Past Exam Flashcards

Cortisol
Terms Definitions
These are "identification tags" that label every cell of your body as belonging to you
Major histocompatibility complex proteins
Suppose 1 molecule of hormone X activated 10 G proteins, each G protein activated 10 adenylate cyclase molecules, etc. etc. This is an example of...
Enzyme amplification
Neurons called osmoreceptors trigger secretion of
Antidiuretic hormone
The stage of exhaustion in the stress response occurs after months of stress and the body's homeostatic conditions deteriorate rapidly when
The energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism
Pathogens are prevented from spreading from an infected area by
Fibrin
Lymph nodes in the cervical area that are temporarily swollen and painful to the touch most likely indicate
Inflammation or infection localized in that area
What is the target organ of corticotropin-releasing hormone?
Anterior pituitary
Which of the following is located most inferiorly?
Adrenal gland
Lymphocytes are _____ once they have developed surface receptors for a particular antigen?
Immunocompetent
Which of the following hormones passes through the hypothalamo-hypophseal tract?
Antidiuretic hormone
Hypersecretion of GH can cause gigantism if it begins in childhood, but is more likely to cause ____ if it begins in adulthood
Acromegaly
The stress response, or general adaptation syndrome (GAS), primarily involves the elevated levels of these two hormones
EP and cortisol
Which of the following correctly traces the four conditions from cause to effect?
Insulin hypo-secretion to accelerated fat catabolism to ketonuria to diuresis
When lymphocytes called NK cells are "on the lookout" for abnormal cells such as cancerous cells or infected with virus cells, NK releases ______, which make holes in cell membrane of abnormal cells
Perforins
Parathyroid hormone is antagonized by...
calcitonin
The thyroid follicles store and secrete ______, while C cells secrete _______.
thyroid hormone, calcitonin
Lymphocytes similar to T-cells, but called _____ recognize and destroy tumors in a nonspecific fashion, without requiring prior exposure to tumor antigens
NK cells
Calcium metabolism is regulated by
parathyroid glands
Lymphatic trunks converge to form right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct, these drain into
subclavian veins
The highest pressure that moves substances into the capillary is...
blood colloid osmotic pressure
Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytes by _______ in a process called _____.
Neutrophils and macrophages; opsonization
Lymphatic system returns about ______L of fluid back to the circulatory system each day.
2-4
Most of the following hormones bind to receptors at the cell surface except ____ which binds to the receptor at the cytoplasm
Testosterone
Which of these is not one of the cardinal signs of inflammation?
Fever
The uterus is the target organ of
oxytocin
When an antigen triggers multiplication of B lymphocytes some daughter cells transform into the antibody-producing cells and mount an attack, while others become
memory cells
Response to stress, adrenal cortex releases cortisol. What stimulates cortisol?
The hypothalamus releases CRH to the anterior pituitary, which then releases ACTH
Eicosanoids are a family of paracrine secretions derived from
arachidonic acid; cell membrane
Valves are found in
Veins and lymphatic vessels
Medullary ischemic reflex results in
Increased circulation to the brain
a biogenic amine
thyroxine
before B lymphocyte can secrete antibodies, it must transform it into
plasma cell
angiotensinogen is converted to angiotensin I by
renin
polypeptide precursor that is split up also forms
ACTH
endocrine gland most affected by stress
adrenal cortex
MALT is lymphatic tissue found in places like
digestive mucous
Autoregulation regulates
blood flow through individuals
T4 =?T3 = ?
T4 = 90%T3 = the one that affects target cells
Noninsulin dependent diabetes results when
insulin is secreted but target cells lack receptors for it
An infant suckling at mom's breast will stimulate mothers hypothalamus to secrete _____, which is carred down the _____, and stimulates ______
OT; hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract; milk ejection
Insulin-like growth factors, or somatomedins, are secreted in response to
growth hormone
One has been losing weight, and showing signs of anemia. WBC count revealed an elevated eosinophil count. What's wrong?
parasitic infection
____, target cell reduce the number of receptors for a hormone in response to longterm stimulation
downregulation
In an area of injury, leukocytes adhere to endothelium, which is called _______, and then squeeze through spaces between endothelium cells into interstitial fluid, which is called _________.
Margination; diapedesis
Polypeptides stimulate cells to produce antiviral proteins and activate NK cells and macrophages
interferon
Neutrophils produce a respiratory burst, which destroys more bacteria that can be destroyed by phagocytosis. Respiratory burst results from the formulation of a ______ that reacts with H+ to form __________.
Superoxide anion; hydrogen peroxide
Complement C3 a protein stimulate mast cells and basophils to promote_______, and complement C3b trigger stimulation of proteins called ______.
Inflammation; membrane attack complex
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary ____ that cannot be absorbed through the capillaries
Lipids
T3 and T4... 3 and 4 refer to
number of iodine atoms
Formed elements most directly responsible for humoral immunity are
B lymphocytes
Autoregulation hypothesis links blood flow to stretch of vascular smooth muscle
myogenic hypothesis of autoregulation
T cells become immunocompetent during their stay in the
thymus
Main antigen presenting cells in the body are
macrophages
Thymus secretes hormones ________, which regulate ______.
Thymopoietin and thymosin; T lymphocytes
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