Prebles' Artforms (Glossary Ch 1-11) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
art forms
An activity or a piece of artistic work that can be regarded as a medium of artistic expression. Music, dance, theater, literature, and the visual arts.
visual arts
drawing, painting, sculpture, film, architecture and design
work of art
The visual expression of an idea or experience formed with skill through the use of a medium.
medium, media
A particular material along with its accompanying technique; a specific type of artistic technique or means of expression determined by the use of particular materials.
mixed media
Works of art made with more than one medium.
Technique of pasting cut-out or found elements into the space of the canvas.
"Sacred circle": Buddhist diagram of the cosmos; sand painting; represents the impermanence of life
To become aware through the senses, particularly through sight or hearing.
The study and philosophy of the quality and nature of sensory responses related to, but not limited by, the concept of beauty. Within the art context: The philosophy of art focusing on questions regarding what are is, how it is evaluated, the concept of beauty, and the relationship between the idea of beauty and the concept of art.
Ability to see (or to be aware) and to respond.
Objects depicted in representational art.
In the broadest sense, the total physical characteristics of an object, event, or situation.
folk art
Art of people who have had no formal, academic training, but whose works are part of an established tradition of style and craftsmanship.
Art in which it is the artist's intention to present again or represent a particular subject; especially pertaining to realistic portrayal of subject matter.
Meaning or message contained and communicated by a work of art, including its emotional, intellectual, symbolic, thematic, and narrative connotations.
Tukutuku panels are a traditional Māori art form. They are decorative wall panels that were once part of the traditional wall construction used inside meeting houses. (nonrepresentational art from New Zealand)
trompe l'oeil
French for "fool the eye." A two-dimensional representation that is so naturalistic that it looks actual or real (or three-dimensional).
Art that departs significantly from natural appearances. Forms are modified or changed to varying degrees in order to emphasize certain qualities or content. Recognizable references to original appearances may be very slight. The term is also used to describe art that is nonrepresentational.
Art without reference to anything outside itself -- without representation. Also called nonobjective -- without recognizable objects.
visual metaphor
The representation of a person, place, thing, or idea by way of a visual image that suggests a particular association or point of similarity.
The symbolic meanings of subjects and signs used to convey ideas important to particular cultures or religions, and the conventions governing the use of such forms.
paths of action; indicate directions, define boundaries of shapes and spaces, imply volumes or solid masses, and suggest motion or emotion.
use of fine parallel lines drawn closely together at right angles, to create the illusion of shade or texture in a drawing
Implied line
A line in a composition that is not actually drawn. It may be a sight line of a figure in a composition, or a line along which two shapes align with each other.
A two-dimensional or implied two-dimensional area defined by line or changes in value and/or color.
Geometric shape
precise and regular shape; circles, triangles, squares
Organic shape
An irregular, non-geometric shape. A shape that resembles any living matter. Most organic shapes are not drawn with a ruler or a compass.
Picture plane
The two-dimensional picture surface.
Positive or figure shape
A figure or foreground shape, as opposed to a negative ground or background shape.
Negative or ground shape
A background or ground shape seen in relation to foreground or figure shape(s).
Figure-ground reversal
as the eye shifts across the work, the positive (figure) and negative (background) spaces reverse.
Three-dimensional form having physical bulk. Also, the illusion of such a form on a two-dimensional surface.
Value or tone
relative lightness or darkness from white through gray to black. Pure hues vary in value.
1. Space enclosed or filled by a three-dimensional object or figure. 2. The implied space filled by a painted or drawn object or figure. Synonym: mass.
Closed form
A self-contained or explicitly limited form; having a resolved balance of tensions, a sense of calm completeness implying a totality within itself.
Open form
A form whose contour is irregular or broken, having a sense of growth, change, or unresolved tension; form in a state of becoming.
the indefinable, general receptacle of all things
Diminishing size
decreasing size of objects to imply increases distance. smaller objects appear farther away.
Vertical placement
A method for suggesting the third dimension of depth in a two-dimensional work by placing an object above another in the composition. The object above seems farther away than the one below.
Perspective or linear perspective
A system for creating an illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface based on the fact that parallel lines or edges appear to converge and objects appear smaller as the distance between them and the viewer increases.
Vanishing point or viewpoint
With the linear perspective system, an entire picture can be constructed from this single, fixed position.
One-point perspective
All major receding "lines" of the subject are parallel, but visually appear to converge at a single vanishing point on the horizon line.
Two-point perspective
Two sets of parallel lines appear to converge at two points on the horizon line.
Atmospheric or aerial perspective
A system for creating an illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface that creates the illusion of distance by reducing color saturation, value contrast, and detail in order to imply the hazy effect of atmosphere between the viewer and distant objects. Also known as aerial perspective.
shading from light to dark; used to create illusion of roundness.
The combining of parts or elements to form a whole; the structure, organization, or total form of a work of art.
The process of organizing visual elements and the product of that process.
The appearance of similarity, consistency, or oneness. Interrelational factors that cause various elements to appear as part of a single complete form.
Opposite of unity, counters unity; provides diversity.
symmetrical balance
A design (or composition) with identical or nearly identical form on opposite sides of a dividing line or central axis.
asymmetrical balance
Balance provided by various elements according to their size and meaning; balance is around a felt or implied center of gravity.
used to draw attention to an area or areas; position, contrast, color intensity, and size can be used to create emphasis.
focal point
the area or areas of emphasis.
neutral areas of lesser interest that keep the viewer from being distracted from the area or areas of emphasis.
the juxtaposition of dissimilar elements: dark against light; large against small; bright colors against dull; geometric against organic; hard (sharp) edges against soft (blurred).
The regular or ordered repetition of dominant and subordinate elements or units within a design.
The size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment or format. Also used to refer to the quality or monumentality found in some objects regardless of their size.
The size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another.
The shape or proportions of a picture plane.
hierarchical scale
the use of unnatural proportions to show relative importance of figures.
Art Criticism
The process of using formal analysis, description, and interpretation to evaluate or explain the quality and meanings of art.
A place dedicated to collecting, caring for, studying, and displaying objects of lasting value and interest.
Formal Theories
Theories which focus attention on the composition of the work and how it may have been influenced by earlier works.
Sociocultural Theories
Theories based on environmental influences such as the economic system, cultural values, and the politics of the time.
Expressive Theories
Theories which focus on the artist's attempt to express a personality or worldview.
1. a humorous or satirical drawing. 2. a drawing completed as a full-scale working drawing, usually for a fresco painting, mural, or tapestry
a technique used in drawing and linear forms of printmaking, in which one set of hatchings are drawn over another in a different direction so that the lines cross.
the surface grain of paper.
A thin varnish sprayed over a completed charcoal drawing to help bind the charcoal to the paper.
Italian "light-dark". The gradation of light and dark values in two-dimensional imagery; especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations of light and shade rather than line.
transparent layer of paint or ink
a simply, preliminary drawing
paint that uses water-soluble gum as the binder and water as the vehicle. Characterized by transparency. Also, the result of painting.
An opaque, water-soluble paint. Watercolor to which opaque white has been added.
A water-based paint that uses egg yolk, glue. or casein as a binder. Many commercially made paints identified as tempera are actually gouache.
Paint in which the pigments is held together with a binder of oil, usually linseed oil.
A clear plastic used as a binder in paint and as a casting material in sculpture.
waxy substance used to protect areas of paper from watercolor; removed later to leave white area.
Fresco buon and secco
Painting technique in which pigments suspended in water are applied to a damp lime-plaster surface. The pigments dry to become part of the plaster wall or surface. Sometimes called true fresco or buon fresco to distinguish it from painting over dry plaster (fresco secco).
Powdered coloring agent derived from plant, animal, and mineral sources.
The material used in paint that casues pigment particles to adhere to one another and to the support, for example, linseed oil or acrylic polymer.
Liquid emulsion used as a carrier or spreading agent in paints
small paint sprayer that produces a fine, controlled mist of paint. produces even application without brush strokes.
Direct painting and impasto
executing a painting in one sitting, applying wet over wet colors.
Artist's proof
prints made for the artist's record or personal use ("ap")
In a relief process, the printmaker cuts away all parts of the printing surface not meant to carry ink, leaving the design "in relief" at the level of the surface.
Original print
a print done by an artist or under his or her direct supervision. NOT a reproduction.
an intaglio printmaking process in which a metal plate is first coated with acid-resistant wax, then scratched to expose the metal to the bite of nitric acid where lines are desired. Also, the resulting print.
a type of relief print made from an image that is left raised on a block of wood.
A relief process in printmaking, in which an artist cuts away negative spaces from a block of linoleum, leaving raised areas to take ink for printing.
Limited edition
Only a small number of prints are made, after which the plate is destroyed
an intaglio process in which grooves are cut into a metal or wood surface with a sharp cutting tool called a burin or graver. Also, the resulting print.
an intaglio printmaking process in which lines are scratched directly into a metal plate with a steel needle. Also the resulting print.
a planographic printmaking technique based on the antipathy of oil and water. The image is drawn with a grease crayon or painted with tusche on a stone or grained aluminum plate. The surface is then chemically treated and dampened so that it will accept ink only where the crayon or tusche has been used.
a printmaking technique in which stencils are applied to fabric stretched across a frame. Paint or ink is forced with a squeegee through the unblocked portions of the screen onto paper or other surface beneath.
any printmaking technique in which lines and areas to be linked and transferred to paper are recessed below the surface on the printing plate. Etching, engraving, drypoint, and aquatint are all intaglio processes.
Literally "light writing"; "light drawing". The process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces.
camera obscura
A dark Room (or box) with a small hole in one side, through wich an inverted image of the view outside is projected onto the opposite wall, screen or mirror. The image is then traced.
photographic process resulting in a reverse (negative) image from which a positive photograph can be made.
photo essay
a set or series of photographs that are intended to tell a story or evoke a series of emotions in the viewer.
journalism that presents a story primarily through the use of pictures
The process of combining parts of various photographs in one photograph.
photographic material consisting of a base of celluloid covered with a photographic emulsion; used to make negatives or transparencies
color photography
Color photography is photography that uses media capable of representing colors which are produced chemically during the photographic processing phase. It is contrasted with black-and-white photography, which uses media capable only of showing shades of gray.
An early photographic process developed by Louis Daguerre in the 1830s, which required a treated metal plate. This plate was exposed to light, and the chemical reactions on the plate created the first satisfactory photographs.
persistence of vision
An optical illusion that makes cinema possible. The eye and mind tend to hold seen images for a fraction of a second after they disappear from view. Quick projection of slightly differing images creates the illusion of movement.
graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence, including website interactivity.
graphic design
The process of working with words and pictures to create solutions to problems of visual communication.
Short for "logotype". Sign, name or trademark of an institution, a firm or a publication, consisting of letter forms, borne on one printing plate or piece of type.
A graphic design (identifying mark) based on pictoral (rather than typographic) sources. A form or image implying or representing something beyond its obvious and immediate meaning.
The art and technique of composing printed materials from type.
a typeface is a set of one or more fonts, in one or more sizes, designed with stylistic unity, each comprising a coordinated set of glyphs.
The name given to a style of type.
An illustration is a visualization such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. Used with symbols, type, and color to produce a visual composition to attract, inform, and persuade a given audience.
letter form
The shape of an individual letter; The design and development of such shapes.
in-the-round aka freestanding sculpture
Sculpture which is meant to be seen from all sides.
low-relief aka bas-relief
Sculpture in which three-dimensional forms project from the flat background of which they are a part. The degree of projection from the surrounding surface is slight.
Sculpture in which more than half of the natural circumference of the modeled forms project from the flat background of which they are a part.
A manipulative and often additive process. Working pliable material such as clay or wax into 3-D forms.
Sculptural form produced by adding, combining, or building up material from core or armature. Modeling in clay and welding steel are additive processes.
casting mold
A substitution or replacement process that involves pouring liquid material such as molten metal, clay, wax, or plaster into a mold. When the liquid hardens, the mold is removed, and a form in the shape of the mold is left. Mold is also called a pattern.
A subtractive process in which a sculpture is formed by removing material from a block or mass of wood, stone, or other material, with the use of sharpened tools.
Sculpture creating by joining materials (often using welding) as opposed to modeling, carving, and casting. Assemblage: Sculpture using preexisting, sometimes "found" objects that may or may not contribute their original identities to the total content of the work.
constructions sculpture
Sculpture creating by joining materials (often using welding) as opposed to modeling, carving, and casting.
kinetic sculpture
A type of sculpture that incorporates actual movement as part of the design.
mobile sculpture
A type of sculpture in which parts move, often activated by air currents.
A type of art medium in which the artist arranges objects or artworks in a room, thinking of the entire space as the medium to be manipulated. Also called environments.
A work that was made for a specific location and must be viewed at that location
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