Health Differences Across the Lifespan 3 Flashcards

clinical manifestations
Terms Definitions
Rheumatic fever
Rheumatic fever is an autoimmune inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is:
PCP is a pneumonia caused by the fungal organism Pneumocystis carinii (now renamed Pneumocystis jiroveci). This organism is common in the environment and does not cause illness in healthy people only in imunocompromised peoples like AIDs
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prognosis: AIDS
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia can be life-threatening, and respiratory failure can lead to death. People with this condition need early and effective treatment. For moderate to severe PCP in people with AIDS, the use of corticosteroids has decreased mortality.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) typical symptoms:
* Cough -- often mild and dry
* Fever
* Rapid breathing
* Shortness of breath -- especially with activity (exertion)
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) preventative therapy is for:
* AIDS patients with CD4 counts below 200
* People on chronic high-dose corticosteroids
* People who have had previous episodes of PCP
Pneumocystis pneumonia the most commonly used medication is:
a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole, with the tradenames Bactrim, Septrin, or Septra)
Strep throat usually requires
treatment with antibiotics. along with plenty of rest and fluids
Strep Throat Spreads
normal activities like sneezing, coughing, or shaking hands
strep throat will start to develop
other symptoms within about 3 days, such as:

* red and white patches in the throat
* difficulty swallowing
* tender or swollen glands (lymph nodes) in the neck
* red and enlarged tonsils
* headache
* lower stomach pain
* fever
* general discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling
* loss of appetite and nausea
* rash
It's important to identify strep throat for a number of reasons.
strep throat can sometimes cause complications such as kidney inflammation and rheumatic fever.
is the only major AIDS-related opportunistic infection that poses a risk to HIV-negative people.
Symptoms of tuberculosis
Symptoms of tuberculosis depend on where in the body the TB bacteria are growing.
Tuberculosis bacteria often grow in
the lungs, causing pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis may cause a bad cough that lasts longer than two weeks, pain in the chest and coughing up of blood or sputum.
Inactive TB
has no symptoms.
Other symptoms of TB disease include
weakness or fatigue, weight loss, lack of appetite, chills, fever and night sweats.
the multiple puncture technique has found favor as a screening tool,
For large groups of people
TB multiple puncture test, for multiple people, technique a positive result should be confirmed by
Mantoux testing unless vesiculation has taken place amongst the crowd that was screened.
TB Mantoux testing has the advantage of
using a standard amount of a standard potency reagent and thus is quantifiable and reproducible.
PPD geographic variation in skin test reactivity
blurs the region between a positive and a negative test in many areas

10 mm isn't always that big
causes of a false negative intermediate-strength PPD
include concurrent viral infections such as rubella and rubeola, as well as some bacterial infections including brucellosis and typhoid fever. Live virus vaccines, such as measles, have been shown to inhibit the development of a positive test.
Groups at high risk of recent infection with M. tuberculosis,
immigrants from Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Oceania; some inner-city and "skid-row" populations; personnel and long-term residents in some hospitals, nursing homes, mental institutions and prisons
TB Drugs
Isoniazid (INH)
Rifampin (RM)
Pyrazinamide (PZA)
Ethambutol (EMB)
Vitamin B6
- prescribed for alleviating numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
TB Drug side effects
Poor appetite
Yellowing of the eyes or urine or easy bruising
Pain or swelling of the joints
Changes in vision
Rash, itchiness
Numbness or tingling in hands and feet
Treating ACTIVE TB disease
isoniazid, rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane), ethambutol (Myambutol) and pyrazinamide for up to 1 year
isoniazid (INH). six to nine months.
isoniazid (INH). six to nine months. Side effects
monitor for Hepatitis avoid using acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) and avoid or limit alcohol use. Both greatly increase your risk of liver damage.
Because TB bacteria grow slowly,
treatment for an active infection is lengthy — usually six to 12 months
en (increased)
uresis (urine)

enuresis (bed-wetting)
extreme generalized edema
Oliguria and anuria are the decreased or absent production of urine
Shigella infection
Signs and symptoms of shigellosis usually begin a day or two after exposure to shigella and may include:

* Diarrhea (often containing blood or mucus)
* Abdominal cramps
* Fever
Immunity types
Natural active (caught it)
Artificial active(shot it)
Natural passive (sucked it)
Artificial passive (stole it)
Natural active immunity
Occurs during infection.

It is active because lymphocytes are activated by antigens on pathogen's surface.
Artificial passive immunity
administration of specific Antibodies grown in things like eggs which people can be allergic to.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID)
a generic term for inflammation of the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID)
If there are symptoms then fever, cervical motion tenderness, lower abdominal pain, new or different discharge, painful intercourse, or irregular menstrual bleeding may be noted. PID can occur and cause serious harm without causing any noticeable symptoms
infects the person by burrowing into the moist, mucous-covered lining of the mouth or genitals. The spirochete produces a classic, painless ulcer known as a chancre.
Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease,
is caused by a microscopic, wormlike bacterial organism called a spirochete burrowing into the moist, mucous-covered lining.
Chlamydia is known as the "Silent Epidemic" because in women, it may not cause any symptoms and will linger for months or years before being discovered.
"Silent Epidemic" because in women, it may not cause any symptoms and will linger for months or years before being discovered.
Chlamydia non silent symptoms
unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, pain in the abdomen, painful sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), fever, painful urination or the urge to urinate more frequently than usual (urinary urgency).
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
incubation period is 1 to 10 days
Neisseria gonorrhoeae symptoms
Men may complain of pain on urinating and thick, copious, urethral pus discharge (also known as gleet) is the most common presentation. Examination may show a reddened external urethral meatus. Ascending infection may involve the epididymis, testicles or prostate gland causing symptoms such as scrotal pain or swelling. Instances blurred vision in one eye may occur in adults
vertically transmitted, gonorrhea and chlamydia
vertically transmitted, where infected mothers can pass gonorrhea to their newborn infants during delivery. This causes conjunctivitis (eye infections) which, if left untreated, can lead to blindness. As prophylaxis against this and chlamydia, all infants are treated with eyedrops of erythromycin at birth.
commonly known by the slang term the clap a purulent inflammation of mucous membrane surfaces caused by a sexually transmitted microorganism, Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Virtually any MUCOUS MEMBRANE can be infected
Primary syphilis
is typically acquired via direct sexual contact with the infectious lesions of a person with syphilis. Approximately 10-90 days after the initial exposure (average 21 days), a skin lesion appears at the point of contact, which can be anywhere on the body. This lesion, called a chancre, is a firm, painless skin ulceration localized at the point of initial exposure to the spirochete
Secondary syphilis
occurs approximately 1-6 months (commonly 6 to 8 weeks) after the primary infection.There may be a symmetrical reddish-pink non-itchy rash on the trunk and extremities. The rash can involve the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. In moist areas of the body, the rash becomes flat broad whitish lesions known as condylomata lata. Mucous patches may also appear on the genitals or in the mouth
syphilis is most contagious
during secondary syphilis sypmtoms In secondary syphilis, the bacteria has spread into the bloodstream
syphilis is most contagious
The most common symptom is a skin rash, which varies in appearance, yet frequently involves the palms and soles. Lesions called mucous patches may be seen in or on the mouth, vagina, or penis.

Moist, warty patches may develop on the genitalia or skin folds. These are called condylomata lata.
Tertiary (third) syphilis usually occurs
1-10 years after the initial infection, though in some cases it can take up to 50 years. This stage is characterized by the formation of gummas which are soft, tumor-like balls of inflammation known as granulomas
Syphilis is detected by
Shortly after infection occurs, the body produces syphilis antibodies that can be detected by an accurate, safe, and inexpensive blood test
Genital sores (chancres) caused by syphilis make it easier to
transmit and acquire HIV infection sexually. There is an estimated 2- to 5-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to that infection when syphilis is present.
syphilis, Treponema pallidum
Blood containing the bacteria reaches the fetus through the placenta
syphilis, Treponema pallidum
is difficult to transmit except by intimate contact
stomach upset, diarrhea, nausea, headache or vomiting during the first few days as your body adjusts to the medication
Gantrisin SULFISOXAZOLE WITH PHENAZOPYRIDINE - ORAL side effect cause for concern
Anaphylaxis, erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson red glove syndrome), toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, angioedema, arteritis and vasculitis, allergic myocarditis, serum sickness, rash, urticaria, pruritus, photosensitivity, and conjunctival and scleral injection, generalized allergic reactions and generalized skin eruptions
Crystalluria, hematuria, BUN and creatinine elevations, nephritis and toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria
Stevens-Johnson Nasty red socks and gloves syndrome (SJS)
a life-threatening condition affecting the skin in which cell death causes the epidermis to separate from the dermis. The syndrome is thought to be a hypersensitivity complex affecting the skin and the mucous membranes. Although the majority of cases are idiopathic, the main class of known causes is medications, followed by infections and (rarely) cancers
Stevens-Johnson Nasty red socks and gloves syndrome (SJS)
discontinue causative medication if known
Steinmann pin
a metal rod for the internal fixation of fractures
Koplik's spots small, irregular, red spots with a minute bluish white speck in the center of each seen on the buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa
are diagnostic of early stage MEASLES
Glasgow Coma Scale where 1 is dead.
an eye opening verbal, motor scale weighing, at best, 15 lbs (5 each, 15 is awake)
Spinal cord C4

cervical thoracic lumbar sacral
4 (or less) for quadrapalegia
Spinal cord C5 to T1

cervical thoracic lumbar sacral
Arms (Eat with special tools)
Spinal cord T2 or lower

cervical thoracic lumbar sacral
the 2 arms move as a parapalegic
grand mal seizure — also known as a tonic-clonic seizure
knock them onto their back and steal their pillow, then electrocute their brains
Tensilon is the trade name for edrophonium chloride injection
An obvious increase in strength in weakened muscles strongly suggests the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis
right up Frontal lobe
reasonable personality solving problems
Temporal lobe
hearing speech language
cerebellum lobe
balance and coordination
Occipital lobe
basic body function
Diets which are high in purines and high in protein have long been suspected of causing an increased risk of gout (a type of arthritis caused by high levels of uric acid in the body which form crystals in the joints, resulting in pain and inflammation)
Curling's ulcer of fire
an acute peptic ulcer of the duodenum, occurs after being burned
23 hour Elastic pressure garment
molds scars after burns
just past the stomach where the acid dumps out
In Buck's extension traction,
the patient is usually not allowed to turn and must remain flat on his back.
In Buck's extension traction
The foot of the bed is routinely elevated to keep the patient from being pulled down to the foot of the bed
In Buck's extension traction
turn the patient toward the fracture to empty the bladder or reposition
Chickenpox is generally a mild infection
caused by the varicella (herpes family) virus and spreads via air or direct contact.
Varicella chickenpox sores
antihistamine for itching
soft, bland foods for chickenpox mouth sores
never scratch ~ use gloves and trim fingernails to lessen damage
cool baths help relieve itching, added relief sprinkle bath with baking soda, uncooked oatmeal or colloidal oatmeal
acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) for fever ~ Never give aspirin to anyone with chickenpox because the combination has the potential to cause Reye Syndrome.
Hep B
B is for blood, including rough sex
Hep A
A is for asshole (fecal oral)
Hep C
C is for blood, along with the rest of the alphabet when it comes to Hepatitis.
Wounds bleed
When the sutures cleave (break),
wounds swell
when down the well with out a bandage to mold them
Pain, like family, is what the patient says it is.
treat (medicate) what they say not what you see even if it is phantom pain.
Crohn’s disease
is associated with diarrhea and poor absorption of necessary nutrients
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata, is an autoimmune condition in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system (CNS), leading to demyelination.
MS affects
the areas of the brain and spinal cord known as the white matter
MS outcomes
Life expectancy of patients,is nearly the same as that of the unaffected population, and in some cases a near-normal life is possible.
MS sypmtoms
changes in sensation (hypoesthesia), muscle weakness, abnormal muscle spasms, or difficulty in moving; difficulties with coordination and balance (ataxia); problems in speech (dysarthria) or swallowing (dysphagia), visual problems (nystagmus, optic neuritis, or diplopia), fatigue and acute or chronic pain syndromes, and bladder and bowel difficulties. Cognitive impairment of varying degrees, or emotional symptomatology in the form of depression or pseudobulbar affect
MS diagnosis
MRI shows areas of demyelination (lesions)
MS t cells pass the blood brain barrier and attack the myelin
MS T mornings make me feel that way
Parkinson's disease
his son is a dope

caused by the insufficient formation and action of dopamine
Parkinson ism a radical philosophy of
tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability
Al Capone had syphilis not Parkinson's and was not a commie pinko
Tolcapone inhibits the COMT enzyme, thereby prolonging the effects of L-dopa, and so has been used to complement L-dopa. However, due to its possible side effects such as liver failure, it's limited in its availability. A similar drug, entacapone seems less hepatoxic
MAO-B inhibitors
Selegiline and rasagiline
Parkinson's like to work out
Regular physical exercise and/or therapy, including yoga, tai chi, and dance, can be beneficial to the patient for maintaining and improving mobility, flexibility, balance, and range of motion
Myasthenia gravis
"serious muscle-weakness"; from Greek mya muscle , thenia weakness, gravis seriously.
Myasthenia is treated medically with cholinesterase inhibitors or immunosuppressants, and, in selected cases, thymectomy
caused by circulating antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors at the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction, inhibiting the stimulative effect of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Myasthenia Gravis serious muscles.
it takes muscles to work in a coal mine.

treat with cholinesterase inhibitors
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease
MS CNS autoantibodies are directed most commonly against the acetylcholine receptor
Thymectomy, my God! (MG, Myasthenia Gravis)
the surgical removal of the thymus to treat MS
It is of central importance in the maturation of T cells.
Thymos have it all.
abnormal body movements called chorea and a lack of coordination
half of theNerds on the dance floor are a genetic disgrace

autosomal dominant 50 percent chance in children
Huntington hunter gatherers work harder
people in the later stages of the disease require two to three times more calories than average to maintain body weight
CVA (Cerebrovascular accident), How would you like it?
with headache 10% ( bleeding into brain raises ICP) or without 90% (clot or fat interrupts blood flow)
CVA with headache, I need a cushing to rest my head on.
Cushing's triad involves an increased systolic blood pressure, a widened pulse pressure, bradycardia, and an abnormal respiratory pattern
stroke with increased ICP
Hemorrhagic stroke usually requires surgery to relieve intracranial (within the skull) pressure caused by bleeding
Lyme disease
Lyme (limes) on ice make me hot and really hit the spot.

Bullseye rash fatigue, chills, fever, headache, and muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes
ICP intercranial pressure increase
* Drowsiness
* Separated sutures
* Soft spot on top of the head (bulging fontanelle)
* Vomiting

Older children and adults:
* Behavior changes
* Headache
* Progressive decreased consciousness, lethargy
* Neurologic problems
* Seizures
* Vomiting
My head is about to explode, my heart to die, and my tension high, give me a Cushing to lay it on.
Cushing's triad, which includes bradycardia, hypertension (with widened pulse pressure), and a change in respiratory pattern, is seen in head injuries with increased intracranial pressure (ICP).
I can't walk straight, someone call me ataxia
ataxia is a neurological sign and symptom consisting of gross incoordination of muscle movements
the plane was crashing and that prick wouldn't give me a paresthisia chute.
a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a person's skin with no apparent long-term physical effect. It is more generally known as the feeling of "pins and needles" or of a limb being "asleep"
48 hours

ahss DEE ohmalacia
Hormone D, Calcium deficiency makes your bone rickety (rickets). Pain localized to affected bones, usually starting in the lower spine.
left to right deviation
swayback, exaggerated lower back curve toward front. Tummy sticks out.
Legg-Calve`-Perthes disease
idiopathic osteonecrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis
commonly is seen in persons aged 3-12
idiopathic osteonecrosis of the caPital femoral ephysis
Unknown bone death of the legg above the calve where bird perch
(Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease)
Prostaglandins promote inflammation, pain, and fever, support the function of platelets that are necessary for the clotting of blood, and protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of acid.
Prostaglandins are produced within the body's cells by the enzyme ...
cyclooxygenase (Cox). There actually are two Cox enzymes, Cox-1 and Cox-2.
Cox-1 produces
prostaglandins that support platelets and protect the stomach.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) block the Cox enzymes and reduce prostaglandins throughout the body.
ongoing inflammation, pain, and fever are reduced prostaglandins that protect the stomach and support the platelets and blood clotting also are reduced NSAIDs can cause ulcers in the stomach and promote bleeding.
* Aspirin
* Salsalate (Amigesic)
* Diflunisal (Dolobid)
* Ibuprofen (Motrin)
* Ketoprofen (Orudis)
* Nabumetone (Relafen)
* Piroxicam (Feldene)
* Naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)
* Diclofenac (Voltaren)
* Indomethacin (Indocin)
* Sulindac (Clinoril)
Most common NSAIDs
Contracture Ankylosis
muscle joint freeze
cerebral spinal fluid
clear fluid salty to taste

a clear sign that you should have worn a helmet
Cardiac Failure
pink frothy sputum, bi-basal crackles on chest auscultation, peripheral oedema, enlarged tender liver, suggestive history
Tension Pneumothorax
assymetrical chest movement, decreased air entry unilaterally, chest resonant to percussion unilaterally, tracheal deviation
Pulmonary Embolus
respiratory examination normal, haemodynamic instability, gallop rhythm, pleuritic chest pain, haemoptysis
Cardiac Tamponade
muffled heart sounds
Oxygen Pressure
Oxygen Saturation (arterial)
83 - 100 mm Hg
96 - 100%
6.0 - 8.4 gm/dL
3.5 - 5.0 gm/dL
2.3 - 3.5 gm/dL
Sodium moves the opposite direction of Potassium
Na 135 - 145 mEq/L
K 35 - 45
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
7 - 18 mg/dL
WBC (leukocyte count and white Blood cell count)
4.3-10.8 × 103/mm3
Male: 45 - 62%
Female: 37 - 48%
0.6 - 1.2 mg/dL
Direct: up to 0.4 mg/dL
Total: up to 1.0 mg/dL
Acidity (pH)
7.35 - 7.45
Crohn's Disease diet
There are no foods known to actually injure the bowel. However, during an acute phase of the disease, bulky foods, milk, and milk products may increase diarrhea and cramping. Generally, the patient is advised to eat a well-balanced diet, with adequate protein and calories
35-45 mmEq/L
High Potassium levels above 3.7-5.2
* Addison's disease (rare)
* Blood transfusion
* Crushed tissue injury
* Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis
* Hypoaldosteronism (very rare)
* Kidney failure
* Metabolic or respiratory acidosis
* Red blood cell destruction
Low Potassium levels below 3.5 to 4.5
* Chronic diarrhea or use of laxatives
* Cushing syndrome (rare)
* Diuretics
* Hyperaldosteronism
* Hypokalemic periodic paralysis
* Not enough potassium in the diet
* Renal artery stenosis
* Renal tubular acidosis (rare)
* Vomiting
clinical manifestations of salmonella infection.
Nausea and vomiting
clinical manifestations of infectious mononucleosis.
Headache and fatigue are initial
initial clinical manifestations of shigella infection.
Fever and cramping abdominal pain
initial clinical manifestations of Norwalk virus.
Anorexia and malaise
Natural immunity provides a nonspecific response to any foreign invader
induced by contracting the disease.
Active acquired immunity
developed by a person's own body and can be transferred in breast milk or across the placenta
Passive acquired immunity is temporary
immunity transmitted from another source that has developed immunity through immunization
Acquired immunity develops
as a result of vaccination or contracting the disease.
hepatitis A vaccine
No live organism is used in preparing
tetanus vaccine
No live organism is used in preparing
pertussis vaccine
No live organism is used in preparing
rubella vaccine
contains a live attenuated virus. This type of vaccine may result in development of the actual disease it is meant to prevent. A child who is HIV seropositive and severely immunocompromised should not be given this vaccine.
Chlamydia is diagnosed
from cultures of tissue from the infected area and by specific tests on urine and vaginal swab specimens.
Genital herpes is most accurately diagnosed by
isolation of the virus in tissue culture from the lesion.
Gonorrhea is diagnosed by
fluid analysis from infected mucous membranes, urinalysis, or gram stain.
Syphilis can be diagnosed by
the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) or the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) blood tests which measure antibody production.
A person with a history of asthma
will not show a significant positive response to the Mantoux test.
A person with a history of bronchitis
will not show a significant positive response to the Mantoux test.
A person with a history of mononucleosis
will not show a significant positive response to the Mantoux test.
A person with a history of tuberculosis
will show a significant positive response to the Mantoux test, because this test is used to determine if a person has been infected with the tuberculosis bacillus.
A throat culture is
not reliable in diagnosing tuberculosis in a patient who is HIV seropositive.
False negative responses to TB test are common in people who are
A positive tuberculin test alone
does not indicate active disease in people who are immunosuppressed
diagnose active tuberculosis
sputum specimen is easier to obtain and more definitive If the sputum culture is positive, a definitive diagnosis is made
Chloromycetin is an antibiotic
used to treat most gram positive and gram negative organisms. its hematologic side effects such as aplastic anemia and thrombocytopenia
Pen-Vee K is a broad spectrum antibiotic which has a prompt response, usually within 24 hours and relatively few side effects
It is the drug of choice for common strep infections.
Sulfadiazine (Microsulfon) is an antibiotic
used mainly to treat gram-positive bacteria such as those occurring in urinary tract infection and toxoplasmosis.
Tetracycline hydrochloride (Achromycin)
is an antibiotic used to treat both gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. However, it is not the drug of choice in children under age eight, because side effects include the permanent discoloration of teeth, enamel defects, and bone growth retardation.
Petechiae are more common in
patients with blood dyscrasias
Clinical manifestations of pneumocystis carinii in a patient with AIDS include
pulmonary infiltrates on chest X ray, nonproductive cough, fever, and dyspnea.
tuberculosis Symptoms
skin pallor, wheezing, and night sweats
Herpes zoster lesions
do not appear near the lips
Herpes zoster lesions
are vesicles, not fissures, and are not found on the feet.
Herpes zoster lesions
usually appear unilaterally on the face, trunk, and thorax.
Herpes zoster lesions
are vesicles with an erythematous base, not petechiae.
Commercial food products such as hot dogs
can carry clostridium perfringens, but not salmonella.
The most common sources of salmonella transmission are
poultry and eggs. Cookie dough usually contains eggs and children enjoy eating it raw.
Milk, if not properly refrigerated
can cause food poisoning due to staph bacteria.
When herpes simplex virus, type 2 (HSV-2) replication diminishes
the virus ascends the peripheral sensory nerves and remains inactive in the nerve ganglia.
Clostridium is a spore-forming bacterium
Its spores proliferate within the intestine during dormant periods.
Chlamydia is a bacterium that requires attachment to the host cell
It remains in the vagina and in an infected pregnant woman can infect an infant born vaginally.
Syphilis, left untreated
can lead to generalized infection including lymphadenopathy and can enter a period of latency in which further invasion of the lymphatic system occurs.
Clinical manifestations of pneumonia include
chills with some form of respiratory distress that necessitates the use of accessory muscles for breathing. Inspiratory crackles which indicate lung consolidation are also present.
In pneumothorax, breath sounds
are absent
Clinical manifestations of tuberculosis
include low grade fever, cough, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss.
Alcohol is an effective disinfectant against the spread of bacteria, fungi, and viruses found primarily on the hands.
It is not as effective against contaminants found in blood spills.
has not been shown to be an effective disinfectant against surfaces contaminated with HIV
Sodium hypochlorite
contains chlorine (bleach) which is the most effective way to disinfect surfaces contaminated by blood spills.
Haemophilus otitis media
is the result of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.
Complications of varicella include
encephalitis and other secondary bacterial infections.
A previous infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci
can be documented in most cases of rheumatic fever
Hepatitis B is transmitted primarily
through blood
Hepatitis A
is transmitted by the fecal-oral route
Sudden onset of fever along with chills and diffuse myalgia
is indicative of typhus.
Lyme disease is most characterized by
annular red rings at the site of the bite.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Severe vomiting along with chills and severe headache
diseases involving the renal system
an adverse reaction to sulfasoxazole (Gantrisin)
patient should be encouraged to drink between 3,000 and 4,000 ml daily to prevent crystalluria
The weight used in Buck's traction is usually five to 10 pounds
Circulation should be assessed every one to two hours
Buck's traction is exerted on the skin of the lower leg
direct inspection is required
The hip spica cast is designed to
immobilize the extremity and to support it
Applying a large diaper around the perineal opening of the hip spica cast.
is the best way to care for the cast and protect the child's skin around the hip spica cast.
Avulsion is associated with
traumatic bone injury
Compressed fractures are associated with
crush injuries.
Open fractures are associated with
traumatic injuries.
The word pathologic refers to the involvement of
a disease process in the fracture.
Buckle fractures
caused by compression, are quite common in young children and do not usually indicate abuse
An oblique fracture of the clavicle is
one of the most common fractures in children.
A spiral fracture of the humerus typically occurs
as a result of abusive pulling or twisting of the arm.
A fresh cast should not rest on
hard surfaces or sharp edges that may cause dents and pressure areas.
probenecid-colchicine (ColBENEMID)
increases excretion of uric acid through urine,
The dietary limitation for patients with gout who are taking ColBENEMID is to
avoid high-purine (protein) foods
A high-protein diet is likely to include
foods high in purines
Dark yellow synovial fluid indicates
inflammatory joint disease
Hazy or cloudy synovial fluid indicates
inflammatory joint disease
Cloudy, milky-white synovial fluid indicates
inflammatory joint disease.
Normal synovial fluid is
scanty, and straw-colored
Compartment syndrome is signaled by
deep, throbbing pain
Fat embolism is signaled
by shortness of breath, chest pain, and confusion.
Osteomyelitis is signaled by symptoms of systemic infection
including chills, fever, and general malaise
has mostly nonspecific symptoms, including pain and edema.
trousseau sign
squeeze arm
Ulcerative colitis is
an inflammatory disease of digestion
Crohn's disease
is a disease of digestion and elimination
Degenerative joint disease
is osteoarthritis, which is a wear-and-tear disease.
a fat embolism
is confirmed by obtaining blood gases
is a systemic vasodilator that is usually given parenterally in hypertensive emergencies
Furosemide is a diuretic
used in the general treatment of hypertension
Heparin is an anticoagulant
that is given intravenously when quick prevention of thrombus formation is needed.
Warfarin sodium (Coumadin)
is an anticoagulant sometimes used in the treatment of transient ischemic attacks. It is not given intravenously
C5 is one of the lower cervical vertebrae
This patient may be able to regain some use of the hands with appropriate equipment will not have sufficient hand function to drive a car with hand controls.
the classic sign of Parkinson's disease
Pill-rolling tremors
Huntington's disease
Repetitive blinking
Repetitive blinking
trigeminal neuralgia
A patient with Parkinson's disease
will have a shuffling gait
a patient having a seizure.
Nothing should be placed between the teeth Pillows should be removed from the bed The patient having a seizure should not be restrained A lateral position allows draining of fluids during the seizure
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
is an osmotic diuretic that dehydrates brain tissue.
Spironolactone (Aldactone)
is a potassium-sparing diuretic
Warfarin sodium (Coumadin)
is an anticoagulant sometimes used in the treatment of transient ischemic attacks
frontal lobe
concentration, memory, motor function, and speech.
occipital lobe
interpretation of visual information.
parietal lobe
sensory information and spatial orientation.
temporal lobe
hearing and integration of sensory information.
Parkinson's disease
Loss of pigmented neurons
Increase in the serum uric acid level
Smiling and laughing
frontal lobe of the cerebrum
Computed tomography (CT) scan
used to confirm brain lesions and spinal injuries.
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
diagnose the cause of seizure disorders, coma, or organic brain syndrome.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
evaluating disease of the brain and spinal cord. diagnose multiple sclerosis
Tensilon test, performed by injecting edrophonium chloride intravenously and watching for an immediate response of the facial muscles
confirms a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis.
initial symptoms of bacterial meningitis
Headache and fever
bacterial meningitis
neurological status should be assessed continuously.
overgrowth of the gums, and meticulous dental hygiene is important.
Position sense
Short-term memory loss
associated with aging, rather than with brain injury.
occipital lobe
Visual interpretation
frontal lobe
affect, judgment, personality, and inhibitions
Improved gas exchange
lateral or semiprone position. This is the choice immediately after the surgery, until the patient regains consciousness.
C4 is the cervical (neck) area spinal cord injury
transection at level C4
usually results in quadriplegia
care of a Penrose drain requires
placement of dressings around and over the drain.
acetaminophen poisoning.
Increased prothrombin time
purpose of skin grafting
Preventing contractures
elastic pressure garment
reduce hypertrophic scarring by helping to restructure collagen
purpose of the fluid replacement therapy that is chosen for the patient with burns
Maintaining fluid balance
Sidelying position
allows fluids to drain freely from the patient's mouth and nose.
Pain at the midsternum during a heavy meal
should be investigated as the chest pain of angina pectoris.
Epigastric pain after eating fatty foods
suitable food for a patient with ulcerative colitis.
low in residue
Antidiuretic hormone secretion is affected by both anesthetics and surgical processes
placing the patient at risk for imbalances and decreased urinary output.
Nausea and vomiting are initial clinical manifestations
Headache and fatigue are initial clinical manifestations
Fever and cramping abdominal pain are initial clinical manifestations
Norwalk virus
Anorexia and malaise are initial clinical manifestations
diagnosed through the use of blood studies
most common side effect experienced by children receiving DTaP immunization
low grade fever
hepatitis A virus transmitted
fecal-oral route
Swimming in a community pool puts a person at risk for a urinary tract infection (UTI)
but the infection is not caused by the fecal-oral transmission.
Scratching a mosquito bite
puts a person at risk for infection via the bloodborne route or by skin contact.
Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB)
is given to all infants soon after birth to prevent hepatitis B.
Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is given routinely
to children at 12 to 15 months of age to prevent rubeola (measles).
Varicella vaccine,
also known as zoster immune globulin
Phenozopyridine hydrochloride (Pyridium)
is a urinary analgesic that exerts a local anesthetic action on the urinary mucosa
A streptococcal infection
causes damage to the mitral valve of the heart.
Rheumatic heart disease, rheumatic fever
group A streptococci A bacterial infection
anasarca (aunt sarca)
is really fat, generalized edema
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