AP Euro : Ch16 Absolutism & Constitutionalism in Western Europe Flashcards

Terms Definitions
-Primary element of diet regardless of wealth
Moral Economy
-Vision of a world in which community needs predominate over competition and profit
-A state is termed this when it possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries
-No system of courts competes with state courts in dispensation of justice
-Private armies present no threat to central authority b/c state's army is stronger
-State law affects all
Popular revolts
-Common in England, France, Spain, Portugal and Italy in mid 17th century
-Over increased pressures of taxation & warfare
Culture of Retribution
-Punishment of royal "outsiders," or officials who tried to announce of collect taxes
-Sometimes beaten & killed
Leviathan (1651)
-By English philosopher Thomas Hobbes
-Justification for absolute monarchical authority
-Any limits on / division of gov. power would lead to paralysis or civil war
-Compensated for lower taxes
-Annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee heredity in their offices
-Under Henry IV
Edict of Nantes (1598)
-Compromise between Catholics & Huguenots
-Allowed Protestants
-Royal commissioners
Noblesse de robe
-Robe nobility
Raison d' état
-Reason of state
-How Richelieu justified his policies
-Uprisings of 1648-1653 in France in response to Mazarin's attempts to increase royal revenues to meet costs of war w/ Spain
Noblesse d'épée
-Sword nobility
Divine Right of Kings
-God had established kings as his rulers on earth & they answered only to God
Treaty of Nijmegen (1678)
-Louis gained Flemish towns and all of Franche-Comte
Grand Alliance
-Formed in 1701
-Against Louis XIV
-Included English, Dutch, Austrians & Prussians
-Converted Muslims
Louis XIV of France
-"Sun King"
-Palace of Versailles
-Divine right of kings
-One king, one law, one faith
-Never called meeting of Estates General
-Consolidated and increased military
Charles II of Spain
-Died childless & left Crown & empire to Philip of Anjou (grandson of Louis XIV)
-Broke treaty that stated Spain would be divided b/w France & HRE
-Began Spanish War of Succession
Franche Comte
-Louis invaded _________ in 1667 using dynastic excuse
-He acquired 12 towns
-Gained ____________ under Treaty of Nimwegen
Estates General of the United Provinces
-A legislative assembly of the different classes of French subjects
-No true power b/c not required to approve taxation or legislation
Bank of Amsterdam
-Europe's best source of cheap credit, commercial intelligence & main clearing-house for bills of exchange
-Reason for Holland's prosperity
English Navigation Act of 1651
-Required English goods be transported on English ships
-Boosted development of English merchant marine
Treaty of Nimwegen (1678)
-Ended Anglo-Dutch wars
-Gave Louis XIV more Flemish towns and all of Franche-Comte
Hugo Grotius
-Produced Law of War and Peace, a pioneering treatise on international law
Baruch Spinoza
-Portuguese Jewish refugee
-Wrote philosophy
-Made $$ as a lenscrafter
Christian Huyghens
-Improved telescope
-Made clocks
-Discovered rings of Saturn
-Wave Theory of Light
Jaques Bossuet
-French author
-Claimed kings ruled by divine right
Marie de Medici
-Mother of Louis XIII
-Wife of Henry IV
Cardinal Richelieu
-Strengthened royal control thru better tax collection
-Divided France into 32 districts
-Governed one of the 32 districts France was divided into.
Ann of Austria
-Mother of Louis XIV
-Served as Regent when he became King of France in 1643
-Depended on Cardinal Mazarin
Jules Mazarin
-Italian Cardinal
-Produced tragedies
-Produced comedies
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
-Employed by Louis XIV
-Advocate of mercantilism
-Sponsored industries
-Improved roads and canals
-Enhanced trade
-Improved tax collection
-Initiated French East India company
Edict of Nantes
-Granted tolerance to Protestants
-Revoked by Louis XIV
-Catholic minority
-pursued a doctrine of faith and divine grace similar to that of the Calvinists
-Province btwn eastern France and Switzerland
-Seized by Louis XIV
War of the League of Augsburg
-btwn france and an alliance of Louis XIV protestant and catholic enemies
Five Great Farms
-Area set up by Colbert that is free of internal tariffs.
War of Spanish Succession
-Charles II died w/o an heir
-In his will, he left the Spanish throne to the grandson of Louis XIV, Philip of Anjou
The rest of Europe feared if Spain and France united, the balance of power would be thrown off
-The rest of Europe went to war to prevent this
Peace of Utrecht 1713
-Louis' grandson Philip remained first Bourbon king of Spain on understanding that French & Spanish crowns wouldn't be united
-France gave up Newfoundland, Nova Scotia & Hudson Bay territory to England who also got Gibraltar, Minorca & control of African slave trade from Spain
-Dutch gained little b/c Austria got former Spanish Netherlands
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