Roman History based on Famous men of Rome Flashcards

Terms Definitions
In what year was Rome founded?
753BC
Name the twins who founded Rome?
Romulus and Remus
How were the twins saved from being drowned on the order of their Uncle Amulius?
They were put in to a basket instead of being thrown into the Tiber river..
Who nursed the infants?
A she-wolf, a woodpecker and lastly a shepherd.
What river is Rome on?
River Tiber
How did Romulus and Remus revenge the death of their mother Sylvia?
They chopped off the head of King Amulius.
On what hill was Rome built?
Palatine Hill
What did the brothers argue about as they started to build the city?
Which brother it should be named after.
How did the twins seek a sign from the gods?
By looking for a sign from the gods in any unusual flights of birds.
What did Romulus do when Remus laughed at his first wall and jumped over it.?
He hit him over the head with a spade and instantly killed him and said "So perish anyone who shall hereafter attempt to leap over my wall."
What did Romulus do to attract people to come to Rome as settlers?
He made it a city of refuge.
What is the name of the tribe who lived in the mountains near Rome?
Sabines.
What is the name of the story of how the Romans found their first wives?
The rape (abduction) of the Sabines.
What is the name for the common people of Rome?
Plebeians.
What is the name for the noble class of Rome?
Patricians.
What is the name of the council of older men who ruled Rome?
The Senate.
After his death, legend said that Romulus appeared to a citizen and said what?
"Go tell my people that it is the will of the gods that Rome will be the greatest city in the world."
Who was the second king of Rome?
Numa Pompilius (717BC TO 673 BC).
What was the only type of manual work that a Roman citizen could engage in which was not considered degrading?
Farming. All other work was done by slaves.
What did Numa Pompilius establish as the basis of the Roman economy?
The family farm.
Name the three plains on the west coast of Italy from North to South?
Etruria......Latium .... Campania.

The people of these plains were civilised agricultural communities.
What were the Romans and others who lived on the plain of Latium caled?
Latins
Three brothers from Rome and three brothers from Alba fought. Name them?
Horatii and Curatii. This was during the reign of Rome's third king, Tullus Hostilius.
Where were the Alban hills?
Twelve miles south of Rome in the Latium plain. The Albans were Rome's neigbours.
What country was Tarquin from?
The town of Tarquinii in Etruria. He was an Etruscan (modern day Tuscany). There were twelve rich and prosperous cities which for a time controlled Rome before being absorbed by Rome.
What is the port city of Rome?
Ostia. Was founded by the fourth king of Rome, Ancus Marcius.
What is the name of an official Roman fortune teller?
Augur
On what hill did Tarquin (fifth king) build the temple of Jupiter?
Capitoline. So called because of the human head (latin = caput) found when building the temple which was said to be a sign that Rome would be head of the world.
Name the king's police force established by Tarquin?
Lictors.
What was the symbol of the king's authority?
The fasces (an axe with a bundle of rods tied round it).
Where were public meetings held?
The Forum - a large open space at the foot of the Capitoline Hall.
What was the name of the great racetrack built by Tarquin Superbus?
Circus Maximus. Contained seating for 250,000.
What was the female fortune teller called?
Sibyl.
Who was chosen by the people to be king after Tarquin?
His son-in-law, Servius Tulius; a good king who made good laws and helped the poor.
Who killed Servius Tulius?
Tarquin Superbus, assisted by his wife, Tullia (daughter of Servius Tulius).
What were the holy book bought by Tarquin Superbus and where were they kept?
The Sibyline books. They were kept in the Capitol (Temple of Jupiter).
What does Tarquin Superbus mean?
Tarquin the Proud.
Who was the nephew of Tarquin Superbus who pretended to be a simpleton?
Junius Brutus. His brother had been killed by TS and he pretended to be mad.
What event resulted in the overthrow of Tarquin Superbus?
Rape of Lucretia. Lucretia was raped by Sextus, a son of Tarquin Superbus.
In what year did Rome change from a monarchy to a republic?
510BC. Rome threw off the rule of the foreign Etruscan kings and becomes a republic of citizens, free from the rule of kings.
In the republic what was the name of the two rulers who replaced the king?
Consuls. First were Junius Brutus and Lucius Collatinus (husband of Lucretia).
Who said "Down with Tarquin the tyrant. No more kings?"
Junius Brutus
What people near to Rome did Tarquin turn to for help?
The Etruscans from Etruria
What were the names of the two sons who did not like rule by the people and wanted to return Tarquin?
Titus and Tiberius.
What caused the Etruscans to retreat?
They heard a voice after a battle which they thought was from Jupiter saying "...the Romans will conquer in this war. "
Publius Valerius was a good ruler who passed laws for the benefit of the people. What name was he known by?
Publicola
What was the name of the Etruscan king who helped Tarquin fight against Publius Valerius?
Lars Porsena.
Who were the three men who held the Sublicae bridge across the Tiber when Rome was being attacked by the Etruscans?
Spurius Lartius, Titus Herminius and Horatius Cocles.
While Porsena was besieging Rome who tried to kill him and so frightened him that he made peace and left?
Mucius the Lefthanded.
Where did the Volscians live and what was their capital city?
Latium and Corioli.
How did the Patricians oppress the Plebeians?
They loaned them money to support their families when they fulfilled their obligation to go and fight. If payments were not made they were put in jail or slavery. The plebeians left Rome because of this.
What were the names of those chosen by the Plebeians to represent them and had a power of veto?
Tribunes.
What did Coriolanus say to the plebeians during a time of famine?
They would have to give up their Tribunes if they wanted food.
Who did Coriolanus join when he was forced to flee Rome?
The Volscians.
What did Coriolanus say to his mother and wife when they persuaded him not to attack Rome?
"you have saved Rome but you have ruined your son."
What noble family spoke in favour of justice for the plebeians and was hated by the other nobles?
The fabii.
What Etruscan city took revenge on the Fabii by killing them in a ravine when they were unarmed and going to a religious ceremony? (This was after they had left Rome and set up their own city).
The Veii / Veientians.
What Barbarian tribe living in the mountains east of Rome trapped the Romans in a narrow valley?
Aequians. In about 450 BC
In times of extreme danger what type of ruler did Rome have and for how long?
A dictator who ruled for six months. During that time he had to be obeyed just as if he were a king.
Who was ploughing his fields when the Senate came and told him that he had been appointed a dictator?
Cincinnatus. This means 'curly-haired'. His real name was Lucius Quinctius
How did Cincinnatus humiliate the defeated Aequians?
He made them pass under the yoke. For many of the enemy death would have been better. Subjugate comes from this - sub=under and jugum =a yoke.
After saving Rome what did Cincinnatus do which showed that he was an ideal dictator?
He gave up his power and he returned to his farming.
What Roman dictator finally defeated the rich city of Veii?
Camillus
What Etruscan city became friendly to Rome when Camillus refused an offer from a wicked schoolmaster?
Falerii (Fah LER ee eye). They had been at war with Rome but when they refused the help of the traitor schoolmaster who had handed over the children of the rulers they made peace.
What is the name for the valuable property taken from a defeated enemy?
spoils
Of what crime was Camillus accused?
Taking more than his share of the spoils of Veii. He left Rome in shame praying to the gods that some great trouble would come upon Rome so that it would need to turn to him for help.
What did the Romans call the country which we now know as France?
Gaul.
Who was the King of the Gauls when they marched unopposed into Rome?
Brennus. They had defeated the Romans under Manlius at the River Allia.
In what year was the 'sack of Rome' by the Gauls?
390BC.
What fortress in Rome was besieged by the Gauls?
The Capitol. While this was under siege the Romans who had fled formed an army and agreed to Camillus being made a dictator.
What alerted the besieged Romans that the Gauls were scaling the steep cliffs of the Capitol?
The cackling of geese. The Gauls were following the footprints of Pontius Cominius who had scaled the cliffs of the Capitol to tell them about Camillus.
Who was called the second Romulus and the Father of his Country because he drove the Gauls out of Rome?
Camillus. He and his army arrived just as the Romans were about to pay off the Gauls with all their gold.
Who was the Roman who , armed and mounted, rode into the great chasm that had appeared in the middle of the Forum?
Curtius. The augurs had said that the hole would remain until it was filled with what was most valuable in Rome. Curtius said that the courage of the solider was what was most valuable in Rome.
Who was the man who killed the giant Gaul who came out every day to taunt the Romans?
Titus Manlius. He became known as Manlius Torquatus and eventually became a consul.
What is the first duty of a soldier?
Obedience.
Who ordered his own son to be executed because of disobedience.
Manlius Torquatus His son had disobeyed a command not to fight before the command was given. Although he won his fight and the army pleaded for mercy he was killed.
What was the name of the Roman officer responsible for the census, tax collection, and public construction
The Censor.
What was the name of the most famous roman road, the "queen of the roads."
The Appian Way. From Rome to Capua.
Who was the Roman censor who was called “the greatest of his countrymen in works of peace”
Appius Claudius. The Appian way is named after him.
What did the Romans call the area of southern Italy settled by the Greeks?
Magna Graecia..
Why did the Greeks consider themselves superior to the Romans.
The Greeks had produced great philosophy, art, and literature, and the Romans had not.
What was the Greek city in south Italy that attacked a Roman fleet and insulted Roman ambassadors.
Tarentum.
Why did the Tarentines laugh at the ambassadors and what did they say in return?
The Tarentines laughed at the Roman ambassadors because of their togas. The ambassador said “You may laugh now, but you shall weep hereafter. The stain on this toga shall be washed out in your blood!”
Who was the Greek general that came from Epirus in Greece to lead the Tarentines against Rome?
Pyrrhus
What was the new weapon that Pyrrhus used against the Roman soldiers?
Elephants. The Romans panicked when they saw these and fled. Pyrrhus won the battle but at great cost to the Tarentines.
What is a “Pyrrhic victory”?
A victory in which the winner suffers great losses making the victory not worth the price.
What was the saying the Greeks had about the clever and eloquent speeches of Cineas?
“The tongue of Cineas wins more cities than the sword of Pyrrhus.” Cineas had been sent to Rome to negotiate a peace.
Who came out of retirement and though old and blind persuaded the Romans that it was better to lose all while fighting than to submit to a hard peace.
The great censor Appius Claudius.
Although beaten in several battles, where did Rome eventually defeat Pyrrhus and utterly defeat the Greeks?
Beneventum.
What were the three wars with Carthage called?
The Punic Wars.
What does the word Punic mean?
Phoenician.
About how many years did it take Rome to conquer Italy?
About 500.
What military advantage did Carthage have over Rome?
Her navy
What were the differences between the economies and religions of Carthage and Rome?
Rome did a lot of farming, whereas Carthage traded.

Rome worshipped lots of different gods, and Carthage worshipped Baal.
What piece of land was the first Punic war fought over?
Sicily. The Carthaginians had conquered it many years before but the Romans now wanted it. The war started in 264BC
Who after about ten years of war was appointed commander of the Roman army and its new fleet?
Marcus Atilius Regulus. Like Cincinnatus he had retired after a great career to farm his own land.
How did he become a prisoner of Carthage and why was he killed?
After defeating Carthage in a naval battle he invaded Carthage and was defeated on land at the Battle of Tunis and taken a prisoner. Carthage sent him to Rome with unfavourable peace terms and he had to promise to return if peace was not made. Rome wanted to make peace for his sake but he refused to allow this and went back to Carthage with the refusal. They put him to death in their anger.
What did Regulus value over his own life?
His word and Rome.
When and how did the first Punic war come to an end?
In 241BC there was a great sea battle near Sicily (Battle of the Aegates Islands) and the Carthaginians were defeated and had to pay a large fine to the Romans.
Where did the second Punic war start?
Spain. In the year 218BC the Carthiginians siezed a Spanish town that was a friend of Rome.
How did Scipio make the Spaniards allies of Rome.
Scipio Africanus was the leader of the Roman Army. he made allies by being kind to prisoners and respectful of women.
What were the great obstacles that Hannibal crossed to reach Italy.
The River Rhone and the Alps.
Why was Hannibal able to beat the Romans?
Elephants - or so the story goes!
What is a Fabian policy and why is it called this?
A Fabian policy means to take extreme caution when doing anything. It got its name because the Roman general Fabius was very cautious when fighting the Carthaginians.
Where was Hannibal's greatest victory?
The battle of Cannae. Cannae is in south Italy and it allowed Hannibal to stay in Italy and harm the Romans.
Why did Hannibal have to go back to Carthage?
Hannibal went back to Carthage because Scipio went to Africa to fight and defeated the Carthaginians and their allies.
What was the offer that Hannibal made to Scipio before the battle of Zama?
The offer that Hannibal made to Scipio before the battle of Zama was that Carthage would give Sicily, Spain, and Sardinia to Rome, they would divide the sea, and become the greatest nations on earth. Scipio refused it as he said it was too late to make peace.
Who did Hannibal think were the three greatest General's in the world?
Alexander the Great, Pyrrhus, and himself. If he had not lost to Scipio he would have said that he was the greatest general ever.
What were the peace terms that Scipio forced on the Carthaginians?
They had to pay the Romans a vast amount of silver and gold; they had to give up some towns and lands; they had to destroy their fleets; they had to promise not to make war in the future without the permission of Rome.
Why is Marcus Cato known as Cato the Censor?
He is known as Cato the censor as he performed the role with great discipline when Rome was threatened by laziness. He is remembered for this even though he defeated rebellions in Spain and defeated Antiochus at Thermopylae.
How did Cato live his life?
he was hard on himself and on others. he lived a hard life, taking no pleasures and saving his money. He ate the plain food that was given to servants.
What did Cato discover whe he visited Cathage just twenty six years after Scipio had conquered it?
Carthage was again strong and flourishing. There were plenty of young men, large arsenals storing weapons and many ships in the harbour.
How, after he returned to Carthage, did Cato end every speech of his in the Senate?
"And my opinion is that Carthage must be destroyed."
What unreasonable demands did Rome make of Carthage?
That they should provide hostages, give up their arms, destroy their city and build a new one ten miles inland.
When did the wars with Carthage end?
In 146BC. Scipio Africanus, son of the first Scipio Africanus, was the general who besieged Carthage and destroyed it.
Who were the Gracchi?
Two brothers, Tiberius and Caius Gracchus, who lived between the second and third Punic wars.
Who was the mother of the Gracchi?
The mother of the Gracchi was Cornelia, daughter of Scipo Africanus
How had the patricians had been unjust to the plebeians ?
By changing the law that after a war, the conquered land would be split up among the plebeians. They changed it so that the patricians got it all.
What was the law that Tiberius Gracchus got passed when he was Tribune that made the nobles hate him?
The law was that each noble would have 500 acres of conquered land each and their sons would have 250 acres each. The rest of the land would be divided among the plebeians.
How did Tiberius die?
When standing for re-election as Tribune the nobles attacked him. He was defending hismelf when he stumbled. He was killed with a blow to the head and his body was thrown in the Tiber
Who replaced Tiberius Gracchus as Tribune?
After Tiberius Gracchus died, his brother, Caius Gracchus was elected tribune.
What was the falsehood that the nobles spread about both of the Gracchi?
It was was that they were trying to become kings.
How did Caius die?
There was about to be a civil war between the plebians and the nobles. Caius did not want this and knew that the nobles would not fight if he were dead. He commanded his slave to kill him and the slave obeyed the command.
After the Gracchi were both killed, who came forward as the champion of the plebeians in their struggle with the nobles?
Caius Marius
Why were the nobles were unable to get rid of Marius?
He was a great general and was needed to defend Rome from Barbarian tribes.
Who were the three barbarian tribes that threatened Rome?
The Cimbri, the Teutones, and the Ambrones. They came from the shores of the Baltic Sea and attacked the south lands. The Romans were initially defeated and terrified by them.
What were the differences between the fighting styles of the Romans and Barbarians?
The fighting style of the barbarians was just to attack without making any plans or getting into formation. The Romans however, were much more orderly, making plans and getting into carefully planned formations.
The Cimbri tribe asked Marius to give them and the other barbarians land in Italy. What was his reply?
His reply was that the other tribes already had land in Italy that they would keep forever (they had been buried there) and that the Cimbri would soon be the same. His words came true as he defeated them.
What was the Social War?
The Social War was a war between Rome and some of the countries it had conquered. They were fighting over the fact that the countries were not allowed to vote as the Romans were.
What General gained fame from the Social War?
The general Sulla gained fame from it. Marius became jealous of him.
What was the war that the Senate appointed Sulla general, and the tribunes appointed Marius general?
It was the war against Mithridates, King of Pontus in Asia Minor. The appointing of two generals was part of the feud between the Senate and The Tribune as to who had the real power in Rome.
The two armies fought each other. What happened?
Sulla's army won. Marius fled but was eventually captured and banished to Africa where he lived in the ruins of Carthage.
How did Marius regain control of Rome?
Marius attacked it after there had been a riot and there was an army for him to use. Sulla was away fighting and the plebians had tried to get control. They asked Marius to come and help them
What did Marius do after he had attacked and captured Rome?
He cruelly put to death the nobles that had supported Sulla. He killed as many of his enemies as he could find. However, he died a natural death two weeks after his triumph.
Who was aiding the Greeks in their rebellion against Rome.
Mithridates, King of Pontus
Why was Athens very difficult to conquer?
Because it was one of the most strongly fortified cities in the world, and it had been reinforced by an army brought from Asia Minor.
What did Sulla use to break down the walls of Athens?
Battering rams
When Sulla returned to Rome, who were in charge of Rome?
Cinna and Marius the Younger of the Marian party. Sulla had made clear that he would fight them and would not listen to any attempt to bring peace - his friends had been killed and his family forced to flee.
What did Sulla do when he returned to Rome?
He sought out and killed all the followers of Marius, and was killing lots of other people. He put up a list in the Forum of all the people that would die. He offered rewards for people who killed those that were on the list. His Triumph was magnificent. It had huge wagons containing treasure he had got fighting Mithridates, and made himself like a king.
Where did the power lie when Sulla was dictator?
In him and in him alone. He did what he wanted and his word brought life or death. to protect himself he had a bodyguard of 10,000 - the slaves of men he had put to death.
Did Sulla become tired of his power and his killing?
Yes; when Sulla was tired of being dictator, he gave up his post and went to live on the Bay of Naples. He lived there for the rest of his life.
Who were the Sea Rovers who threatened Rome in Pompey's time?
They were pirates who seized trading vessels or landed on the coast and killed and robbed. They were from the coast of Asia Minor.
How did Pompey beat the Sea Rovers?
Pompey defeated the pirates by getting 14 fleets and keeping one for himself, spread them out into 13 districts. Then he sailed around looking for pirate fleets, and chased them into one of his fleets; all the pirates were defeated in 3 months.
Was Pompey a popular leader of Rome?:
He was popular with the people even though he was a dictator because had won many victories for Rome, and put on gladiator fights at the theatre.
Was Pompey a supporter or opponent of Sulla?
Pompey was a supporter of Sulla.
What young man, a relative by marriage of Marius, did Pompey ignore?
Julius Caesar.
Why is Julius Caesar considred to be the greatest Roman of all ?
Julius Caesar was the greatest Roman of all because he was a great soldier, statesman, scholar, and orator.
How was Caesar related to Marius?
Caesar’s aunt was the wife of Marius
What did Sulla say about the young Caesar?
Sulla said about Caesar, “In that young man is many a Marius.”
Was Caesar a friend of the nobles or a friend of the plebians?
Caesar was a friend of the plebeians.
How did caesar win favour with the plebians?
By being appointed to various important posts in Rome and by spending money on them.
What was Caesar's first political appointment?
Caesar’s first important political appointment was that of Governor of Spain. A job that he did well.
How long did it take Caesar to conquer Gaul?
Caesar conquered Gaul in 8 years. The name of the military journal he wrote about this war is the De Bello Gallico.
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