Ethnographer - no sound, selective editing, voice over.
Trying to represent the lives of the people in JAGUAR by staging them.
Films that portray culture. Keeping footage fresh and uninterpreted. Keeping artistry out of finished product. Authenticity is valued over entertainment value.
Jaguar used very little music, and if it did, it was to represent the music that was actually present in the storyline.
Pioneer ethnographic/anthropological film maker. Wanted people to see more than what the camera shows at first glance. Showed that great artistry could be used in editing to better represent the culture. He was one of the first to use a fiction-film like narrative and a poetic element. Techniques like his are used in Wend-Kuuni, during long shots and poetically placed symbolisms and ways to frame the story.
The Man with a Movie Camera
1. rapid means of transport
2. highly sensitive film stock
3. light handheld film cameras
4. equally light lighting equipment
5. a crew of super-swift cinema reporters (etc)
West African storyteller, singer, musician, and oral historian. Represented in the film Great Great Great Grandparents' Music by Taale Rosellini. Shot over 8 years.
1966, first film ever made by a black african. About a poor cart-driver in Senegal, 20 minutes long, illustrates the poverty in Africa. Ousmane Sembenethat
|Folk vs. Print Forms||
Folk art is much more collectively owned, interactive, fluid, unchangeable, and slow to judge. Print art is soley the property of the artist, an escape, performed in defined parameters, presented linearly, discourages participation, separates the self from society, and presents a quick-to-judge air of specialization. Teshome Gabriel
demonstrates consciousness of the documentary, and engages actively with the issues of realism and representation, acknowledging the presence of the viewer and the modality judgements they arrive at. Corresponds to critical theory of the 1980s. present in Lamumba, the death of a prophet
Welcome to Nollywood! 2007
'direct address', social issues assembled into an argumentative frame, mediated by a voice-of-God narration, associated with 1920s-1930s, and some of the rhetoric and polemic surrounding WW2
as technology advanced by the 1960s and cameras became smaller and lighter, able to document life in a less intrusive manner, there is less control required over lighting etc, leaving the social actors free to act and the documentarists free to record without interacting with each other. Ethnographic orientation, synchronous sound, long takes, continuity
first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. Only ten weeks later, Lumumba's government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis. He was subsequently imprisoned and murdered in circumstances suggesting the support and complicity of the governments of Belgium and the United States.
directed Lumumba, Death of a Prophet. educated in Haiti, Congo, Germany, and France
periods of forgotten time?
the President of Zaire (the Democratic Republic of the Congo) from 1965 to 1997. While in office, he formed an authoritarian regime in Zaire and attempted to purge the country of all colonial cultural influence while also maintaining an anti-communist stance. Accused Lumumba of being communist in order to seize power from him. Mobutu consolidated power by publicly executing political rivals, secessionists, coup plotters, and other threats to his rule.
|King Leopold ('s Ghost)||
non-fiction book by Adam Hochschild that explores the exploitation of the Congo Free State by Léopold II of Belgium. The book is written with the aim of bringing awareness to crimes committed by white rulers in Africa. After having been refused by 9 of the 10 U.S. publishing houses to which an outline was submitted, the book became an unexpected bestseller. Jules Marchal. Explored in Lumumba, "Shadow Worker"
|Conflict Minerals, Shinkolobwe Mine||
DRC, minerals that cause war and corruption to be fueled in the region or are obtained by slave labor
Nigeria's booming movie industry; second largest in the world behind India. "Welcome to Nollywood" Illustrated how filmakers have very limited resources and crank out straight to dvd movies, sometimes at a rate of 1 per week.
Seen as a luxury, sexual, appeal mostly to women and children. Exotic, comes from Africa. Argument: chocolate as a form of unequal exchange that takes place between “developing” nations and “first-world” consumers. “nostalgic themes of ethnically homogenous Great Britain or US”; identities of consumers obscures the nature of chocolate production.
Consumption as signifier of privileged status (originally only the very rich could afford it)
Production as exploited labor (West Africa produces 70% of the world’s cocoa)
|Gender and AIDS||
Women’s role in South Africa is first hidden, and then blameworthy.
• It is up to 4 times easier for a woman to contract AIDS from a man than the other way around
• Women are subordinate; pressure on them to conceive may cause increased sexual activities. Little power to negotiate sexual behavior
o When John, Yesterday’s husband, is beating her at his workplace, his supervisor looks in and does not intervene.
• There is an age difference of 5 to 10 years, and females tend to be infected at a younger age
• Discussing sex and AIDS in an education setting is frowned upon and seen as taboo
o The villagers did not want John to be dying from AIDS in their village. They did not understand the disease and wanted it to be elsewhere.
• Poor young women agree to be sexual partners with richer, older men, often putting them at a higher risk of infection
• This means that if young men marry a girl of the same age, there is a high chance she has already been infected by an older man, thus perpetuating the cycle of desiring younger and younger women
• Married women have a higher chance of becoming infected because of their lack of birth control and their husbands’ wandering
o Yesterday’s husband lives away from home because he is a mine worker, and infected her with the disease by sleeping with other people
the film makers intervene with the knowledge of the viewer. Such as My Great Great Great Grandparents' Music
Because the role of the shadow worker is to dig up and expose material that is uncomfortable and challenging, many confront …
Sociology of Forgetting
Wend Kuuni's lack of physical voice provided the tension for the film. His missing narrative represents the thousands of untold stories of victims of violence
West African “Trickster Figure”
• Amusing; diversions bring arguments
• Lovable loner; acts outside realm of “civilized” behavior
• Powers of persuasion; linguistically skilled
• Brings to surface conflict, passion, and malice to ignite transformation
• Shape-shifter; non-dualistic; liminal figure
The sabar is traditional drum from the West African nation of Senegal. It is generally played with one hand and one stick. Among its most renowned exponents is the Senegalese musician Doudou N'Diaye Rose (b. 1928). The sabar was used to communicate to other villages. The different rhythms correspond to phrases and could be heard for over 15 kilometers. Tradition, verbal story telling
|Wolof Caste Relations||
• Women of different social status play different roles in the performance of dance. Members of the lower caste (neeno) speak and act on behalf of the upper class (geer).
• As a result,
• “The politics of the appropriateness that surrounds women’s dance includes the bodily and verbal expressions of sexuality and Wolof norms of conduct rooted in the concept of kersa (honor), which links high status to restraint.” (90)
Khoikhoi women who were exhibited as freak show attractions in 19th century Europe. Baartman was exhibited around Britain, being forced to entertain people by gyrating her nude buttocks and showing to Europeans what were thought of as highly unusual bodily features. She had large buttocks (steatopygia) and the elongated labia of some Khoisan women.
used her own body to make statements about what is acceptable.
Carmen Jones is a 1943 Broadway musical, later made into a 1954 musical film. All African American cast.
The farm grows coffee. Only part of the farm's six thousand acres is used for agriculture, the rest being partially a forest and partially land where natives live. These natives are known as squatters. As repayment for living on the farm, they work on it a specified number of days per year. Both native women and children, the latter referred to as Totos, help to harvest the coffee.
|Lost Boys of Sudan||
27,000 boys of the Dinka ethnic group who were displaced and/or orphaned during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005, about 2 million killed). GIrls were raped and killed or adopted the children of others, and most did not make it to the refugee camps.
|Sudanese refugees in the US||
Omaha nebraska has the highest concentration of Sudanese refugees at
|Sudanese refugees in the US||
biggest pop in Omaha, Nebraska. Many came to America thinking they could become rich easily and return home a hero, but they have found that it is hard to make a lot of money in America, and education costs them a lot of money and time.
|Dave Egger's What is the What||
The novel’s subtitle, “The Autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng,” refers to a real-life Sudanese refugee who informs us in a brief preface that “over the course of many years, I told my story orally to the author. He then concocted this novel, approximating my voice and using the basic events of my life as the foundation.”
|Karen Blixen/Isak Dineson||
Author of her memior, "Out of Africa," which was made into a film. Goes against Theroux's "Tarzan" figure of a European person in Africa
Chief Kinanjui rules over 100,000 other Kikuyus, a fairly significant number. He lives with most of his tribe on the Kikuyu Reserve, which was established by the colonial government. The Governments set up the Reserves for natives so that they could have space to live and to keep their cattle. The existence of these reserves is somewhat ironic, since if the Colonial government had not come, they would not have to designate space for the tribes to live on. In the same way, the leadership of the Kikuyu Chief is somewhat superficial because the colonial government and its own judicial system always rules over it. While Chief Kinanjui is allowed to adjudicate, there is little doubt about who truly holds the reigns of power in the colonial state. By outlining the nature of legal disputes, the narrator makes some of these underlying political forces clear.
Romanticized, "the beginning of time," animalistic, Absence of human suffering
White presence in Africa, whether or not they had good intentions, becomes "Tarzan": loves the attention he receives for being different and having money and so decides that nothing should change to disrupt this relationship.