DSST Civil War 5 - Reconstruction Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fall of richmond
April 9, 1865, signifying an end to the Civil War
Jefferson Davis
served two years in prison for his role in the rebellion.
Civil War casualties
633, 000
Lincoln's reconstruction plan
1. amnesty to all but few southerners who took oath of loyalty
2. 10% percent of state voters (1860 elect.) taken oath could organize state gov.
3. members of conf. gov officers of army, former federal judges, members of congress could not receive amnesty
Johnson's Reconstruction plan
1. Amnesty and pardon except for rich rebels with taxable property of $20,000 or more - Individual Pardons
3. Revoke ordinance of secession
3. Ratified the 13th amendment
4. Repudiate all confederate Debts -
5. Election of new state officials - Election of new members to congress
6. Required 50% of 1860 voters swear loyalty
Radical Republicans Reconstruction
1. called the Wade- Davis Bill
2. 50% of population swear loyalty for states to rejoin
3. Blacks have equal sufferage, rights, equality
4. states must draft new constitution banning slavery
bill passed both houses of Congress on July 2, 1864, but was pocket vetoed by Lincoln and never took effect.
Wade-Davis
the _________ Bill was a harsher alternative to Lincoln's 10% Plan; called for 50% of eligible voters (Caucasian men) to petition for statehood; attempt by Radical Republican-filled Congress to take power from the executive branch; vetoed by Lincoln (against his desire for a speedy return to the Union)
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Peace Democrats
US Democrats who didn't support the war and hoped to reunite the states through negotiation
War Democrats
Sub-division of the fractured democratic party. Consisting of a large portion, patriotically supported the Lincoln administration. These democrats did not pose as big a threat to the Union as the Peace Democrats or copperheads.
13th ammendment
Approved in January 1865. It banned slavery thoughout the nation
14th ammendment
set the guidelines for what is a citizen; all persons born or naturalized in the united states are citizens and are protected by the constitution, equal protection, due process, made the bill of rights apply to the states
15th ammendment
voting rights; all citizens have the right to vote no matter what, color, race, previous condition of servitude. women could still not vote
ratification
formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty
Civil Rights Act of 1866
created to grant citizenship to blacks and it was an attempt to prohibit the black codes; prohibited racial discrimination on jury selection; not really enforced and was really just a political move used to attract more votes. It led to the creation and passing of the 14th amendment.
Black Codes
Restricted the rights and movements of newly freed African Americans; 1) prohibited blacks from either renting land or borrowing money to buy land; 2) placed freemen into a form of semi bondage by forcing them, as "vagrants" and "apprentices" to sign work contracts' 3) prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court.
suffrage
The right to vote.
impeachment
Formal accusation by the lower house of a legislature against a public official, the first step in removal from office.
Johnson's impeachment
he intentionally violates Tenure Act because it was set upt to get him impeached by firing Secretary of War Edwin Stantin, at the Trial his lawyer says his only crime is opposing Congress, 12 democrats and 7 republicans vote him "not guilty", so he escaped by one vote
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
Freedman's Bureau
it's purpose was to assist refugees, poor, and homeless former slaves
provided, food, medicine, legal advice on labor contracts, and could request military courts to intervene for the freemen
underfunded
military reconstruction
passed by the congressional republicans. essentially wiped out Johnson's programs. divided the former confederacy to five military districsa. a union general was placed in charge of each district.
swing around the circle
refers to a disastrous speaking campaign undertaken by U.S. President Andrew Johnson, in which he tried to gain support for his mild Reconstruction policies and for his preferred candidates (mostly Democrats)
Command of Army Act
An act issued in 1867 that forced Andrew Johnson to issue military orders through the general of the army (then Ulysses S. Grant) instead of directly to the south.
Scalawags
white southerners who cooperated with and served in Reconstruction governments; generally eligible to vote, they were usually considered traitors to their states
Carpetbaggers
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
KKK
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence;
Election of 1876
Republican Rutherford Hayes and Democrat Samuel Tilden run for President. Hayes promises to end the Reconstruction and allows Southern staets to establish the black codes. Caused the end of the Reconstruction in 1877
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