The Abdomen/Abdominopelvic Cavity Flashcards

Large intestine
Terms Definitions
linea alba
white tendinous line down center of abdomen, extends from siphoid process to pubic symphysis
Functions of abdominal muscles
help contain abdominal organsmove trunkforced breathingincrease intra-abdominal
anterior abdominal muscles
4 musclesinnervated by intercostal nervescontinuous with layer of intercostal musclesfibers of layers run in different dierections for strength ends in aponeurosis which contains rectus abdominis muscle
external oblique
origin: lower 8 ribsinsertion: apnoneurosis to linea alba, pubic and iliac crestfunction: flex trunk, compress abdominal wall (together), rotate trunk (separate sides)innervation: intercostals nerves
internal oblique
origin: lumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligamentinsertion: linea alba, pubic crest, last 3-4 ribs, costal margininnervation: intercostalsfunction: same for external obliques
transversus abdoominis
origin: inguinal ligament,lumbar fascia, cartilage of last 6 ribs, iliac crestinsertion: linea alba, pubic crestfunction: compress abdominal contentsinnervation: intercostals
psoas major
origin: lumbar vertebrae,T12insertion: lesser trochanter of femur via iliopsoas tendonfunction: thigh flexion, trunk flexion, lateral flexioninnervation: ventral rami (L1-L3)
iliacus
origin: iliac fossa, ala of sacruminsertion: lesser trochanter of femur via iliopsoas tendonfunction: thigh flexion, trunk flexioninnervation: femural nerve L2 & L3
rectus abdomoninis
origin: pubic crest, symphysisinsertion: xiphoid process, costal cartilage of ribs 5-7innervation: intercostal nervesfunction:innervation: intercostals
quadratus lumborum
origin: iliac crest, and lumbar fasciainsertion: transverse process of upper lumbar vertebrae, lower margin of rib 12function: flex vertebral column, maintains upright posture, assists in inspirationinnervation: T12 and upper lumbar spinal nerves
mesenteries
double layer of peritoneum (2 serous membranes fused together)extend to digestive organs from the body wall
function of mesenteries
holds organs in place sites of fat storageprovide a route for vessels and nerves
ventral mesenteries
greater omentum and falciform ligament
dorsal mesentaries
lesser omentum, transvers mesocolon, mesentary proper, and sigmoid mesocolon
intraperitoneal
organs remain surrounded by peritoneal cavity, liver, stomach, ileum and jejunum, transverse colon
retroperitoneal
organs lay behind/outside peritoneum
primary retroperitoneal
organs NEVER within the cavitykidneys, bladder,ureter
secondary retroperitoneal
organs once suspended with the abdominal cavity by mesenterymigrate posterior to the peritoneum during the course of embryogenesis to become retroperitoneallack mesenteriesduodenum, ascending and descending colon,rectum, pancreas
kidneys
organ which fliters waste from blood (water, toxins, urea, uric acid, creatinine, metabolic waste, ions)excretion of wastehomeostasis (acid-base balance, blood pressure, plasma volume)
adrenal gland
endocrine gland located superior kidney which excretes cortisol,aldosterone and adrenaline
medullary pyramid
makes up the medullabase: against cortexapex: inwardpapilla = tipdrips urine into minor calyx
calices
collect urine draining from papillae and empty into renal pelvis
minor calices
collect urine from papillaesurround paillae of pyramidsempty into major calices
major calices
receive urine from several minor calicesempty into renal pelvis
renal pelvis
funnel-shapedempties urine into ureter
uniferous tubules
produces urine through filtration, reabsorption and secretion2 major part - nephron, collecting duct
ureters
carry urine from the kidney to the bladderbegin superiorly at L2 as a continuation of renal pelvisopens into the bladderfound retroperitoneal enters the bladder at an oblique an angle (this prevents backflow into ureters)increased pressure in bladder lead to the distal end of ureter closing
urinary bladder
stores and expels urineposterolateral angle receives the ureterinferior angle drains into urethralocated: inferior to peritoneal cavity, on pelvic floor, posterior to pubic symphysis, male: anterior to rectum, female: anterior to vagina and uterus
urethra
drains urine from bladder to outside of bodyopens at the external urethral orificefemale: short tube, male: 3 regions - prostatic urethra, membraneous urethra, spongy/penile urethra, also carries ejaculating semen
internal urethral sphincter
at bladder/urethral junctionthickening of detrusor muscle (in bladder itself)involuntary, keeps urethra closed when urine is not being passedprevents dribbling
external urethra sphincter
surrounds urethra within the urogenital diaphragminhibits voluntary urination
external urethral orifice
males: end of the penile urethrafemale: anterior to vaginal opening and posterior to the clitoris
micturition = urination
contraction of the detrusor muscle to raise intra-abdominal pressurecontrolled by the brainurine accumulation leads to distension of the bladder (activates stretch receptors, send sensory impulses to micturition center (MC) to the pons)MC sends signals to parasympathetic neurons (stimulate detrusor muscle to contract (involuntary), internal urinary sphincter opens (also inhibits sympathetic pathways that would prevent urination))
homeostasis
function of the kidneys-acid-base balance-blood pressure-plasma volume
external urethral orifice
males: end of the penile urethrafemales: anterior to vaginal opening and posterior to clitoris
alimentary canal
mouth, pharynx, esophagus,stomach, small intestine, large intestine
accessory organs in digestion
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, gallbladder, liver and pancreas
ingestion
taking food into mouth
propulsion
movement of food through GI tract - swallowing and peristalsis
mechanical digestion
prepares food for chemical digestion - chewing, churning, segmentation
chemical breakdown
enzymes break down complex food molecules
absorption
digested end products from lumen to blood
defecation
elimination of indigestible substances
peristalsis
propulsionadjacent segments of the alimentary canal contract and relaxmoves food distally along the canal
segmentation
part of mechanical breakdownfood-mixingnonadjacent segments fo the intestine alternatively contract and relaxmixes rather than propels
myenteric nerve plexus
between 2 muscle layers of the tunical musculariscontrols segmentation and peristalsis
submucosal nerve plexus
between submucosa and muscularis mucosasignal glands to secrete and lamina muscularis mucosa to contract
enteric nervous system
controls glandular secretion, perstalsis, segmentation
stomach
j-shapedtemporary storage tankfunction: storage of chyme, breakdown of food protein (done by pepsin), absorption of nutrients (h20, electrolytes, alcohol, other drugsregions: cardiac, fundus (under diaphragm), body (large midportion), pyloric (ends at the stomach, pyloric sphincter, greater curvature, lesser curvature
rugae
longitudinal folds within the lumen of stomach, increase the surface area of the stomach
small intestine
longest portion of GI tractsite of most enzygmatic digestion and absorption of nutrientsundergoes segmentation (allows for an increase contact with intestinal walls)2.6 to 6 meters longregions: duodenum (5%),jejunum (40%), ileum (60%)
duodenum
Part of small intestinec-shapedshort straightmostly retroperitoneal receives - digestive enzymes from pancreas via main pacreatic duct, bile from liver via the bile duct
ileum and jejunum
highly coiled, fewer modifications, hang by mesentery in peritoneal cavitycontains mesentery arcades
mesntery arcades
areteries & veins, nerves, store fat
plicae circulares
absorption modificationsin small intestinecircular foldstransverse ridges of mucosaincrease surface areaforce chyme to slow down
villi & microvilli
on plicae circularesmove chyme and increase contactcontain lacteals (remove fat)microvilli - more increasing of surface area
Large intestine
absorbs remaining nutrients (most material largely digestedabsorcs water and electrolytesforms, stores and expels feces from bodyregions: cecum, veriform appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal
taniae coli
2 longitudinal strips of the large intestine,thickening of longitudinal muscle layer, maintain muscle tone, cause LI to pucker into sacs
haustra
sac-like divisionsas fill, triggers churning
epiploic appendages
fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneumhang from the intestine
cecum
sac-like pouchbeginning of ascending colon (between ileum and colon)
ileocecal valve
2 raised edges of mucosasphincter keeps closed until food in stomachregulates flow into large intestine prevents backflow into small intestineprevents reflux of feces from cecum
veriform appendix
bind tubeopens into cecumcontains large masses of lymphoid tissue
ascending colon
retroperitonealright side of posterior abdominal wallmakes right angle turn
transverse colon
peritonealextends left across the peritoneal cavitybends downward at the spleen
descending colon
retroperitoneal left side
sigmoid colon
peritonealS-shaped"true pelvis"
colon
absorb H2O and electrolytessome digestion by bacteriamass peristaltic movements (2-3X day)moves through in 12-24 hours1.5 meters
rectum
joins with sigmoid colondescends into pelvishas a complete and well-developed longitudinal muscle layercontains valve (rectal)
rectal valves
3 transverse foldsprevent feces from being passed along with gas
anal canal
begins where rectum passes through the levator ani musclereleases mucus to lubricatestratisfied squamous epithelium at lower 1/2
internal anal sphincter
made of smooth muscle involuntary
external anal sphincter
made of skeletal musclevolunatrytoilet training
defecation
stretching of rectal wall initiates defecation reflexmediated by the spinal cord (parasympathetic reflex signal walls of sigmoid colon and rectum to contract and anal sphincters to relaxinvoluntarycontraction of diaphragm, levator ani muscle and abdominal muscles assist(voluntary)
liver
largest gland in the body (weighs about 3 lbs.)produce bilepick up glucosedetoxify poison, drugsproduce blood proteins
falciform ligament
divide the right and left lobes of the liver on the diapragmatic surface
hepatic portal vein
carries nutrient-rich blood from stomach and intestines to liver
gall bladder
muscular sacrests in depression of right liver lobestores and concentrates bile
bile
produced in liverstored in gallbladder released into duodenum
hepatic duct
carries bile from liver
cystic duct
joins hepatic duct to form the common bile ductcarries bile from gallbladder
common bile duct
empties bile into duodenum
hepatopancreatic ampulla
common bile and main pacreatic duct meet and enter duodenum
pancreas
both exocrine and endocrine glandexocrine - produces enzymes that aid in the digestion of foodendocrine - produce hormones that regulate blood sugar (insulin and glucagon)
main pacreatic duct
extends the length of the pancreasjoins bile duct to form the hepaticopancreatic ampullaempties into the duodenum
accessory pacreatic duct
lies in head of pancreasdrains into the main ductenter duodenum also
spleen
largest lymphid organremoves blood-borne antigensremoves and destructs aged blood cellssite of hematopiesis in fetusstores blood platelets
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