Test 3 Flashcards

primary somatosensory cortex
Terms Definitions
Anatomical Name for Forebrain
Anatomical name for Midbrain
Anatomical Name for Hindbrain
What two secondary brain vesicles does the Prosencephalon (forebrain) divide into?
What does the mesencephalon (midbrain) develop into the Secondary brain vesicle?
It doesn't. It remains the same. (Mesencephalon)
What two secondary brain vesicles does the Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) divide into?
Metencephalon Myelencephalon
What adult brain structures does the Telencephalon produce?
Cerebrum: cerebral hemispheres (cortex, white matter, basal nuclei)
What adult brain structures does the Diencephalon produce?
Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus), retina
What adult brain structures does the Mesencephalon produce?
Brain stem: midbrain
What Adult brain structures does the Metencephalon produce?
Brain stem: ponsCerebellum
What adult brain structures does the Myelencephalon produce?
Brain stem: medulla oblongata
Arise from expansions of the lumen (vacity) of the embryonic neural tube. They are continuous with one another and with the central canal of the spinal cord.
What are teh hollow ventricular chambers filled with>?
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Large C-Shaped chambers that reflect the pattern of cerebral growth.
Lateral Ventricles
Anteriorly, the lateral ventricles lie close together, separated only by a thin median membrane called the....
Septum Pellucidum
Each lateral ventricle communicates with the narrow third venticle in the diencephalon via a channel called
Interventricular foramen
The third venticle is continuous with the fourth ventricle via the canal-like _______ that runs through the midbrain.
Cerebral aqueduct
lies in the hindbrain dorsal to the pons and superior medulla. It is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord inferiorly.
Fourth ventricle
Which ventricle is surrounded by the diencephalon?
The third ventricle is surrounded by the diencephalon.
Which two areas of the adult brain have an outside layer of gray matter in addition to ventral gray matter and surrounding white matter?
The cerebral hemishperes and the cerebellum have an outside layer of gray matter in addition to ventral gray matter and its surrounding white matter.
What is the function of convolutions of the brain?
Convolutions increase surface area of the cortex, which allows more neurons to occupy the limited space within the skull.
Forms the superior parts of the brain. Together they account for about 83% of total brain mass and are the most conspicuous parts of an intact brain.
Cerebral Hemispheres
Control voluntary movement, lie in the posterior part of the frontal lobes: primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, and the frontal eye field.
Motor areas of the Cortex
located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe of each hemisphere. Large neurons, called pyramidal cells, in these gyri allows us to consciously control the precise or skilled voluntary movements of our skeletal muscles.
Primary (somatic) motor Cortex
Just anterior to the precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe. This region controls learned motor skills of a repetitious or patterned nature, such as playing a musical instrument and typing. This region is also known as the memory bank for skilled motor acti
Premotor cortex
Lies anterior to the inferior region of the premotor areal It has long been considered to be :- present in one hemisphere only (usually the left)- a special motor speech area that directs the muscles involved in speech production.
Broca's Area
Located partially in and anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to Broca's area. This cortical region controls voluntary movement of the eyes.
Frontal Eye Field
Areas concerned with conscious awareness of sensation; occurs in the parietal insular, temporal, and occipital lobes.
Sensory Areas
Resides in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe, just posterior to the primary motor cortex. Neurons in this gyrus receive information from the general (somatic) sensory receptors in the skin and from proprioceptors (position sense receptors) in ske
Primary Somatosensory cortex
lies just posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex and has many connetions with it. The major function of this area is to integrate sensory inputs (temperature, pressure, and so forth) relayed to it via the primary somatosensory cortex to produce an
Somatosensory Association cortex
is seen on the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe, but most of it is buried deep in the calcarine sulcus in the medial aspect of the occipital lobe. The largest of all cortical sensory areas; receives visual information that originates on the ret
Primary Visual (striate) cortex
surrounds the primary visual cortex and covers much of the occipital lobe. Uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (color, form, and movement), enabling us to recognize a flower or a person's face and appreciate what we are seeing.
Visual Association Area
Olfactory Cortex
Gustatory Cortex
Conscious perception of visceral sensations. These include upset stomach, full bladder, and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long.
Visceral Sensory area
allows us to give meaning to the information that we receive, store it in memory if need, tie it to previous experience and knowledge, and decide what action to take. This seems to be where sensations, thoughts, ad emotions become conscious.
Multimodal Association Areas
involved with intellect, complex learning abilities, recall, and personality.
Anterior Association Area
encompasses parts of the temporal, parietal, and occipital lones. This area plays a role in recognizing patterns and faces, localizing us and our surroundings in space, and in binding different sensory inputs into a coherent whole. Many parts of this area
Posterior Association Area
includes the cingulate gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the hippocampus. Provides the emotional impact that makes a scene important to us.
Limbic Association Area.
Precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe
Motor Functions
Postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe
Sensory Functions
Broca's area
Occipital lobe
Visual Sensation
Shortage of ACh and structural changes in the brain
Alzheimer's disease
Degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in the basal nuclei
Parkinson's Disease
Hereditary disease associated with massive degeneration in the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex
Huntington's Disease
Absence of closure of the cephalic end of the neural tube
Failure to close the caudal end of the neural tube during embryonic development
Spina bifida
Group of Axons in the CNS
White Matter
Neuron cell bodies
Gray Matter
Hollow space filled with fluid inside the CNS tissue
Connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres, enabling them to function as a coordinated whole (includes the corpus callosum)
Commissural Fibers
Connect different parts of the same hemisphere
Association Fibers
Enter the cerebral hemispheres from lower brain or cord centers; those that leave the cortex to travel to lower areas
Projection Fibers
Important in starting, stopping, and monitoring the intensity of movements executed by the cortex
Basal Nuclei
The "executive suite" of the nervous system where our conscious mind is found
Cerebral Cortex
Receives information from the general sensory receptors in the skin and from proprioceptors in skeletal muscles
Primary somatosensory cortex
D. Integrates sensory inputs (temperature, pressure, etc.) relayed to it to produce an understanding of an object being felt
Somatosensory association cortex
B. Involved in the perception of taste stimuli
Gustatory Cortex
A. Responsible for conscious awareness of balance (position of the head in space)
Vestibular Cortex
Permits the perception of the sound stimulus
Auditory Areas
Sorts and "edits" information from sensory areas ascending to the cerebral cortex
The main visceral control center of the body responsible for maintaining homeostasis
Associated with the pineal gland; secretes melatonin to induce sleep
Controls visual reflexes that coordinate head and eye movements when we follow a moving object
Contains the pneumotaxic center to maintain the normal rhythm of breathing
An autonomic reflex center involved in maintaining body homeostasis (cardiovascular center; respiratory centers; centers for sneezing, vomiting, hiccupping, swallowing, and coughing)
Medulla Oblongata
Provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction, allowing smooth, coordinated movements and agility
Integrates sensory information with emotional response
Limbic System
Keeps the cerebral cortex alert and conscious and enhances its excitability
Reticular Formation
Includes prefrontal cortex, posterior association areas, and limbic association area
Multimodal Association Areas
Indicate a brain that is "idling"; a calm, relaxed state of wakefulness
Alpha Waves
B. Occur when we are mentally alert, as when concentrating on some problem or visual stimulus
Beta Waves
D. Common in children; abnormal in awake adults
Theta Waves
A. Seen during deep sleep, during anesthesia; indicate brain damage in awake adults
Delta Waves
Corpus Callosum
Internal Capsule
B. Central gray matter
Basal Nuclei
Outer gray matter
Cerebral Cortex
Piriform Lobe
In which of the following areas does sorting and editing of impulses take place?
Thalamic Nuclei
Which of the following is a function of the pons?
Contains nuclei that relay information from the cerebrum to cerebellum The pons is a "bridge" carrying info to/from the cerebellum.
function in visual reflexes.
Superior colliculi
area of the brain is involved in maintaining the body's homeostasis?
Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is the main visceral control center in the body and important to overall body homeostasis. Few tissues in the body escape its influence.
Where is the center for central balance located?
are visual reflex centers that coordinate head and eye movements when we visually follow a moving object.
Superior colliculi
Starting, stopping, and monitoring arm swinging and gait are functions of the...
basal nuclei
_____ is the largest commissure in the cerebral cortex and is composed of white matter.
Corpus Callosum
______ is the control center for the autonomic nervous system.
Which type of brain waves are seen when a person is concentrating on solving a problem?
Beta Waves(awake and alert)
Which part of the brain is involved in thirst sensations?
Which part of the brain produces dopamine?
Substantia Nigra
Which of the following is the central layer of the meninges?
Arachnoid mater
The average weight of the adult brain is:
3-3.5 lb.
The CNS can be differentiated in the developing embryo by week:
Which of the following landmarks separates the cerebral hemispheres?
Longitudinal Fissure
is composed of gray mater.
Cerebral Cortex
_________________________ processes the conscious sensation of a full bladder.
The visceral sensory area of the cerebral cortex
In which part of the cerebral cortex do sensations, emotions, and thoughts come together and make us who we are?
The multimodal associate areas
Which part of the cerebellum is involved in planning, rather that executing, movement?
The lateral part of each hemisphere
coordinates body movement.
The posterior lobe of the cerebellum
is a function of the cingulated gyrus.
Resolving mental conflict
sensory hallucinations experienced by epileptic patients that proceed a seizure.
The aura
All the associated areas on the right side of the cerebral cortex are involved in ....
is limited to seven or eight chunks of information.
Working Memory
stores only 5% of the sensory input to the cerebral cortex.
Long Term Memory
Which of the following neurotransmitters is thought to prime the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobes to form memories?
If you are having a conversation with a person, excuse yourself for five minutes, and come back and the person no longer knows you, the person would be suffering from:
anterograde amnesia.
The main culprit in the damage caused by a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) is:
All of the following features can be seen in the brain tissue of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, except:
increased levels of acetylcholine
Deep brain stimulation via implanted electrodes has been used to treat some of the symptoms of:
Parkinson's Disease
T or FEach of the primary sensory areas in the brain has an association area where integration takes place.
T or FMales have larger brains than females.
Because the skull is membranous during embryonic development, the brain has plenty of room to grow.
T or FThe amygdala is functionally part of the limbic system.
T or F The basic pattern of the CNS in the spinal cord is a central cavity surrounded by a gray matter core and a white matter layer lying outside of that.
T or FThe creases and folds allow more neurons to occupy a limited amount of space.
T or FThe CSF is produced in the choroid plexus.
T or FThe entire body is represented by somatotopy in the primary motor cortex of each hemisphere.
t/fThe left cerebral hemisphere is mainly involved with visual spatial skills.
t/fThe relay stations for the olfactory pathways are located in the hypothalamus.
t/fThe adult rhinencephalon is only involved in the processing of olfactory information.
t/fNon-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep alternate through most of the sleep cycle. During REM, most of the body's skeletal muscles are inactive.
t/fREM sleep declines from infancy until death.
t/fThe limbic system functions as our emotional brain.
t/fThe "heart" of the limbic system is the medulla oblongata.
t/fThe hypothalamus lies at the "heart" of the limbic system because it directs the physical responses to emotions.
Regulation of food intake is a function of the hypothalamus.
t/fRegulation of temperature is a function of the thalamus.
t/fThe hypothalamus regulates temperature.
t/fDura mater is the innermost layer of the meninges.
t/fThe dura mater is the outer layer of the meninges.
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