Baking Class: Danish, Croissant, Strudel Flashcards

pastry
Terms Definitions
Danish products contain what?
eggs
What do you have to watch out for with Danish?
overfermentation of the dough as you work it because it contains yeast
croissant doughs have how much sugar?

danish how much?
croissant - 4%

Danish - 15%
sweet rolls, coffee cakes and breakfast rolls have what in the dough?
high amounts of fat and sugar, and usually eggs

they generally have sweet fillings or toppings
a dough with a high proportion of eggs and butter is called what?
brioche
rich dough products include what type of dough (that lacks what?)
nonsweet breads with high fat but low sugar for dinner breads - like brioche with high butter and eggs
large amounts of fat and sugar in rich dough affect what?
gluten development
fermentation
sugar slows down what?
yeast fermentation, competing for water; sugar also competes with protein for water

fat -coasts strands, shortens gluten strans
rich dough must be mixed by what method?
modified straight dough

when fat exceeds 15% (withhold until later in the mixing )

sugar in excess of 12% should be split in half during mixing
how do you add second half of the sugar during modified straight dough mixing
mix with water or egg so it gets dissolved;

shortens mixing time
which has to be mixed longer, rich or lean dough?
rich - dough may get too warm.

Bakers refrigerate ingredients before mixing so dough doesn't get too warm
what is the modified straight dough method?
using paddle, mix fat, sugar, salt, NFDMS, spices, citrus zest

Then eggs
then liquid
change to dough hook
then flour, yeast

use speed 1, then speed 2
which of the rich sweet doughs are easiest to handle?
simple sweet roll doughs, softer, stickier than bread doughs

the gluten is not as strong; take care in proofing, baking
why are some rich doughs made with a sponge?
to get fermentation before sugar and fat can inhibit it
regular sweet or bun dough is low enough in fat and sugar to mix by what method?
modified straight dough
why is liquid reduced in rich doughs?
to compensate for high amount of fat and eggs
rich doughs should be fermented how?
underfermented,underproofed

3/4 is best; if overproofed, the dough may collapse
creaming sugar in rich sweet dough does what?
ensures even distribution
what is croissant dough based on?
milk, flour, sugar, yeast
danish dough contains what?
eggs, but not as much as brioche, aka brioche feuilletee, flaky brioche
take care not to do what to croissant, Danish rolled-in doughs?
overmix
what is a simple fold?
a 3-fold; rest 30 minutes between them
strudel is what?
flaky pastry made from soft dough containing eggs and oil and stretched very thin.

Origin: Hungary
what does strudel dough contain?
strong flour, mixed until gluten is well-developed - that's why you can stretch it so thin
once strudel dough is mixed, what happens to it?
it's covered with oil, wrapped in plastic, placed by warm spot in kitchen to rest 60 minutes
what does resting strudel dough in a warm place do for the dough?
makes it extensible
which is flakier, strudel or puff pastry?
strudel
strudel dough stretches best if slightly warm, true or false?
true
which gets mixed more, croissant detrempe or puff pastry?
croissant - mixing depends on whether dough is laminated manually or with a sheeter
for manual lamination of croissant dough, mix it how long?
on low for 3 minutes, then hand knead for 10-15 seconds
what is an improved mix?
using speed 1 for 3 minutes, then speed 2 for 3-4 minutes, to develop the gluten half way
why can't you use an improved mix on manual lamination?
the dough would be too elastic, making rolling hard
increased gluten development results in what?
greater volume in pastry with a lighter texture
what does a flavorful croissant demand?
proper fermentation
what do bakers do to build flavor thru fermentation?
retard the detrempe or shaped croissants overnight
croissant detrempe ferments how long at room temp?
30-45 minutes
bulk fermentation of croissants occurs in how many temperature zones?
2; room temp and in the fridge
once the detrempe dough starts rising on croissants, do what?
degas, form a rectangle, cover in plastic, refrigerate for about an hour
what is the purpose of chilling croissant dough?
to firm up the detrempe so it is the same consistency as the beurrage
why do some bakers mix in 5-10% flour based on butter weight into the beurrage?
absorbs moisture
prevents butter from becoming too hard
improves plasticity
amount of butter in the beurrage for croissant is typically how much?
25-30% of detrempe weight
how many turns do croissants get?
3 turns
if using a sheeter, rest croissant detrempe how long?
20 minutes

or 45 minutes if by hand
about how much cake or pastry flour may be blended into croissant detrempe?
25% to make product more tender, dough easier to roll
what is the liquid in croissant formulas?
combo of water and milk

about 60% standard hydration

liquid makes gluten formation possible
what does milk contribute in croissant dough?
nutrients, improved browning of crust
if using dried milk solids for croissants, what kind should they be?
heat treated, non-fat
what does yeast do for croissants?
volume
helps condition the dough
fermentation of yeast helps do what?
give flavor to the croissant dough
how much sugar is in croissant dough?
10-15%

rich doughs have 20-25%
the butter used for a croissant beurrage is how much?
25-30% of weight of detrempe
croissants don't include what?
eggs, spices
what do eggs add to dough if they are used?
protein- structure
color
flavor
nutrients
richness
moisture
why does Danish dough need more yeast than croissant dough?
because of its higher level of sugar
the liquid in Danish dough is usually what?
milk
why is Danish softer, more tender than croissant dough?
eggs
fat in egg yolk helps do what in Danish?
tenderize gluten
retain moisture - slow down staling
yolks add color, flavor
proteins coagulate, lending strength and structure
what spices are common in Danish?
cardamon, cinnamon
butter in Danish is 30-35% weight of detrempe, true or false?
true - slightly more than croissant
hydration of Danish dough is how much?
50 to low 60%
eggs hydrate at how much?

milk has how much?
eggs - 75%

milk - 87%
what is the beurrage size for Danish detrempe?
1/2 the detrempe
what fold is standard for Danish?
3 single folds

single bookfolds possible
proof Danish at what temp?
no higher than 78

higher temp would melt butter, affecting flakiness and volume

Proofbox - 78 to 80%
bake Danish at what temps?
350 for convection oven

375-400 for deck oven
Danish dough can be retarded how?
in bulk, before or after lamination 12-16 hours if before lamination

retarded overnight after lamination, doing a turn the next day to degas and replasticize butter;
after shaping of products 12-24 hours in fridge, then proofed
when is bulk freezing of Danish dough done?
after lamination is complete;

if less than 7 days, you don't need a dough conditioner
rich doughs have a large amount of what that slows down the fermentation rate?
sugar
what delays the forming of gluten in rich doughs?
fat - because it coats the strands and shortens them;

sugar, because it competes against the gluten protein for water
why do rich doughs have a longer mixing method?
due to the delay of gluten formation
what does a longer mixing time do potentially to a rich dough?
makes the dough too warm and the fat become too soft
rich doughs may be defined as having how much fat?
20% fat at least; additional milk and eggs may also be found
by withholding butter and extra sugar until later in mixing, the time it takes to mix the dough should be what?
shortened
what is the minimum rest for strudel dough in a warm place?
60 minutes
do regular sweet doughs or bun dough need a sponge for fermentation?
no, they are low enough in fat and sugar to be mixed by straight dough method
what is the key benefit of high levels of fat and eggs?
they make the rich dough very soft, so the amount of liquid is reduced to compensate
what are the two basic rolled-in yeast doughs?
croissant - (aka Danish pastry dough, croissant style); resembles puff pastry - milk, flour, sugar, yeast

Danish dough, brioche style - contains eggs, also called brioche feuilletee or flaky brioche
what is a rolled-in compound?
specially formulated shortenings and margarines
what is viennoiserie?
a sweet yeast-raised dough, both laminated and non-laminated

Ex: brioche, Danish, croissants
what are the 2 major parts of the rolling in procedure?
enclosing the fat;

rolling out and folding the dough to increase the number of layers
simple fold, or 3-fold, means folding the dough how?
in thirds
always place the worse side up before rolling so it will be hidden after folding and the better side will be on the outside, true or false?
true
enclosing the butter counts as a turn, true or false?
false
both Danish and croissant get 3 turns, true or false?
true
when laminating croissant dough with a sheeter, it gets an improved mix, true or false?
true

Why: develops gluten half way.
Increased gluten development results in greater volume and lighter texture
what is phyllo dough?
a Greek version of paper-thin dough
phyllo dough is widely use for strudel making, true or false?
true
phyllo always comes in what form from the store?
frozen; but you can get it fresh
what are two common strudel fillings?
apple, cheese
how big should the strudel dough be when stretched?
3 feet by 4 feet
thaw phyllo dough completely before trying to handle, true or false?
true; it will break
keep stack of phyllo leaves covered so they don't dry out, true or false?
true
Danish, like croissant, may be frozen either in bulk or after being shaped into individual products, true or false?
true
why do some bakers prefer not to give Danish dough a final turn until after defrosting period?
Because the freezing process creates ice crystals in the dough, which weakens some of the gluten structure. Turning the dough helps regain some strength that was lost.
defrost frozen Danish in the fridge before the final proof, true or false?
true
what do longer freezing periods require?
use of dough conditioners and increasing the yeast levels by 50-100%
when freezing shaped pieces, make sure they are frozen without what?
any fillings
why is a blast freezer recommended on yeast-raised doughs that have to be frozen?
to minimize ice crystal formation
French donuts are a fried version of same pastry used to make what?
cream puffs and eclairs
American pancakes are made from what?
chemically leavened batters mixed by muffin method
French pancakes or crepes are made from what?
thin, unleavened batters made of milk or eggs and flour
if donut dough proofs at over 80 degrees it gets older faster, true or false?
true
sift a little cornstarch with sugar when coating donuts, why?
lumping, and absorb moisture
donuts should be what before being finished out?
well-drained, cooled, or steam will soak the coating
what mixing method is used for yeast-raised donuts?
straight dough method
donuts are made with less fat, sugar and eggs than regular sweet dough, true or false?
true; doughs too rich will brown too fast and absorb too much frying fat
leaner donut dough has stronger what?
gluten, to better withstand the proofing and frying
if donut dough proofs too long, what happens?
it takes longer to fry and gets greasier; for big batches, you may have to retard some of the dough
if donut dough is above 80 degrees, it will become old more quickly, true or false?
true
why do some bakers proof donuts to 3/4 complete instead of full proofing?
makes them denser, easier to handle
what should the fat temp be for yeast-raised donuts?
365-385
how long is the frying time for donuts?
2.5 minutes, turned once
how long should you rest cut donuts?
15 minutes before frying to relax the gluten; failure to rest them may result in toughness, poor expansion
overloading donuts in the fryer does what?
*lowers fat temp
*doesn't allow for expansion
*makes it hard to turn them
what does old fat do?
loses frying ability
browns excessively
imparts bad flavor
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