Test # 4 Flashcards

d.
Terms Definitions
1. Which of tthe following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?
a. Ingestion
b. Secretion
c. Mixing and propulsion
d. Absorption
e. None of the above
 
c. Mixing and propulsion
2. Which of the following is the primary function of the mouth?
a. Ingestion
b. Secretion
c. Mixing and propulsion
d. Absorption
e. None of the above
 
a. Ingestion
3. which of the follwing is the primary funciton of the villi of the small instestine?
a. Ingestion
b. Secretion
c. Mixing and propulsion
d. Absorption
e. None of the above
 
d. Absorption
4. Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid to soften food?
a. Teeth
b. Salivary glands
c. Liver
d. Gallbladder
e. Pharynx
 
b. Salivary glands
5. This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels.
a. Muoca
b. Lamina propria
c. MALT
d. Muscularis
e. Epithelium
 
b. Lamina propria
6. This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis.
a. Submucosa
b. Lamina propria
e. Epithelium
d. Seroa
e. None of the above
 
a. Submucosa
7. These are composed of prominet lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response.
a. Mucosa
b. Lamina propria
c. MALT
 
c. MALT
8. This plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis.
a. ENS
b. Myentric plexus
c. Submucosal plexus
d. Digestive plexus
e. Absorption plexus
 
b. Myentric plexus
9. This portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine.
a. Greater omentum
b. Falciform ligament
c. Lesser omentum
d. mesentery
e. Mesocolon
 
a. Greater omentum
10. This portion of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm.
a. Greater omentum
b. Falciform ligament
c. Lesser omentum
d. mesentery
e. Mesocolon
 
 
b. Falciform ligament
11. This portion of the peritoneum is largely responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the intestines.
a. Greater omentum
b. Falciform ligament
c. Lesser omentum
d. mesentery
e. Mesocolon
E. Mesocolon
12. Which of the following secrete hydrochloric acid?
a. Mucous cells
b. Parietal cells
c. Chief cells
d. Serosa cells
e.Chyme cells
 
b. Parietal cells
13. This digestive aid, produced by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins.
a. Bicarbonate ion
b. mucus
c Bile
d. Hydrochloric acid
e. Water
 
d. Hydrochloric acid
14. This portion of the peritoneum binds the jejunum and ileum of the small intestines to the posterior abdominal wall.
a. Greater omentum
b. Falciform ligament
c. Lesser omentum
d. Mesentery
e. Mesocoloon
 
d. Mesentery
15. The movement of food from the mouth into the stomach is achieved by the act of swallowing, or
a. Passage
b. Reflux
c. Deglutition
d. Both B and C
e. None of the above
 
c. Deglutition
16. This structure regulates the flow of material into the colon.
a. Ileocecal sphincter
b. Pyloric sphincter
c. appendix
d. Sigmoid colon
e. Anal canal
 
a. Ileocecal sphincter
17. Structurally, the four major regions of the large intestive are the
a. Colon, appendix, rectum, anal canal
b. Mesocolon, tranverse colon, ascending colon, sigmoid colon
c. Mesoappendix, mesentery, colon, rectum
d. Colon, appendix, cecum, anal cana
e. Cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal
18. Which of the following is not a primary function of the large intestine?
a. Mechanical digestion
b. Chemnical digestion
c. Absorption
d. Feces formation
e. Regulation of blood glucose
 
 
e. Regulation of blood glucose
19. Fingerlike projections of mucosa that are the sites of absorptionof digested food and increase the surface area for digestion and absorption.
a. Circular Folds
b. Microvilli
c. Villi
d. Brunners' Glands.
e. Both B and C
c. Villi
20. Lingual glands in the tongue secrete an enzyme called lingual lipase which uses _______ as substrates.
a. Starches
b. Proteins
c. Maltose
d. Polysaccharides
e. Fats and oils
 
e. Fats and oils
21. True (A) or False (B). the opening of the anal canal to the exterior, called the anus, is guarded by an internal anal sphincter of skeleral muscle (voluntary).
Falses (B)
22. Which of the following cells secrete mucus? Figure 1
a. B
d. C
c. D
d. E
a. B
23. Which of the following cells secretes intrinsic factor? Figure 1
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E
 
c. C
24. Which of the following cells secretes gastrin? Figure 1
a. A
d. B
c. D
d. D
e. E
d. E
25. Which of the following cells secretes pepsinogen? Figure 1
a. A
d. B
c. C
d. D
e. E
 
d. D
26. What is line A pointin to? Figure 2
a. Lumen
b. MALT
c. Mucosa
d. Submucosa
e. Muscularis
 
b. MALT
27. What layer is composed of areolar connective tissue and epithelium? Figure 2
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E
e. E
28. What layer contains the lamina propria? Figure 2
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E
 
b. B
29. True (A) or False (B) the epithelium in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and anal canal is mainly simple columnar epithelium.
 
False (B)
30. This is the portion of the stomach that connects to the duodenum. Figure 3
a. A
b. E
c. B
d. C
e. D
 
 
b. E ?
31. What does line G point to? Figure 3
a. Pylorus
b. Pyloric sphincter
c. Ruggae
d. Pyloric antrum
e. Greater curvature
 
d. Pyloric antrum
32. What is line I pointing to? Figure 3
a. Greater curvatue
b. Lesser curvature
c. Body
d. Fundus
e. Cardia
 
d. Fundus
33. What is line A pointing to? Figure 3
a. Upper esophageal sphincter
b. Lesser curvatue
c. Lower esophageal sphincter
d. Fundus
e. Cardia
 
 
c. Lower esophageal sphincter
34. What is line H pointing to? Figure 3
a. Greater curvatue
b. Lesser curvatue
c. Lower esophageal sphincter
d. Fundus
e. Cardia
 
 
a. Greater curvatue
35. Swallowing occurs in 3 stages: in stage (1)
a. the involuntary state, the bolus is passed into the nasopharynx
b. the voluntary state, the bolus is passed into the oropharynx
c. The voluntary state, the bolus is passes into the nasopharynx
d. None
b. the voluntary state, the bolus is passed into the oropharynx
36. This is considered to be the longest region of the small intestine.
a. Ileum
b. Duodenum
c. jejunum
 
a. Ileum
37. True (A) or False (B). saliva is 99.5% water and 0.5% solutes. among the solutes are sodium, potassium, chloride and some dissolved gases.
True (A)
38. True (A) or False (B). The myenteric plexus, or plexus of Auerbach is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the mucosa.
False (B)
39. When the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP what is formed?
a. Adenosine diphosphate
b. GTP
c. Adenosine monophosphate
d. Metabolic water
e. Glucose
 
a. Adenosine diphosphate
40. True (A) or False (B). The parietal peritoneum lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity, and the visceral peritoneum, which covers some of the organs in the vacity and is their serosa.
True (A)
41. Oxidation is
a. The removal of protons
b. The removal of electrons
c. The addition of protons
d. The addition of electrons
e. None of the above
 
b. The removal of electrons
42. Which two reactions require oxygen to produce ATP?
a. Glycolysis and formation of acetel coenzyme A
b. Electron transport chain
c. Krebs cycle
d. Both B and C
e. Both A and B
 
d. Both B and C
43. Which of the following occurs in the inner mitochondial memrabne of cells?
 
a. Substrate level phosphorylation
b. Substrate level and oxidative phophorylation
c. Oxidative phosphorylation
d. Photophosphorylation
 
c. Oxidative phosphorylation
44. Glycolysis, formation of acetyl Co-A, Krebs cylce and the electron transport chain are all involved iin:
a. Lipogensis
b. Gluconeogenesis
d. Glucose catabolism
d. Formation of Glycogen
e. Formation of vitamin C
 
d. Glucose catabolism
45. Where does glycolysis take place?
a. Cytosol
b. Plasma membrane
c. Nucleus
d. Mitochondia
e. Golgi apparatus
 
a. Cytosol
46. Where does the kreb's cycle take place?
a. Cytosol
b. Plasma membrane
c. Nucleus
d. Mitochondia
e. Golgi Apparatus
 
d. Mitochondia
47. Chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers to form complex structures are known as
a. metabolism
b. Anabolism
c. Catabolism
d. Metatheses
e. None of the above
 
b. Anabolism
48. True or Falses. Oxidation of glucose to produce ADP is also known as cellular respiration and it involves four sets of reactions.
False
49. True or False. Oxidavtive phophorylation removes electrons from inorganic compounds and passes them through a series of electron acceptors.
False
50. True of False. Substrate-Level phosphorylation occurs in the cytosol.
True
51. Which is not a major function of the kidney?
a. regulation of blood ionic compostion
b. regulation of blood cell size
c. regulation of blood volume
d. regulation of blood pressure
e. regulation of blood pH
 
b. regulation of blood cell size
52. Which of the following is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys?
a. Urea
b. Glucose
b. Insulin
d. Cholesterol
e. Carbon dioxide
 
a. Urea
53. The portion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramids is called the
a. Renal columns
b. renal medulla
c. renal pelvis
d. calyces
e. renal papilla
 
a. Renal columns
54. Which is the correct order of blood flow?
 
a. renal artery-segmental artery-interlobar artery peritubular capillaries-afferent arterioles
b. interlobular arteries-arcuate arteries-glomerular capillaties-arcuate veins
c. arcuate veins-arcuate art
b. interlobular arteries-arcuate arteries-glomerular capillaties-arcuate veins
55. Which is the correct order of filtrage flow?
 
a. Glomerular capsule, Proximal convoluted Tubule (PCT), Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT), Collecting duct
b. Loopf of Henle, Glomerular Capsule, PCT, DCT, Collecting duct
c. Ascending l
a. Glomerular capsule, Proximal convoluted Tubule (PCT), Loop of Henle, Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT), Collecting duct
56. This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood.
a. Glomerular capsule
b. Loop of Henle
c. Ascending limb
d. collecting duct
e. Renal corpuscle
 
a. Glomerular capsule
57. this term means entry of substances into the body from the filtrate.
 
a. reabsorption
b. filtration
c. secretion
d. excretion
e. none of the above
 
a. reabsorption
58. This is a nephron process that results in a substance in blood entering the already formed filtrate.
a. reabsorption
b. filtration
c. secretion
d. exretion
e. none of the above
 
c. secretion
59. This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder.
a. Urethra
b. Ureter
c. Descending loop of Henle
d. Renal hilus
e. none of the above
 
b. Ureter
60. This process occurs in hepatocytes and produces ammonia (NH3). the cells then convert the highly toxic ammonia to urea.
a. Ketogenesis
b. Lipogenesis
c. Glucogenesis
d. Deamination
e. Both B and C
 
d. Deamination
61. What is are A?
 
Renal cortex
62. What is are B?
Renal medulla
63. What is are D?
Renal Pyramid
64. What is are E?
Renal sinus
65. What is are H?
Nephron
66. What is are I?
 
Collecting duct
67. What is are J?
Papillary duct in renal pyramid
68. What is are K?
 
Minor Calyx
69. What is are L?
Major Calyx
70. What is are M?
Renal Pelvis
71. Which is the correct path for urine drainage?
 
a. Renal pelvis, bladder, ureter, nephron, papillary duct in renal pyramid
b. nephron, major calyx, bladder, ureter, papillary duct in renal pyramid
c. papillary duct in renal pyramid, major calyx,
d. Nephron, papillary duct in renal pyramid, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, baldder
72-75 Compare and contrast the differences between the small intestine and the large intestine.
76. how much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?
a. 10%
b. 50%
c. 1/3
d. 2/3
e. 99%
 
d. 2/3
77. 80% of the extracellular fluid is
 
a. Plasma
b. Cytosol
c. Interstitial fluid
d. Lymph
e. Bile
 
c. Interstitial fluid
This is the largest single component of the human body.
a. Skin
b. Water
c. Blood
d. Organs.
e. Electrolytes
 
b. Water
79. This occurs when water loss is greater than water gain.
 
a. Dehydration
b. Evaporation
c. Precipitation
d. Insensible loss
e. None of the above
 
a. Dehydration
80. Which of the following is a function of an electrolyte in the body?
a. Controlling osmosis between compartments
b. Maintaining acid-base balance
c. Carry electrical currents
d. Serve as cofactors
e. All of the above
 
 
e. All of the above
81. In extracellular fluid the most abundant cation is
 
a. Na+
b. Cl-
c. K+
d. HPO2−4
e. HCO3−
a. Na+
82. In extracellular fluid the most abundant anion is
 
a. Na+
b. Cl-
c. K+
d. HPO2−4
e. HCO3−
 
b. Cl-
83. In intracellular fluid the most abundant cation is
 
a. Na+
b. Cl-
c. K+
d. HPO2−4
e. HCO3−
 
c. K+
84. In intracellular fluid the most abundant anion is
 
a. Na+
b. Cl-
c. K+
d. HPO2−4
e. HCO3−
 
d. HPO2−4
85. this is the most abundant mineral in the body.
 
a. Na+
b. Calcium
c. Magnesium
d. Phosphate
e. Proteins
 
b. Calcium
86. This structure is the site of sperm production.
 
a. Vas deferens
b. Seminiferous tubules
c. Albuginea
d. Epididymis
e. Raphe
 
b. Seminiferous tubules
87. The function of epididymis is
 
a. Sperm maturation
b. Produce Sperm
c. Speratid storage
d. provide nutrition to sperm
e. Absorption of calcium
 
a. Sperm maturation
88. This is the site of fertilization.
 
a. Ureters
b. Urethra
c. Uterine tubes
d. Ovaries
e. Vagina
 
c. Uterine tubes ?
89. This is the portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
 
a. Urethra
b. Cervix
c. Uterine tubes
d. Inguinal canal
e. Ovaries.
 
b. Cervix
90. What is produced by the ovaries?
 
a. Primary oocytes, insulin and estrogen
b. Secondary oocytes, progesterone and cortisol
c. Tertiary oocytes, insulin and estrogen
d. Secondary oocytes, estrogen and progesterone
e. Primary oocytes, estrogen a
d. Secondary oocytes, estrogen and progesterone
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