CL222 Greek Roman Mythology Test 2 (Cybele, Aphrodite, Apolo, Demeter, Dionysus) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
How is Cybele depicted?
She is seated on a throne, wearing a turreted crown, and accompanied by lions.
Who was the Mother of the Gods?
Although Cybele was primarily a mother earth goddess, she also gained the title, “Mother of the Gods”, although that relationship is never clarified by any myth or theology.
What does mater deorum mean?
Mother of the Gods, a title held by Cybele
What is Cybele's cultic mode?
The reverse portrays Cybele in her typical cultic mode, that is, riding in a chariot (biga) pulled by two lions
What did Cybele always wear on her head?
A turreted crown
Who was the personification of earth?
Cybele, who is often accompanied with a globe
Who was Cybele's lover?
Attis
Who fought over Adonis?
Aphrodite and Persephone vie for the love of Adonis
Which goddess is especially concerned with the Romans?
enus was especially concerned with the survival of the Roman race, because it was her son, Aeneas, who first came to Italy and became progenitor of the race. Many of the later emperors placed Venus Victrix on their coins.
Which emperor of Rome found it particularly important to draw a connection to their family and the founder of the Roman race?
Julius Ceaser
How was Demeter depicted?
Demeter/Ceres, veiled and draped, sits on an ornamental throne, holding grain ears and torch.
Who abducted Demeter's daughter?
Hades/Pluto is kidnapping Persephone, Demeter's daughter, using a quadriga (a chariot pulled by four horses). Hecate is in front of them, lighting the way with a torch, while Hermes, in his role as psychopompos, conductor of souls, follows.
Who was the goddess of wheat?
Demeter
Who was the goddess of civilization?
Demeter
Who did Demeter trust to spread cultivation throughout the world?
Triptolemus
Who were the king and queen of the underworld?
Pluto and Persephone are sitting on their throne as King and Queen of the underworld. Pluto holds a cup (phiale), and flowers, Persephone holds a rooster and wheat. Another rooster is underneath the throne. In front of them there is a incense burner.
Who lights the way to the living world?
Hecate lights the way with her torches
Who's oracles were at Delphi?
Central to the cult of Apollo was his oracular temple at Delphi, the remains of which you
can see here. The sacred navel stone (omphalos) marked this spot as the center of the earth.
Pilgrims from all over the Greek world came here to ask Apollo for advice about the future.
Apollo spoke through a priestess, the Pythian Sibyl, who sat in a tripod over a cleft in the
rock. As she reached a trance-like state by chewing laurel leaves and breathing in
fumes rising from the cleft, she babbled nonsense that priests standing around interpreted.
You can see what a mysterious and majestical spot this holy temple occupied.
Who gave out advice at Delphi?
An artist’s reconstruction of the trance of the Pythian Sibyl. Recent deep excavations at the site of the temple have revealed that two fault lines cross at the spot. High level of ethelyne gas have been detected that could
be responsible for the Sibyl’s altered state of mind. Sometimes it would take months for a pilgrim to receive an audience with the Sibyl, perhaps giving the priests time to gather information about the case. To the right you can see a tripod on display at the Delphi museum. This tripod was a votive offering, thanking Apollo for useful advice.
What does Apollo Smintheus mean?
Apollo who sends plagues. A silver tetradrachm depicting the laureate head of Apollo on the obverse, and Apollo Smi(n)theus, with drawn bow, on the reverse. The drawn bow along with the epithet “Smintheus” recalls the incident during the Trojan War when Apollo sent a plague throughout the Greek camp by shooting his arrows.
Who was the rational god?
Apollo, god of light and harmony of reason and world order appears in the pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. He participates in the battle with the Centaurs, supporting the heroes against the centaurs. His statute is in the middle of the composition, between the warring factions
Which god played the lyre?
Apollo plays his lyre, spreading his divine music throughout Olympus. He is flanked by Leto and Artemis. A small deer and panther look tamed by the music
Who always sat in a tripod?
Apollo
Who was the god of purification?
Apollo
Who is the mother of Apollo?
Leto
Who was a symbol of eternal youth?
Apollo
Who had a musical contest?
The musical contest between Apollo and Marsyas. On the neck of the vase Marsyas plays the flute, but here in this scene, he plays the lyre, sitting under a palm tree, at a temple of Apollo. Apollo and Artemis sit to the right, Athena stands in front of him, listening to his music.
Who does Apollo punish?
Tityos
How was Dionysus born?
He was born out of Zeus' leg
Who was the god of ecstasy?
Dionysus
Who was turned into dolphins?
Dionysus lounging in his ship with a horn full of wine in his hand; he sails followed by dolphins. The breeze fills the sail, which is laden by a vine full of grapes. The painter may be allude to the adventure the god had with the Tyrrhenian pirates, who attacked him, but he turned them into dolphins.
Who were the Silenoi?
The Silenoi, followers of Dionysus. Half men, half goats, with the huge phallus, as also the horse. Here they accompany Hephaestus back to Olympus. One carries a wineskin full of wine on his back, and he sings. Another plays the double flute, and the third grabs a nymph in his arms.
Who are the Maenads?
The Maenads approach Dionysus dancing, and embracing each other. Both they and Dionysus wear ivy wreaths in their hair, richly decorated clothes, and one holds the skin of a panther thrown around. They hold ivy branches, and one holds a hare, the other a small deer
Who did Dionysus have torn apart?
Dionysus had Pentheus, king of Thebes, torn apart by his own mother Agave
What was Cybele goddess of?
Mountains, Earth, and Wild Creatures
Where does Cybele originate from?
Phrygia
What was Cybele known as in Phrygia?
Mater Kubilgea
What does Mater Kubilgea mean?
Mother of the Mountailns
What were Cybele's priests called?
Galli, who were Eunichs
Who is Cybele's biggest worshiper?
Attis
From who grows the pomegranate?
Attis
Who has a soteriological aspect?
Attis, because he is born, dies, is buried, and then is regenerated
Could a Roman become a priest of Cybele?
No
What are flower gathering girls symbols of?
Girls about to be married
What are liminal places?
Threshold locations
What aspect to Narcissus flowers have?
A sexual one
Who does Demeter first come to in search of her daughter Persephone?
Hecate, who is a moon Goddess
Who does Hecate suggest Demeter speak to?
Helios
Which kingdom take Demeter in in her grief?
Eulysia
Who cheers up the depressed Demeter with bawdy jokes?
Iambe/Baubo
What is apotrophic speech
Bawdy speech
Who is the child Demeter cares for, and later accidentally kills?
Demoophoon
How many seeds did Persephone eat?
4
Who are the mystes?
The initiates
What are the Heira?
The sacred objects in the Eulysian Mysteries
What mixture of seeds is eaten over graves?
Kolyva
According to Aristophanes, who was the greatest god?
Eros
Who was the god of Civilization?
Apollo
What was Apollo originally called?
Phoebus
Who was Asclepius?
Son of Apollo, God of Medicine, Killed by Zeus
What is Epikourious Apollo god of?
Healing
What is spiritual sicknesscalled?
Miasma
How did the Dorian Greeks worship Apollo?
They worshiped his perpetual youth
What is Apollo's animal?
The dolphin
Which god is known for being twice born?
Dionysus
Who is Dionysus mother?
Semele
What does Dionysus Bromis mean?
Thundering Dionysus
What does Dionysus Dendrites mean
The power of the tree
What does Dionysus Lyaeus mean?
Releasing Dionysus
Lenaeus Dionysus means?
God of the Wine Vat
Sparagmos means
Tearing apart
Omophgia means
Consuming alive
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