EXAM 3 CHAPTER 15 EPIDEMIOLGOY/ MICROBIOLOGY Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Portal of entry
The way a pathogen gets into body;
1)parenteral route:puncture wound, bite
2) mucous membranes:nose,mouth,an
3)skin:microbes go through skin,infect
ID50:
Infectious dose: the number of microbes it takes to cause infection in 50% of a test population; answers amount of risk or how much risk is this?
Adherence
Attachment of a microbe or phagocyte to another’s plasma membrane or other surface.
Capsules
An outer, viscous covering on some bacteria composed of a polysaccharide or polypeptide.
M protein
A heat and acid resistant protein of streptococcal cell walls and fibrils.
Coagulases
A bacterial enzyme that causes blood plasma to clot.
Kinases
(1) An enzyme that removes a P from ATP and attaches it to another molecule. (2) A bacterial enzyme that breaks down fibrin (blood clots).
Hyaluronidase
An enzyme secreted by certain bacteria that hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid and helps spread microorganisms from their initial site of infection.
Collagenase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes collagen.
Antigenic Variation
Changes in surface antigens that occur in a microbial population.
Invasins
A surface protein produced by Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli that rearranges nearby actin filaments in the cytoskeleton of a host cell.
Siderophores
Bacteria iron-binding proteins.
Toxins
Any poisonous substance produced by a microorganism.
Toxigenicity
The capacity of a microorganism to produce a toxin.
Toxemia
The presence of toxins in the blood.
Exotoxins
A protein toxin released from living, mostly gram-positive bacterial cells.
Endotoxins
Part of the outer portion of the cell wall (lipid A) of most gram-negative bacteria; released on destruction of the cell.
Antitoxins
A specific antibody produced by the body in response to a bacterial exotoxin or its toxoid.
Leukocidins
Substances produced by some bacteria that can destroy neutrophils and macrophages.
Hemolysins
An enzyme that lyses red blood cells.
Superantigen
an antigen (antibody formation; aka immunogen) that activates many different T cells, thereby eliciting a large immune response.
Lipid A
A component of the gram-negative outer membrane; endotoxin.
IL1
Septic Shock
TNF
(tumor necrosis factor) a polypeptide released by phagocytes in response to bacterial endotoxins; induces shock; also called cachectin.
Lysogenic conversion
The acquisition of new properties by a host cell infected by a lysogenic phage.
CPE
cytophathic effects- the visible effects of viral infection; CPEs are used to diagnose many viral infections.
Contact inhibition
The cessation of animal cell movement and division as a result of contact with other cells.
Portals of exit
The route by which a pathogen leaves the body, usually the same way it entered.
CHAPTER 15 VOCABULARY
MICROBIOLOGY
EPIDEMIOLOGY
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