CL 222 Greek Roman Mythology Test 3 (Herakles, Theseus and Perseus, Hades, Orpheus) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Where does Hades root most likely originate?
From the word meaning unseen
Who possesses a cap of invisibility?
What other root meaning is Hades associated with?
What name did the average person use for Hades?
What does Plouton mean?
It refers to the wealth that lies buried in the earth: gold, silver, bronze, marble.
Who nurtures seeds in the earth?
Hades and his wife Persephone so that the cycle of birth, maturity, and death is maintained.
Who was seen as a provider of wealth?
How is Pluto often portrayed?
He is shown holding a cornucopia full of the bounty of the earth that he is ready to poor out for human benefit.
How was Hades worshiped?
Opposite of thaat of the other gods. They would poor out blood, oil or wine onto the ground or into a pit.
What type of organisms were sacrificed to Hades?
Black, sheep or pigs, and the sacrificer had to turn away from the act.
Who gave a detailed description of hell?
What lake did Aeneas and the Sibyl find entrance to the underworld near?
Lake Avernus
What is the threshold o the underworld?
Jaws of Orcus
Who was Charon and what did he do?
Charon was the ferryman of hell and would pilot boats across the river Acheron
Through which gate does Aeneas exit Hades?
The second gate, the gate of false dreams
What did the term Manes mean originally?
It was a euphemistic expression applied to the infernal gods as a whole in an attempt to gain favor
Later how did the Romans use the term?
To refer to their dead ancestors
What instruments did Orpheus play, and which did he invent?
Orpheus played the lyre and the cithara, which he invented
How did Orpheus try to raise his dead wife?
Through music
How is Orpheus portrayed in Judaism?
As King David
Whose child is Orpheus?
He is is son of Oeagrus, a river god, and Calliope, a muse
In terms of the Heroic pattern, what danger did Orpheus face as a boy?
He almost drowned in a river
What minor tasks did Orpheus perform, in keeping with the Heroic Pattern?
He traveled with Jason and the argonauts
What happened on Orpheus' wedding day to Eurydice?
Eurydice was pursued by Aristaues, causing her to be killed on accident by a snake
What was the one condition under which Orpheus could have Eurydice back?
He must not look back at her on their ascent from hell
How was Orpheus killed?
By followers of Dionysus
Who are Herakles' parents?
Alkmene and Zeus
What does Herakles mean?
Glory of Hera
Which goddess prevented Herakles from being born so that he would not be the ruler of Argos?
Which teacher did Herakles kill?
Who was Herakles' wife?
What was Herakles' first labor set by Eurystheus?
Kill the Nemean lion
What was the second labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
To kill the Lernaean Hydra, which did not count because he had help
What was the third labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
To bring back alive the monstrous Erymanthian boar.
What was the fourth labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
To capture the stag of Ceryneia, symbolizing the ultimate right of passage
What was the fifth labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
Rid Lake Symphalus of certain annoying birds who were devouring everything in sight and making excessive noise.
What was the sixth labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
Clean the stables of Augeas. While he invented irrigation, the labor did not count since Herakles was payed
What was the seventh labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
Bring back the bull of Crete alive
What was the eighth labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
Capture the mares of Diomedes, king of the savage Thracians
What was the ninth labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
Steal the girdle of Hippolyta
What was the tenth labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
Retrieve the cattle of Geryon
What was the eleventh labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
Retrieve the golden apples of immortality
What was the twelfth labor Eurytheus tasked Herakles with?
Drag up Cerberus
Who did Herakles save while in the underworld?
Who did Herakles marry after he defeated Acheous?
Deianeira. they had a son named Hyllus
Who did Herakles win in an archery contest?
Why did Herakles have to become Omphale's slave for 3 years?
Because he killed the family of Iole
How did Deianeira poison Herakles?
By rubbing the tainted blood of the centaur Nessus on his shirt, causing Herakles' skin to burn
Who set Herakles' funeral Pyre on fire, killing his mortal parts and sending his immortal parts to Olympia?
Who are the ancestors of the people of Crete?
Europa and Zeus
Who were the children of Europa and Zeus?
Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthys
What gifts did Europa receive from Zeus?
A pear that always hit its mark, a dog that allowed no prey to escape, and a giant made entirely of bronze (Talos)
How did Minos claim the throne of Crete?
By having Poseidon send him a bull from the sea.
Who fell in love the Poseidon's bull?
Minos' wife, Pasiphae, who gave birth to the minotaur
Who received laws from Zeus?
King Minos
How did Pasiphae deal with Minos' infidelities?
By poisoning him so that any person he made love with would be poisoned and killed. It was later cured by Procris.
How was Minos killed?
By a bathtub specially made by Daedalus to heat quickly, scalding and killing him
Who were judges in the afterlife?
Minos and Rhadamanthys and Aeacus
What was Theseus king of?
Who was Theseus the son of?
Aegeus and Poseidon
What weapon did Theseus obtain from Periphetes by killing him?
An iron club
Who was left by Theseus for Dionysus?
Who tried to poison Theseus
Which king imprisoned Perseus mother Danae?
Who are Perseus' parents?
Danae and Zeus
Who rescued Danae?
Dictys (Netman)
Which women protected the road to the Gorgons?
the Graiai
Who did Perseus save from the sea monster and later marry?
How did Perseus kill his grandfather?
On accident by throwing a discus
Where did Perseus rule?
What did he trade Argos for?
Tiryns, and later founded nearby Mycenae
Who was Zagreus and what relationship did he have with Orpheus?
Central to the Orphic religion was Dionysus, usually under the name Zagreus, and the stories they told about the birth of the gods and the creation of humans.
Who is Cronus
Cronus is time in the Orpheuic cult
Who is Phanes
First of all gods in the Orpheuic cult
What was the goal of the Orphics?
For the Orphics, the goal was to try to purify oneself of one's Titan, monstrous self in favor of one's Dionysiac self. This ultimately required several lifetimes and steps of purity, reincarnation, special incantations and charms, before you were ready to escape the cycle and live in the Isles of the Blessed with the other pure souls.
Why was Orpheus the center of a cult?
He saw the process of regeneration, and thus knew too much. It is for this reason, primarily, that Orpheus became a fitting figure to build a cult around.
What is the sacred area in Olympia called?
The Altis
What were the statues of cheaters called?
Who made the statue of Zeus?
Phidias in his workshop on the site at Olympia.
Who has a bright view of the underworld?
Vergil, due to the mystery religions
Who has a dark view of the underworld?
What is the animating spark to the Greeks?
Breathe, or Umbrae (Shades)
What is the Anthesteria ritual?
Every year the Greeks open their doors to the dead and allow them to enjoy some fun and food
How were the dead buried?
Either tied up or with a pin in their leg
Who does Aeneas speak with in the underworld?
What is it called when the body is buried?
What is Sisyphus punishment in Tartarus?
Forced to push a rock uphill forever
What type of soup does Tantalus try to feed the gods?
Pelopus soup, made from his son Pelopus
What is Tantalus' punishment in Tartarus?
Forced to always be hungry and thirsty
What is the punishment of the Daianad sisters in Tartarus?
Unable to fill a bathtub
What is Ioxian's punishment in Tartarus?
Attached to an eternally spinning fiery wheel. He was the first murderer
What is Tityus punishment in Tartarus?
He has his liver eaten out ever day
What happens if an oath is broken involving the river Styx?
The god falls into a ten year coma
Who created the Heroic Pattern?
Lord Raglan
What are the 8 major components to a heroic life?
1. Miraculous Circumstances Surround the Conception and Birth of Hero

2. Danger at Infancy

3. Sign of Divine Favor

4. Time of Withdrawal

5. Minor Tasks

6. Major Task

7. Descent into the Underworld

8. Apotheosis/Deification
What does Apotheosis mean?
Means becoming a god
What is the name of Vice?
What is the name of Virtue?
Which path does Herakles take?
Xenophon (Virtue)
Which path does Paris take?
Prodicus (Vice)
Who are the Hesperides?
Goddesses of West, Daughters of the Night
In what language did the Minoans write in?
Linear A
What was the main Minoan city?
What is a Thalassocracy
Thalassocracy is a country ruled by the sea
What island blew up?
Who built the great Labyrinth?
Instead of death, what other sacrifice might a woman make?
A sexual one
What is Theseus Major Task
To kill the minotaur
Who was the queen of the Amazonians?
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