|Critically evaluate the reign of Claudius - avoiding gossip and rumor as much as possible, and concentrating on the emperor's actual deeds, for better or worse.||
-*Conquered South Eastern Britain (first since Julius Caesar to continue British campaign)
-Benevolent to the lower classes (freedmen etc), presents to lower classes (food)
-*Contributed to infrastructure: aqueducts, roads, canals. Infrastructure in the provinces (Germania esp.)
-Religious reforms: State religion, refused deification during lifetime, got rid of extraneous celebrations, concerned with eastern mysterious religions, and only wanted to instill Roman beliefs.
-He at once even expelled the Jews from Rome
- In a secular sense, he was good to the people, but when it came to religious minority, he was cruel and only wanted to instill Roman beliefs.
|Some regard Augustus as a reformer, others as a revolutionary. Write an essay evaluating to what degree Augustus reformed the Roman state and allowed it to continue, and to what degree he constructed a completely new political system.||
Renovated temples, aqueducts, and other buildings and infrastructure.
-Re-established the Senate, though it would later become subservient to the word of the Emperor
-Consolidated religious authority in imperial offices.
-Reformed military pay system
-Absorbed Egypt into Roman control (high grain)
-Gave out loans to revitalize economy
-He consolidated his power and became sole leader (Princeps) of the soon to be Empire...
-Established marriage alliances with Marc Anthony to keep the peace during civil war.
-Several important regions were annexed as provinces of the Empire, including Hispania and Judea as part of the Syrian Province.
Rome's first institutionalized police force, fire fighting force, and the establishment of the municipal prefect as a permanent office
he also installed a courier system.
He established the Praetorian Guard.
|Write an essay on the transformation of Roman religion in the early Empire.||
Near Eastern religions started to leak into Rome itself. Minorities exerting religions into mainstream society (druids, Isis, etc)
-Roman religion loses monopoly.
-Large array of religions, due to expansion of empire. Natives allowed to worship native deities.
-Hero cults also allowed to flourish, as well as ancestral gods.
-Freedom of religion in provinces, but tried to Romanize religions in Rome proper.
There were new religions:
Mystery religions (some had roots in the east)
1.Cybele, the great mother of the gods, was worshipped in Asia minor…at the end of the Hannibalic war the Romans wanted her to be brought into Rome, the first eastern religion brought to Rome…she appeared as a black stone, which is a meteor with our understanding…
There was a temple built on palatine hill for Cybele…
2. Isis…an Egyptian Goddess (mother Goddess), probably the most civilized of the eastern religions…although in the Roman Republic under Julius Caesar
Cleopatra liked to act as though she was Isis
There were places of worship for Isis from the Sahara to Britain and Spain
- On one hand she was the Goddess of prostitutes and on the other hand she’s the Goddess of Chastity
-when they came to the west, they had nature changes
3. Mithras(God). Came from Persia to the west. A strong pagan religion that had many communities in Rome. Christians regarded this as their largest pagan enemy.
|Write an essay on the strengths and weaknesses of the Julio-Claudian women; do you think the sources are fair to them? Why or why not?||
There were rarely women writers during Rome.
Couldn't really know what women felt because of this, only had male perceptions of female feelings and thoughts.
-There were some details on women life in Pliny the Elder.
-Women had positions of power either as mothers or wives.
-Can't provide a very clear picture of royal women, esp humble women.
-Agrippina wrote memoirs, but were lost. No women memoirs have survived.
-A few love poems were attributed to some women, but have to rely almost exclusively on male authorities.
-Literary source material: Focus on male subjects, biased and self interested representations. Rarely regard notable women, unimportant.
-Not much respect for women, (Nero ate dinner while he watched grandmother burn).
-Writing for largely male and elite audience. Occasionally addressed women, but only mentioned what they deemed as significant in their lives.
-Women had an important role in influencing next generation. Shaped and advised their sons, husbands. (Livia, Agrippina). Sometimes took advantage of fruits of their male relatives' positions.
-Would lead to conclusion that they were appreciated to some degree. Viewed from a range of different perspectives.
-Royal women were important to an extent, lower classes not important at all.
-Women not eligible for army service, could not serve in politics at all (senator, magistrate, etc).
-Were important in community. Education was lower for women, no schooling.
-Needed approval for real estate. Expected to provide women, had limited job roles. Many jobs were equal to prostitution.
-When a woman married, she gained respect and could speak.
-Women had some financial and legal independence. Imperial women of the royal families had lots of visibility in society.
-Could become priestesses in religion, wives served as priestesses in service to deified dead emperor husband.
|Write an essay on how the Julio-Claudian emperors from Augustus to Claudius attempted to provide for succession to the throne.||
Tried to father direct sons
-When unsuccessful, adapted relatives
-Went into extended family in Augustus’ case
-When a new ruler ascends to the throne, would sometimes kill of male siblings or other powerful rivals.
-Would sometimes send siblings to far off regions (Germanicus in Syria).
-None of the Julio-Claudians were succeeded by their true sons.
-They would divorce and remarry directly, or divorce and remarry their daughters and siblings in order to try to produce heirs. (sometimes incestuous)
|6) Write an essay on Rome’s incorporation of conquered peoples into the Empire and how citizenship was used in this process.||
Hispania, Judaea (Syria), Gaul, Egypt,
-Gallic peoples were eventually incorporated into Roman power structure, (Praetorians, Senators, Equestrians)
-Judaea was suppressed generally speaking. As opposed to the Gallics who were incorporated ^^^
-Even the Jews who lived in Rome were expelled. Instigated Jewish revolt in 66 AD under Nero.
-(Judaea suppressed vs. Gaul incorporated) Jews not given citizenship on the whole, while Gauls get positions and citizenship.
For example, Augustus included many of the Italian elite into high positions such as senators and equestrians.
Auxiliaries-non-Roman citizens who were associated cavalry...the auxilia became full Roman citizens after their service was done.
Romans were pretty inclusive
*Augustus and his citizens were brilliant in expanding citizenship, trying to bring loyalty to Rome
The native peoples who lived in territories conquered by Rome, citizens of Roman client states and Roman allies could be given a limited form of Roman citizenship such as the Latin Right. This amounted essentially to a second-class citizenship within the Roman state. The Latin Right is the most widely known but there were many other of such rights.
Claudius argued that Gauls should be allowed to be members of the senate and goes on to say that his ancestors came from the same country and were not Romans.
|7) Discuss Roman political and military policies towards the Jews from Augustus to Hadrian.||
Augustus: Annexed Judaea, became part of province of Syria. Was sympathetic towards the Jews. Put King Herod in power, contemporary to the Triumvirate. Let Herod issue coins with his image.
Tiberius: Christian sects rile up Jews in Judaea. Deported 4,000 Jews from Rome.
Caligula: Tried to put in a statue of himself in sacred temples, but died before was carried out. Led to unrest, the "Crisis under Caligula" (37-41) has been proposed as the first open break between Rome and the Jews.
Claudius: Made Herod Agrippa King of the Jews. Following Agrippa's death, the province returned to direct Roman control for a short period. Judaea was returned to Agrippa's son Marcus Julius Agrippa in 48.
Nero: Revolt in 66 against Nero. Blamed Christians for the burning of Rome.
A lot of internal Jewish conflict as well.
|Battle of Actium||
a decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic. It was fought between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Marc Antony and Cleopatra (Sept. 2, 31 BC). Octavian's fleet was commanded by his best friend Marcus Agrippa. Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over Rome. He adopted the title of princeps....Marc Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.
(63 BC-2 BC)- Roman statesman as a general...best friend, son in law, and lieutenant and defense minister for Ocatvian. He had a lot of responsibility in Octavian's military victories. Fiercely loyal to his emperor, he was put in line to succeed the role of emperor after the death of Augustus when a sudden illness caused a scare of death. However, Augustus outlived Agrippa after he recovered from his sickness
|Elder Agrippina (AKA Julia Vispasiana Agrippina)||
(14 BC-33AD)-distinguished prominent granddaughter of Augustus. Wife of General Germanicus. She was the stepdaughter of Emperor Tiberious. Mother of Caligula,
was a force of bodyguards used by the Roman Emperors Augustus and created by him. Understood the need both for his personal protection and for the elimination of thug intimidation that developed around the 1st century BC. These guards became very influential in the crowning of new emperors during the Julio-Claudian dynasty. (Caligula and Claudius)
Flavius Josephus-Jewish Aristocrat, priest and a leader during the first Jewish Revolt (66-73)...until he deafected to the Romans and won citizenship by Vespasian. Writings: History of the Jewish revolt, overall Jewish History to the date (The Jewish War and Jewish Antiquities).
(70-19BC)- He was a classical Roman Poet best known for 3 major works.
A leader in the Jewish community of Alexandria, Egypt and expert philosopher in Jewish and Greek traditions. 2 Writings: Against Flaccus (prefect of Egypt 32-28) and Erbasy +Gaius-offer insistent to maltreatment of the jews at Alexandria from Augustus. The latter an account on an ebassy that Philo personally led to discuss Jewish treatment with Gaius Caligula.
In a broad sense translates as power, in Ancient Rome imperium was awarded to the Magistrates of a certain area. Pertaining to geographical areas. Namely during the republican period.
care for the Tribune of the plebs instituted in the early republic or Rome. Tribunes have the right to veto a decision of the consuls.
A goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman wars. Worshiped as the mother and wife, as well as the patron of magic. Friend of sinners and slaves.
Caligula started Isiac festival of Rome.
- in ancient Rome was a process whereby a deceased ruler was recognized "to be made divine" (giovino in Italian), usually by both the present ruler and a decree of the Senate. In addition to showing respect, often the present ruler deified (devino) a popular predecessor to legitimize himself and gain popularity with the people. The upper-class did not always take part in the deification, and some privately ridiculed the apotheosis of inept and feeble emperors.
At the height of imperial cult worship during the Roman Empire, sometimes the emperor's deceased loved ones--heirs, empresses, or lovers--were deified as well. Deified people were awarded posthumously with the prefix Divus (Diva if women) to their names to signify their divinity. Temples and columns were sometimes erected to provide a space for worship.
an official political alliance between Octavian (Augustus), Marcus Aurelius Lepidus, and Marc Antony, formed in 43 BC in the wake of Julius Caesar's murder in the year prior. This enactment marked the end of the Roman Republic. The triumvirate existed for 2 five year terms, covering th period 43 BC-33BC.
an island in the sea of Tyhrennia. Tiberius built a series of imperial villas here and officially moved to Capri in 27 AD and ruled there until his death in 37 AD.
constituted the lower of the of the two aristocratic classes. (cavalry, knight). First the equestrians were the couriers of the patrician business as senators could not directly trade. Augustus put them as tax collectors because he trusted them.
Praetorian prefect under Tiberius (20 BC-31AD)...Equestrian by birth. Sejanus rose to become commander of the praetorian guard from 14-31 AD. He introduced a number of reforms which saw the praetorians evolve into a powerful branch of government involved in public security, administration, and eventually political intercession. Sejanus consolidated power by gaining influence over Tiberius eliminating potential threats (His brother Drusus for example). Sejanus arrested and executed with his followers for a plot to receive imperial power.
(16 BC-19AD) was a member of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty. Born in Lugdunum, he received the name Germanicus that was posthumouosly awarded to his father's victory in Germania. Nephew of emperor Tiberius. He was adopted by Tiberious upon Augustus' request. He was the father of Caligula and brother of Claudius.
a brilliant philosopher, author and senator hailing from Corduba(southern Spain.) He was the tutor of Nero and later advisor to Emperor Nero. He was later forced to retirement and suicide by Nero during the Pisonian conspiracy. His cotutor of Nero was Burrus (prefect of the Gods)
(30-65AD)-Roman empress as second wife of Nero. It is said that she persuaded him to kill his mother.
5th Roman Emperor who ruled from April-December of 69. Ascended following the short reigns of Galba and Otho. His claim to the throne was soon challenged by soldiers that stationed in the Eastern provinces who claimed Vespasian as emperor. War then ensued, crushing defect for vitellius. Prepared to abdicated but first was captured.
46 BC-AD9...he was a Roman general under emperor Augustus. He was the consul in 9bc that led his troops into the destruction of 3 full legions in the battle of the Teutoberg forest.
(21BC-38AD)- prefect of the praetorian guard from 31-38 serving under Emperors Tiberius and Caligula...upon falling out of favor he committed suicide. He was the successor of this position after Sejanus...known to be corrupt.
(1-63 AD)- a prominent freedman that was Greek. He was the secretary during the reigns of Claudius and Nero. From the beginning of Claudius' reign, the senate was hostile toward him. Claudius divided up his empire among his freedmen to maintain it. Pallas became secretary of treasury. He was killed under Nero's orders in 63 possibly for Nero to tap into his fortune.
A school of hellenistic philosophy in Athens by Zeno in early third century BC. Considered destructive emotions to be a result of bad judgement. Taught the development of self-control. Roman stoics focused on promoting a life of harmony within the universe over which one has no dirct control.
|THE FOUR EMPERORS after NERO||
2. Otho (Supported by Senate)
3.Vitellius (Supported by the Legions of the Rhine, who refused to accept Galba as their leader)
4. Vespasian (Supported by Egypt and Syria...who eventually won at the end of 69AD)
Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected magistrate assigned duties that varied depending on the historical period. The magistracy was called the praetura (praetorship). Its functions were described by the adjective: