Women in America: 20th Century Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Christine Jorgensen
-SRS 1952
- first well-known person to have SRS - media frenzy—glamour figure - forces the public to think about the definition of sex - age of science - a condition of "biological sex" (intersex), argument that all humans have male and female components & some are more intermediate than others... a condition of sexuality/perversion... a condition of gender ("psychological sex") - speaks out in favor of gay rights and sees self as a career woman, liberal but not particularly radical
Magnus Hirschfeld
- Magnus Hirschfeld - gay & gay rights advocate - performed sex reassignment surgeries
June Cleaver
- June Cleaver - 1950s - Leave It to Beaver mother - happy/nostalgic housewive, as versus the bored, depressed Betty Friedan/Feminine Mystique housewife - 50s domestic ideal: suburbs, consumerism, emphasis on partnership between husband and wife - reassertion of traditional gender roles - lower marriage age, dropped starting in WWII - era of prosperity, Cold War anxiety - psychology: emphasis on child rearing
- SANE - Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy - among other women's activist organizations of the 1950s - women's antinuclear movement in particular—maternalism - women also still active in union work; NWP still pushing for ERA; League of Women Voters
Community Service Organization
- 1950s     - overlap with labor movement - Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta - Mexcian-American, women and men - community uplift—teaching English, getting streets paved, etc.
maternity homes
- maternity homes - 1950s: conservative stereotype of women's sexuality remains — "containment" of women's sexuality (not the whole story) - women stigmatized for intercourse outside marriage; might be okay for men - trying to hide pregnancies—maternity homes or illegal abortions or moving away
Sexual Behavior in the Human Fe/Male
- Sexual Behavior in the Human Fe/Male - Kinsey - 1948 male, 1953 female - proves conclusively that lots of women had premarital sex, etc. - younger women more sexually active than older generation - symbolize the sexualization of postwar culture (also Playboy and Duke; pulp books with sexual themes) - postwar lesbian/gay pulp fiction boom
Women's Political Council
- Women's Political Council - Montgomery women's civic org. that suggests bus boycott - CRM leadership: male spokespeople and female organizers - Septima Clark, adult literacy classes become model for Citizenship Schools - Anne Braden—white anti-segregationist
Pauli Murray
- Pauli Murray - African-American woman, lawyer, active in women's rights since late 1940s - lesbian; lived as male in 1930s - friends with Eleanor Roosevelt - well-known civil rights lawyer by early 1960s - discrimination against women is "Jane Crow" - introduced legal argument that 14th amendment could be used to oppose discrimination against women—calling for equal protection rather than equal rights brings together protection and equality regimes
President's Commission on the Status of Women
- President's Commission on the Status of Women - 1963 report - moderate—recommends women be trained for marriage and motherhood - calls for equal pay, equal participation on juries, etc., child care - does not endorse ERA - after report, every state appoints Commission on the Status of Women
Equal Pay Act
- Equal Pay Act -1963 - women should be paid equally for equal work under equal conditions - some states passed similar acts during WWII - first ever federal law against sex discrimination - problems: women and men not working the same jobs; didn't cover all jobs, excluded agricultural work and domestic service (women of color)
The Feminine Mystique
- The Feminine Mystique - 1963 - Betty Friedan - bored housewife - Friedan conceals that she's been an activist (incl. in labor movement)
Title VII
- Title VII - 1964 - Civil Rights Act Title VII - "sex" thrown in as last-minute amendment—to derail bill or because the legislator (Howard Smith, VA) supported women's rights? Not really clear - no discrimination in hiring, firing or promotion - Equal Employment Opportunity Commission director says he won't enforce the sex provision because it wasn't supposed to be in there and he didn't support it - NOW forms in protest of EEOC douchiness, actually over the issue of sex-segregated want ads
- NOW - 1966 - Betty Friedan is first president - complaints against EEOC are first action: picketing, helping women file Title VII lawsuits - succeeds: EEOC starts enforcing Title VI within a few years - starts as Washington insiders; eventually gains local chapters and becomes largest feminist org. in US — more mass-based starting in 1970s - men participated
Shirley Chisholm
- Shirley Chisholm - seeks 1972 Dem nomination for President - National Women's Political Caucus (1961) supports her campaign
Our Bodies, Ourselves
- Our Bodies, Ourselves - 1971 - part of women's publishing movement (also Ms. Magazine, 1971) - women's body, sexuality, health handbook - Boston Women's Health Collective - implicit criticism of medical establishment/expert knowledge - helps to launch women's health movement
Gloria Steinham
- Gloria Steinham - straddles liberal/radical divide—active with radicals in NY and on national scene in DC - glamorous and well-known journalist
Title IX
- Title IX - 1972 - prohibits sex discrimination in educational programs that receive federal funding - no more quotas on admitting women to universities and professional schools—enables 1980s surge in women doctors - best known for effect on athletic programs - applies to public schools; ends discrimination against pregnant girls—due to organizing (mostly black women in cities)
Roe v. Wade
- Roe v. Wade - 1973 - makes abortion legal in first trimester of pregnancy - work starts with doctors and on state level in 1960s - by end of 1960s, NOW comes out in favor of safe, legal abortions - illegal, unsafe abortions — coat hanger - Norma McCorvey/Jane Roe (Texas), working-class lesbian woman
Percy Amendment
- Percy Amendment - 1973 - amendment to 1973 Foreign Assistance Act - all U.S. programs for "underdeveloped nations" must integrate women—previously had only treated them as mothers - advocated by 1970s liberal feminists - major worldwide impact
Equal Rights Act
- Equal Rights Act - by mid-1960s, most liberal feminists endorse ERA - by mid-1970s, majority of Americans support ERA, legalized abortion, etc. - Stop ERA - Congress passes an extension from 1978 to 1982 but they never get the 38 states—just three states away
liberal feminism
- liberal feminism - NOW, NWPC, Washington lobbying groups - women essentially similar to men - ERA, equal access to professions, equal pay - over 1970s, pushed to take more radical stances as radical women entered liberal organizations
radical feminism
- radical feminism - came out of New Left; associated with youth and counterculture - formal equality not enough; sexism is systemic; patriarchy - male violence against women is a key issue - age gap with liberal feminists
- socialist-feminism - problem is patriarchy AND capitalism - male dominance built into capitalist system - labor movement: unionizing women and getting them into male-dominated trades; revaluing traditionally women's jobs - clerical worker's organization 925 becomes a union (SEIU)
third-world feminism
- third-world feminism - aka "women of color feminism" - takes off in 1970
sexual revolution
- sexual revolution - sexual intercourse outside of marriage becomes middle-class norm - sexual expression understood as natural and healthy - radical feminists participate but criticize as male-centered - liberal feminists embarrassed by sexual issues
Phyllis Schlafly
- Phyllis Schlafly - active since 1950s - lawyer and longtime activist but promotes self as 'defender of ordinary housewives' - makes opposing ERA a national issue—Stop ERA - God intended men and women to be different and women should mostly be mothers - exaggerated claims about ERA: husbands won't support wives; women wouldn't get Social Security or alimony; require unisex public bathrooms; women drafted and forced into combat; same-sex marriage
International Women's Year
- International Women's Year - Houston - 1977 - Congress appropriates $5 million - big-name attendees
Tammy Faye Bakker
- Tammy Faye Bakker - 1980s - with husband Jim, head of one of top televangelical networks - mimicked secular women's daytime television to create an evangelical women's culture & national community - wearing lots of makeup—a break from the church she was raised in—women can express themselves and still be conservative/pious
Marabel Morgan
- Marabel Morgan - books: The Total Woman and Total Joy - books for evangelical women struggling with ideal vs. experience of marriage - focus on submission ("adaptation"): adapt your will to that of your husband... but negotiation okay, and adaptation can be maniuplative - not just vanilla, for-procreation-only sex (obv. only with husband)—important change in women's sexuality
Beverly LaHaye
- Beverly LaHaye - Concerned Women for America, 1979     - opposes many core feminist issues but supports careers of conservative women interested in politics - women need to be in politics to properly address women's issues—maternalism - as opposed to Anita Bryant, who was saying "I would not have to do this if you men were more involved" (necessity, not maternalism)
Catharine MacKinnon
- Catharine MacKinnon - Yale Law - one of the first to define and write about sexual harassment - Sexual Harassment of Working Women, 1979 - sexual harassment counts as sex discrimination because it reinforces women's inequality in the workplace - quid pro quo versus hostile environment harassment—eventually adopted by courts and EEOC
Alexander v. Yale
- Alexander v. Yale - 1980 - first case to use Title IX for sexual harassment - loses because students had graduated - "tremendous impact" in using Title IX for sexual harassment - pushes universities to create grievance procedures
Virginia Prince
- Virginia Prince - Transvestia magazine (1960) - trying to distinguish cross-dressing from homosexuality and transsexuality - using the language of gender—"transgenderal" - identifies gender hierarchy as one that privileges gender-conforming over gender-nonconforming people
Reed Erickson
- Reed Erickson - Erickson Educational Foundation, 1964 - first transsexual rights org.? - like homophile orgs—education, support, cooperation with doctors
Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins
- Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins - 1989 - Anne Hopkins turned down for promotion - not feminine enough: being held to different standards than men - sex stereotyping is sex discrimination
Barnes v. City of Cincinatti
- Barnes v. City of Cincinatti - Felicia Barnes, Cincinnati police officer, denied promotion - denied promotion for being insufficiently masculine - Price Waterhouse used as precedent
Schroer v. Billington
- Schroer v. Billington - 2007 - Library of Congress guilty of sex stereotyping for denying Schroer job because of her transition - analogy to religious discrimination
- CEDAW - UN General Assembly adopts Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women - since 1979, 139 nations have ratified - US has not ratified—same opposition as ERA
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