Making of the West AP European History Chapter 20 Napoleon Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Catholic Emancipation 1829
repealed the Test Act of 1673, allowed Catholics to sit in Parliament and hold most public offices
Sir Robert Peel
the secretary for home affairs in Britain who revised the criminal code to reduce the number of crimes punishable by death and introduced a municipal police forece in London
Battle of Peterloo
when the local authorities sent the cavalry to arrest the speaker at an illegal political meeting held in St. Peter's Fields in Manchester, panic resulted and 11 people were killed and hundreds injured
George IV of England
the new king of England who tried to divorce his wife when he came to the throne
British reform Bill of 1832
A measure passed by the British Parliament to increase the number of male voters by about 50 percent and give representation to new cities in the north; it set a precedent for widening suffrage
Polish revolt of 1830
in response to news of revolution in France, students raised the banner of rebellion in 1830, aristocrast formed a provisional government, but it got no support from Britain or France and was defeated by the Russian army, Tsar Nicholas abolished the Polish constitution that hsi brother Alexander had granted and ordered thousands of Poles executed or banished
Belgium independence
differences in traditions, language, and religion separated the largely Catholic Belgians from the Dutch were had been annexed into the kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, there was a riot by the belgians and the great powers intervened, asked by King William of the Netherlands, Russia, Austria, and Prussia had a conference that guaranteed Belgium independence in exchange for its neutrality in international affairs
Charles X
the younger brother and successor of Louis XVIII who brought about his own downfall by steering the monarchy in an increasingly represive direction
Louis-Philippe
cousin of Charles X and duke of Orleans who was given the crown by a group of moderate liberal leaders who feared the reestablishment of a republic
Law of Sacrilege
imposed the death penalty for such offenses as stealin greligious objects from churches, passed in 1825 by Charles X
Law of Indemnity
compensated nobles who had emigrated during the French Revolution for the loss of their estates, passed in 1825 by Charles X
French Revolution of 1830
enraged at Charles X increasingly represive monarchy, spontaneous demonstrations in Paris turned into fighting, after 3 days of street battles in which 500 citizens and 150 soliders died, a group of moderate liberal leaders, fearing the reestablishment of a republic, agreed to give the crown to Charles X's cousin Louis-Philippe, duke of Orleans
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe's doctrine that announced the closing of the Americas to European intervention - a prohibition that depended on British naval power and British willingness to declare neutrality
Simon Bolivar
The European-educated son of a slave owner who became one of the leaders of the Latin American independence movement in the 1820s. Bolivia is named after him.
Latin American independence movements
restive colonists from Mexico to Argentina rebelled taking advantage of the upheavals in Spain and Portugal that began under Napoleon
Greek Independence
declared an independent kingdom in 1830 under the guarantee of the three powers after fighting the Turks and having assistance from other european powers
Decembrist Revolt
when the troops assembled in St. Petersburg to take an oath of loyalty to ALexander's brother Nicholas as the new tsar, rebel officers insisted that the crown belonged to another brother, Constantine, whom they hoped would be more favorable to constitutional reform, soldiers loyal to Nicholas easily suppressed them who were so outnumbnered that they had no realistic chance to succeed
Karlsbad Decrees
after a student assassinated the playwright August Kotzebue because he had ridiculed thestudent movement, Metternich convinced the leaders of the biggest German states to pass these, which dissolved the student societies and more strictly censored the press
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
the leader of the Burschenschaften who hoped to create a nationally unified Germany through education
Burschenschaften
university students, who formed these nationalist student societies who held a mass rally at which they burned books they did not like, including the Napoleonic Code
revolt in Italy
soldiers in the kingdom of Naples joined forces with the carbonari and demanded a constitution, a young heir to the Piedmont throne, Charles Albert, vacillated to fight the Austrians for the Italian unification, but Prussia, Russia, and Austria intervened
revolt in Spain 1820
when disgruntled soldiers demanded that Ferdinand proclaim his adherence to the constitution of 1812, which he had abolished in 1814, he bided his time and a French army invaded and restored him to absolute power, he then tortured and executed hundreds of rebels; thousands were imprisoned or forced into exile
Congress of Vienna
face-to-face negotiations between the powers to settle the boundaries of European states and determine who whould rule each nation after the defeat of Napoleon
Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and France
five great powers at the Congress of Vienna
Metternich
Austria's chief negotiator who took the lead in devising the settlement and shaping the pos-Napoleonic order at the Congress of Vienna
Robert Castlereagh
British prime minister who was the representative at the Contress of Vienna
King Frederick William III
the Prussian representative at the Congress of Vienna
Tsar Alexander I
Russian representative at the Congress of Vienna
Talleyrand
the french foreign minister who was the french representative at the Congress of Vienna; he had embraced the French Revolution, served as Napoleon's foreign minister, and ended as foreign minister to Louis XVIII after helping to arrange Napoleon's overthrow
goal of Austria and Great Britain at the Congress of Vienna
wanted to check French ambitions but they had to keep France powerful enough to counter the powers of Prussia and Russia
goal of Russia at the Congress of Vienna
wanted territorial accusations (Poland)
goal of France at the Congress of Vienna
to keep its status as one of the more powerful european countries
conservatism
a political doctrine that emerged after 1789 and rejected much of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, preferring monarchies over republics, tradition over revolution, and established religion over Enlightenment skepticism
borders established by the Congress of Vienna
duchy of warsaw became the kingdom of poland ruled by the polish tsar; prussia lost territory in poland but gained saxony and the left bank of the rhine; sweden obtained norway; austria got italian provinces of lombardy, venetia, and the dalmatian coast; new german confederation included prussia with austria presiding; italian kingdoms restored; former rulers of small duchies were restored; bourbons and burganzas were back on the throne of portugal
Edmund Burke
original critic of the French Revolution who inspired many of the conservatives that follwed him; argued that the revolutionaries erred in thinking they could construct an entirely new government based on reason; it had to be rooted in long experience which must be evolved over generations
Burke
all change must be gradual and must respect national and historical traditions
Ultras
ultraroyalists who pushed for complete repudiation of the revolutionary past
Methodism
movement that stressed individual religious experience rather than reason as the true path to moral and social reform; followed John Wesley, gradually separated from the Church of England; fostered a sense of democratic community and even a rudimentary sexual equality
Wesley
the leader of the English Methodists who preached an emotional, morally austere, and very personal "method" of gaining salvation
2nd Great Awakening
began around 1790 with huge camp meetings that brought together thousands of worshippers and scores of evangelical preachers, many of them Methodist; danced to exhaustion, fell into trances, and spoke in tounges
Sati
the Hindu custom of burning the widows on the funeral pyres of their husbands, abolished by the British administration of India in 1829
Romanticism
an artistic movement that advocated the expression of emotion
Lord Byron
"The Prisoner of Chillon"
Lord Byron
wrote enduring romantic poetry and died struggling for Greek independence
William Wordsworth
"Tintern Abbey"
Lord Byron
"Childe Harold's Pilgrimage"
William Wordsworth
English romantic poet
William Blake
an english romantic poet, painter, engraver, and printmaker, works incorporate many otherworldy attributes
Johann Wolfgang Goethe
The Sorrows of Young Werther
Johann Wolfgang Goethe
Faust
Johann Wolfgang Goethe
German poet who denounced the extremes of romanticism, calling it "everything that is sick"
Mary Shelley
Frankenstein
Mary Shelley
English writer who created Frankenstein's monster and married Percy Bysshe Shelley (1797-1851)
Alexander Dumas
The Three Musketeers
Alexander Dumas
The Count of Monte Cristo
Alexander Dumas
french romantic novelist who wrote the three musketeers and the count of monte cristo
Honore de Balzac
The Human Comedy
Honore de Balzac
french novelist who wrote the human comedy
Victor Hugo
Les Miserables
Victor Hugo
french novelist who wrote les miserables
Les Miserables
Victor Hugo wrote...
The Human Comedy
Honore de Balzac wrote...
The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte Cristo
Alexander Dumas wrote...
Sir Walter Scott
a prolific author of popular historical novels; he also collected and published traditional Scottish ballads and wrote poetry, wrote The Lady of the Lake, Roby Roy, and Ivanhoe
Ivanhoe
Sir Walter Scott
Sir Walter Scott
Ivanhoe
Percy Shelley
Promethers Unbound
Percy Shelley
married Mary Shelley and was a romantic writer/poet
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
wrote Kubla Khan and The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Kubla Khan
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan
Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote...
Jakob and Willhem Grimm
wrote Grimm's Fairy Tales; i.e. Cinderella, Hansel and Gretel, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
Ludwig van Beethoven
The German composer who helped set the direction of musical romanticism; his music used recurring and evolving themes to convey the impression of natural growth
Rob Roy
Sir Walter Scott
Lady of the Lake
Sir Walter Scott
Romantic Nationalism
romantics supported nationalist aspirations, especially through the search for the historical origins of national identity
Caspar David Friedrich
Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
Caspar David Friedrich
a german romantic painter, "here is a man who has discovered the tragedy of landscape"
Francisco de Goya
a man without an "ism", the first modern painter
Francisco de Goya
The Family of Charles IV
Francisco de Goya
The Third of May
Francisco de Goya
Saturn Devouring His Son
intutition, emotion, imagination
the values of romanticism
medieval and baroque eras, middle and far east
the inspiration of romanticism
subjective, spontaneous, nonconformist
the tone of romanticism
unrestrained, deep, rich sahdes, chemical pigments
the color of romanticism
legends, exotica, nature, violence
the subjects of romanticism
narratives of heroic struggle, landscapes, wild animals
the genres of romanticism
quichk backstrokes, strong light and shade contrasts
the technique of romanticism
use of the diagonal
the composition of romanticism
Theodore Gericault
Raft of the Medusa
Theodore Gericault
Officer of the Hussars
Theodore Gericault
Madwoman
Eugene Delacroix
Massacre at Chios
Eugene Delacroix
Death of Sardanapalus
Eugene Delacroix
Liberty Leading the People
Eugene Delacroix
Christ on the Sea of Galilee
John Constable
The Hay Wain
John Constable
Parham's Mill
John Constable
Salisbury Cathedral
J.M.W. Turner
The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 16th October
J.M.W. Turner
Rain, Steam and Speed---The Great Western Railroad
J.M.W. Turner
The Fighting "Temeraire" tugged to her last berth to be broken up
J.M.W. Turner
Sun Setting over a Lake
J.M.W. Turner
foreshadowed the impressionists, english romantist
John Constable
english romantist, known for huge clouds
Theodore Gericault
interested in insanity
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