committee
One of the leading groups of the CCP under Deng Xiaoping.
national party congress
body of over 2,000 delegates chosen primarily from congresses on lower levels; meets every 5 years to rubberstamp decisions by party leaders; main power: elect members of the Central Committee
national people's congress NPC
China's national legislature
Nationalism
the doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals
NGO
Non govermental organization's are aimed at third world or developing countries with the goal of eradicating some of the problems in the country
One party state vs dominant party state
a country has one single political party, or only one party that has any real likelihood of winning elections; mostly authoritarian; won elections successfully
one-child policy
Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside.
one country, two systems
china's guarantee to hong kong of fifty years of domestic autonomy as a special administrative region after the british colony was returned to china in 1997
netisan
citizen of the net
parallel hierarchies
linkage between the communist party, state/gov't, and the People's Liberation army
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
party-state
The notion that the CPSU and other ruling communist parties dominated their entire political systems.
people's liberation army PLA
china's military
politburo
Within the Central Committee this was the political bureau of about 12 members who dominated the discussion on policy and leading personnel.
popular social movements
...
PRC
People's Republic of China
privatization
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
red vs expert debate
...
red book
Book written by Mao Zedong, respected like a bible
red guard
radicalized youth who served as mao's shock troops during the cultural revolution
reform and opening
deng's echonomic liberalization policy, starting in the late 1970s
rule of law
Concept that holds that government and its officers are always subject to the law
secretariat
Generic term used to describe the bureaucratic leaders of a communist party.
social capital
Democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of participation in voluntary organizations.
socialist market economy
market economy that combines substantial state ownership of large industries with private enterprise, where both forms of ownership operate in a free-pricing market environment, CCP uses to refer to the economic system of China. Conveys a mix of state control and market forces that China is now following in its quest for economic development. Implication that socialism will promote equality, while the market will encourage people to work hard and encourage companies to invest.
state-owned enterprises SOEs
A business owned by the government. One of Deng's reforms was to limit the number of SOEs and encourage more private owned companies and businesses.
special administrative regions
status given to Hong Kong and Macau so that their existing social and economic systems would remain unchanged for 50 years after their return to China
special economic zones
enclaves established since 1980 by the chinese government that have offered tax breaks and other incentives to lure foreign investment
standing committee of the politburo
The Politburo Standing Committee consists of between 5 and 9 members of the Politburo. These individuals (currently 9) are the most powerful individuals in the PRC.
sun yat-sen
founder of china's nationalist party kuomintang and considered the father of modern China
taiwan republic of china
Political tension and economic interaction; huge amount of trade and investment; PRC's 5th largest trading partner; democracy provides alternative model of capitalist development, but PRC doesn't think its ready
three represents
jiang zemin's 2001 policy co-opting private entrepreneurs into the CCP
Tiananmen Square
Historic plaza in Beijing where the chinese party-state crushed the 2989 pro-reform demonstration
TVE township village entrprises
township village enterprises one of dengs four modernizations in which in the country side the government owns the building and the people own the buisness
uighur
the Turkic language spoken by approximately 7,000,000 Uighur people in extreme northwestern China
unitary state
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
vanguard party
a political party that claims to operate in the "true" interests of the group or class it purports to represent, even if this understanding doesn't correspond to the expressed interests of the group itself. CCP and CPSU are examples.
village elections
Where in China you would be most likely to find western-style elections.
wen jiabao
china's current premier and head of government
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