Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Either/Or thinking
Either the “Other” is completely different, separate and “primative” ... Or the “Other” is like us, only degraded, poor, and boring.
Meratus Dayaks
Not “ordinary others” who are boring and “like us,” just poor and brown-skinned--Definitely different
“primitive others”
Meratus Dayaks represent our evolutionary history. This search for “primitive man” is something that in ingrained in our Western civilized outlook. If asked to prove that we are civilized, how do we go about doing so? Find uncivilized people, show how we are unlike them, and the problem resolves itself. Primitive man is the ultimate opposite of civilized man. He is also the “true” man, as he was created or evolved apart from civilization, so his essence matters. If primitive man is violent and warring, then his outlook supports civilized society’s focus on competition, cut-throat capitalism, and war. If he is gentle and peaceful, then his outlook supports civilized society’s focus on moderation, diplomacy, and cooperation. Thus the question about primitive man becomes a political battle between factions.
“romance of the primitive”/ Discourse of hope
The primitive as the dream space of possibility against the numbing monotony of regulated life and the advancing terrors of ecological destruction, corporate insatiability, and military annihilation.They haven’t yet been corrupted, this is hopeful because ...She’s talking about connectedness. There are real people who are indigenous and they are different from us. They have learned to live with their environment and maintain it; they are a good example of sustainability.
Ethnographic Present
Example from Nisa: “such affairs are not condoned” ... “most !Kung are proud” Making a point that this is how people liveCritique: “their time is not the time of civilized history” Ethnographic present pushes them out of our time because it restricts the capacity for change. All civilized societies change. By writing in the present, you bottle them up
Meratus complication (ethnographic present)
a. On the one hand, they are fully modern, just like anyone elseb. On the other hand, they are “out of time”—they have been marginalized from modern society
marginality’s three processes
Marginality (the process in which people are cast aside or excluded) has three processes: State Rule, Regional and ethnic identity formation, and Gender
Us/Them and primitives vs. hillbillies
Primitives: Romantic fascination and Missionizing zealHillbillies: Confuse boundaries between “us” and “them”, Muddle universalizing standards of propriety, deference, and power, Always and perpetually negative. We do not like them
Meratus positive vs. negative sites
Positive site of endogenous, localized knowledgeNegative site of displacement within discourses on civilization and progress
Critique of holism
the depth and coherence of culture are artifacts of a particular gaze from above, a gaze that focuses on the difference between a Western-trained "us" and a non-Western "them."
postcolonial anthropology/elites
Believe that the notion of cultural differences has been used to debase and control Third World peoples.(e.g.) Boutros-Boutros Gali: Wog (derogatory term)
Condition of White privilege and the problematic of invisibility and namelessness
Gender and Difference
Very different kind of different
Mainstream Feminism
“Phallogocentric (phallus-logos[word/knowledge]-centered) subject formation” – universal woman, universally disadvantaged 1. The marginalization of women is like the marginalization of poor, nonwhite, or colonized people
Critical Feminism
rejects Mainstream feminism1. Tsing believes this one2. “Race, class, and national hierarchies are themselves everywhere constructed in gendered ways, and gendered divisions are established in ‘communal’ materials
Ruler at the time of writing. Waged brutal anti-communist crackdown of Sukarno from a rationalized government to
(nationalist, socialist, non-aligned movement)
The way the ethnography is written should reflect something of how the ethnography was done. If the work was messy, then the text should be messy too. We need to be suspicious of some tropes, some writing conversations
a commonly used literary pattern. Here, “Primitive people are dangerous” or “Primitive people are vulnerable”
Three Principle Borneo Tropes
White male adventurers: Borneo is the site of steamy jungles and exotic womenAnthropologists: Borneo is NOT the site of jungles and women; instead, Borneans are respectable, friendly, orderly people with neat farms and nice social structures.Ecologists: Borneo is the site of primitive tribes who love their rainforests and live in unity with their environment
Book's Organization/Politics of the Periphery
How do Meratus community leaders relate to regional state authorities? Gendered exchanges
Banjar/Dayak Ethnic Split--History
(Banjar seen as in charge)i. Colonialism by Dutchii. Occupation by Japaneseiii. Guerilla wariv. Suharto regime: 1970s1. Logging 2. Resettlement3. Modernization of agriculture
History--Resettlement (advantages vs. disadvantages)
a.Disadvantages: i.Banjar immigration ii.Environmental degradation iii.Public Health crisis iv.Disempowerment of Meratusb.Advantages: i.Education ii.Shopping
Three Part Geography
Western Foothills, Central Mountains (impassable by outsiders, Meratus find it very easy), East Side (Meratus, etc, multi-cultral, logging)
                                                               i.      Western foorhills: Meratus resettled in “model villages”; densely populated                                                              ii.      East: sparsely populated, but growing; logging roads; immigrants; more multicultural                                                             iii.      Central mountains: thinly populated; shifting cultivation (swidden/slash-and-burn); difficult to travel
Marginal Fictions: Meratus name
Named (by tsing) after the mountains, but also means 100s
Marginal Fictions: Asymmetry between Meratus and Banjar
                                                               i.      Language: Banjar and Meratus speak closely related dialects                                                              ii.      Religion: Banjar are Muslims; Meratus are not                                                             iii.      Marginalization: Both Banjar and Meratus are marginalized within Indonesia (although not equally). Both are overpowered by Javanese, overseas Chinese – not ppl from China but ppl who are ethnically chinese but live somewhere like Vancouver –, and multinational companies.
Ethnohistory of "Brothers"
Banjar and Meratus are described as brothers who chose differently. Meratus are the descendents of Si Ayuh (Sandayhuhan)--the older brother with no sense of discipline.. Banjar are the younger brother Bambang Basiwara--the clever, successful brother.
a group that makes a swidden farm together; a “family” (you have an area forest, and instead of hunter-gatherers, you plot little gardens to harvest out of – take a plot until it’s been used then move on to a diff part of the forest)

                                                               i.      Composed of One male and one female with dependents (husband/wife, brother/sister, mother/son, etc.)                                                              ii.      Autonomous, with freedom to associate with other umbuns if it wants to, or not if it doesn’t   
continually renegotiated and re-imagined constituency of a local leader
Local Officials
appointed by the state as village heads or neighborhood heads, but with little power
Cultural ideal associated with youth: ambition, freedom, lack of responsibilities and obligations
                                                               i.      Opposite of “work”                                                              ii.      Often gendered as masculine
Government Headhunters: Imagination of Power
   Tsing is interested in the magical and meaningful aspects of concrete political practices
The Bear
a.       Indonesian national narrative: The state is transformed (Banjar, Javanese, Dutch colonial, Japanese occupation, restoration of Dutch power, independence under communism, Suharto takeover etc, [Suharto more interested in big festivals, fancy uniforms, than actual rule; encourage Meratus to interpret the state magically]) but the Meratus stay the same
b.      Meratus stories: The state stays the same while the Meratus change
State from Meratus Perspective: Violence
  No difference between legitimate and illegitimate violence: the state uses violence because it is the state. “The police are terrorists because terror is the appropriate job of the police.” (p.75)
State from Meratus Perspective: State Terrorism
a) Rumors of “headhunting” – ppl are seriously scared of police coming to their homes and taking their children
b)   If development is public construction, and public construction used to demand heads in the precolonial period, then when a new dam or bridge is built, the automatic conclusion is to suspect that the state will begin headhunting to ensure the strength of the new project
Meratus Identity
1) Meratus identity has always been about their ongoing relationship with the state, about continual attempts by the state to bring them under its power.2) Meratus relations with the state have never been about becoming developed, but always about maintaining their vulnerability (many different companies coming in and they fear about getting attacked by indigenous folk...the state makes sure that these people don't do that.)3)Development for the state has never been primarily about human welfare but has always been primarily about building big things. (E.g. tamale stadium)4)Meratus has always been the victims of development, as those with the least say in how state decisions are made.
Wars are to be expected, but Meratus can survive wars by appeasing powerful forces whether soldiers or spirit
i.      Hospitality: “the trick ... was to host all competing authorities with equally passionate loyalty” (p. 78)
Cosmic Cuisine
the reality of Western aid and development is going to try to make “one size fit all”: men, women, couples, families, etc. are defined at the state level, and on the Javanese/Banjar model, which sees male heads of extended families
Umbun & Consanguineal group
Manipulated conception of Meratus famillies by the Meratus in response to the state attempting to plan their famillies. Umbun is a couple based economic unit with no male domination. Cross-cutting consanguineal groups are vague andinclusive. They are the "big tent" approach to family relations where they all share resources, younger members respect elders, elder members care for juniors, weakly connected with no specific female roles, potentially dominated by men.
Women and Contraception
The state looks to men to lead in family planning. Meratus men promote consanguineal kinship organization because it permits men to be dominant. As a result, women are marginalized from making decisions about their reproduction.
A Science of Travel: Communities
Meratus communities can be understoon only within the context of Meratus mobility: daily visits, annual field movements, long term trajectories across the landscape
Perspective of State Officials and Banjar traders
Best way to examine Meratus travel. (Thinks they travel too much?)
Leadership Landscapes
Meratus leaders have no coercive power. The local leaders are both important and weak in that they wield power over constituents, but power is always questioned and threatened. Regional authority is unassailable because if police do come they will act decisively and powerfully, but empty because the police are not going to come in time.
Women and power
Although women are politically disadvantaged, they are not powerless.
Ma Salam's saga
P. 145: Ma Salam shakes down Anna Tsing (she actually jumps/does what he says; but he acts sort of like the mafia)
Adat law and egalitarian social life
Although it is said that adat law (traditional law) creates egalitarian social life, Tsing says that the egalitarian life exists in spite of Adat law.
Conditions of Living
As the Meratus shift cultivation, the communities move every few years, but this produces stability because the places they move to are very specific and known to the community
State Definition of Meratus Lifestyles
The state sees the Meratus as nomads with a simple life who are isolated and move around a lot. They are also seen to be semi-nomads who are less isolated still simple, but have stopped moving, and provisionally settled, settled but still simple.
1) A girl who is loved
2) a warrior
3) clothing
4) a traveller
5) luck
6) health
A site of travel and change. There are six viewpoints:
1) mature forest
2) secondary forest (aged)
3)  first year swidden
4) second year swidden
5) house site
6) trail
Hardwood timber industry
Worth millions between 1970-1980s. Meratus are entirely excluded from being able to sell trees. (ex. Interior Dept. corruption)
On the boundary of the skin: Julia Kristeva
Abjection: fear for one's skin becoming permeable or one's body being invaded or leaking. (Usually masculine) Dominant horror film (e.g. Alien)
Religion (According to Tsing)
Religion is not a distinctive set of beliefs and rituals, but rather, religion involves one's basic relationship to reason, knowledge, language, and subjectivity. Because the Banjar see their religion as universal and reasonable, they see the Meratus religion as spooky, dangerous, and magical
Banjar Religion and Gender
Men are more capable of self-control. Women are incapable of self-controlled and must therefore be controlled by men. Younger men must be protected from women (especially those that are not under protection from a man) E.g. dorm gate
male transvestite
Female monsters
Banjar travelers
Shore up ethnic boundaries against Meratus incursions. Men protect themself against the female/Meratus disorder, and assume that the Meratus are a total cultural other, in that they need the Other to prove the Self.
Meratus responses to Banjar travellers
1) Expand Meratus boundaries to "borrow" the powers of others
2) Meratus shamans are non-gendered humans, ordinary people
3) Meratus shamans use external authorities to lend them power
Social Organization
the interlocking role relationships that are activated when statuses have incumbents and groups have members, all of whom are going about the daily business of living
social position held by an individual
rights and obligations associated with a status
ascribed status
Holder of the status has very little control over status. Either born into it or position is saved until holder grows into it.
achieved status
Holder may not assume it until criteria have been met. There is a possiblity of failure.
Social structure
Enduring social realtionships that provide a foundation for regularized, patterned, social interaction
cluster of social statuses and groups that share a common focus
The focus on how a society functions, how it maintains equilibrium. Useful for describing basic social relations.
Emile Durkheim
Founder of both modern socioogy and modern anthropology. Interested in what held a society together, contrasting societies held together by mechanical solidarity with those held together by organic solidarity.
Mechanical solidarity
Small-scale, kinship-based societies, in which all the tasks necessary for survival were carried out on a family level and famlies stayed together because they shared the same language and customs.
a) family = foundational
b) labor = generalized
c) groups can split easy
Organic Solidarity
characterizes large-scale societies, such as nation-states. The tasks necessary for survival are specialites of different subgroups in a complex division of labor.
a) familes = less important
b) labor = specialized
c) groups can't split bc groups = necessary
Egalitarian society
All members or lineages enjoy roughly the same degree of wealth, power,and prestige.
Stratified society
some members or lineages have greater acess to some or all of wealth, power, and prestige.
Additional forms of social organization that crosscut kinsihp groups and bind their members together at a more inclusive level
Age set
(in East Africa) a group of young men born within a specific time span
Age grade
State associated with a certain age
Secret Society
Usually single sex social organization that crosscut kinship groupings that also involves a secret initation
Caste society
Stratified societies in which membership in a particular ranked subgroup is ascribed at birth and social mobility is not alowed
social mobility
movement by individuals out of the subgroup in which they were born. In India:
1) Brahmins: vegetrain priestly caste
2) Ksatriya: warrior caste
3) Untouchables: meat-eating polluted caste
class society
stratified society in which members of ranked subgroups relate to one another in economic terms
Karl Marx
Argued that class divisoins had formed between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Analyzed class society.
Capitalist class which owed the means of production (tools, knowledge, raw materials)
Working class which owned only their labor power which they sold to bourgeois factor owners in exchange for cash wages.
Patron-client relationship
cross-hierarchal connection between individuals
Coparenthood in Latin America (godparents, compadre, comadre)
Cultural system of classifying people based on perceived physical differences
(race) Culturally constructed
Depends partly on individual's self-identification, and partly on group's identification of the individual
Visible differences
Race is still based on these visible differences and not always voluntary
cultural system of classifying people based on  perceived differences in language, religion, customs, and/or history
ethnic group
usually a minority within a nation-state. Particularly connected with language and nationalism. Not primordial, historical, constructed culturally
the destruction of a culture
the physical extermination of an entire people
culturally constructed roles assigned to males or females, and these vary considerably from society to society
Cultural system of classifying people based on perceived differences between male and female. Gender and sex do not always correlate
physical characteristics that distinguish males from females (e.g. body shape, distribution of body hair, reproductive organs, sex chromosomes)
Sexual practices
The full range of sexual practices has always been practiced by the totality of humans. Certain individuals tend to engage in certain sexual practices based on a genetic predisposition and sexual preference.
Sexual identities
Based on the cultural values of a specific culture, some sexual practices might be determined "normal" and others to be "aberrant". People who practices aberrant sex were stigmatized if they publicly announced their practices. Lead to the development of a separate sexual identity for gay lesbian transgendered and bisexual people in the west. However, as stigma reduces, identities become less separate (e.g. gay communities in San fransisco in the 1970s.--Milk)
Refers to indigenous (native amercian) socially accepted roles in which men (sometimes women) were allowed to take on the activies and sometimes dress of members of the oppposite sex. "third gender' or "two spirit" are socially accepted terms as berdache is seen to be derogatory.
how people make food and goods in order to live
Lewis Henry Morgan
Focused on large-scale variation in patterns of subsistence in different human societies. His key criterion for ranking subsistence patters was technological complexity (simpler the toolkit, the more primitive). Three great "ethnical periods:" savagery, barbarism, and civilization (rejected). Influenced Karl Marx
Subsistence Strategies
Foraging, pastoralism, horticulture/extensive agriculture, intensive agriculture
Regular human interference with the reproduction of other species (plants and animals) in ways that makes them beneficial to ourselves.
Does not rely on domesticated plants or animals but instead subsists on a variety of wild foodstuffs. Foragers' knowledge of their habitat is encyclopedic.
Relies on herds of domesticated animals, such as cattle, camels, sheep, or goats and regularly move these herds, sometimes over great distances, as water and forage in one area are used up. Limited food production (dependence on grazing land) nomadic.
Cultivates domesticated plants by using human labor and simple tools and techniques to modify local vegation or soil texture before planting their crops. (slash and burn, swidden)
Swidden/shifting cultivation
Vegetation is cut down and burned and the ash is used to fertilize crop. Farmers must move on to clear new fields every few years because a particular field can only be used for so long before soil is exhausted and must regenerate. Highly productive and energy efficient but functions only when farmers have access to enough land to live on while old fields regenerate "extensive agriculture" bc requires so much land for so few people
Intensive agriculture
Societies exploting the strength of domestic animals by harnessing them to mroe complex tools like plows and growing and harvesting crops with the help of irrigation and fertilizers
production that exceeds what is necessary to feed, clothe, and nurture the producers and their offspring as well as provide seed and other resources to maintain future generation
Mechanized Industrial agriculture
Relies on industrial technology for machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Uses vastly more energy than shifting cultivation, but enables few farmers to produce enormous amounts of food on vast expanses of land. High production from land using scientific methods and expensive technology
Economic Explanation
formalism vs. substantivism
Taking concepts such as supply, demand, price, and money [capitalist market economy] and searching for their analogues in non-Western, noncapitalist societies. Applies formal concepts and theories of neoclassical economics to all economic systems.
Formalist affluence
Results from producing a lot and satisfying desires
Neoclassical economics
“Neoclassical economics, like capitalist society itself, subscribes to a particular view of human nature that sees isolated individuals as the only genuine human reality.” By their nature, human beings are “self-interested egoists ... who all live under conditions of scarcity.” Neoclassical economics sees human society as “artificial, secondary, and legitimate only to the extent that social rules do not interfere with each individual’s pursuit of his or her own self-interest
buying cheap and selling dear in order to maximize on'es individual utility (or satisfaction)
Melville Herskovits
Urged anthropologists to broww concepts and theories from neoclassical economics later known as capitalism. Believed that the concepts had been refined to such a degree of scientific objectivity that they could be applied to economies very different from the one they originally were invented to explain. Founded formalism.
Describing noncapitalist economic systems using neoclassical economic theory could only distort and misrepresent what was actually going on in these economies. Defines economic systems in terms of their substantive instituational arrangements for provisioning their members.
Affluence Under Substantivism
Involves reducing needs and living simply with leisure time.
Marshall Sahlins
American Anthropologist, leading substantivist
Original Affluent Society
Concluded by Sahlin to be the foraging society, not industrial capitalism
Modes of Exchange
Patterns according to which distribution takes place
Karl Polanyi
Economic historian who showed how misleading it was to suppose that all human economies had been based on capitalist principles. Three Modes of Exchange: reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange
Governs exchange in small, face to face societies, especially those whose members live by foraging. Simple exchange of goods. "barter"
Generalized Reciprocity
Involves no-record-keeping and parties assumed that exchanges would balance out in the long run. (parenthood?)
Balanced Reciprocity
Required that a gift be repaid within a set time limit and that goods exchanged be of roughly the same value.
Negative Reciprocity
Involved parties who repeatedly tried to get something for nothing from one another in a relationship that might continue over time, each trying to get the better of the other. Exchange of goods without money changing hands.
Requires the presence in a society of some central person or institution. Goods flow toward this central point and are then redistrbuted among members of the society according to their cultural norms of what is appropriate. "plunder"
Leveling Mechanism
A mode of redistribution that shrinks the gap between rich and poor.
Commodity (market) exchange
exchange of goods for money within a capitalist system. "business"
Stores value, express value, exchanges for goods and services.
Persistence of non-market exchange under capitalism
Although there are seperate types of exchange, they can coexist. Capitalism, in part, relies on on reciprocal and redistributive exchanges within the nation-state system.
focus of Marx economics, Marx observed industrializing England in the mid-19th century
Value from labor
increased value came from the surplus labor of the proletariat within the production process
focus of neoclassical economics (mercantile capitalism of the 18th century did not involve much mechanization--economies were not industrialized)
Increased Value from Trade
buying low in one place and selling high in another
Labor cycle
Workers are paid wages in exchange for their labor, then they spend this money on goods produced by other workers. When workers buy back the items they have produced, they are buying the product of the labor of workers, using the wages paid for their own labor, but both have been transformed by money.
Alienation of Workers
Marx argued that life under capitalism separates workers from the means of production, from the goods they produce and from other human beings. Having been seperated out and individualized, the worker thus produced by industrial capitalism was the "natural human being" idealized by neoclassical economics.
Mode of Production
The way the production of material goods in a society is carried out. Depends on means of production, classes, and the relations of production.
groups of people who carry out production
Relations of production
productive activities
Peasant Mode of Production
Observed in many Latin American societies that are seen to be divided into classes with peasants dominated by a ruling class of landowners and merchants.
Small-scale farmers in state societies who own their own means of production and who produce enough to feed themselves and to pay rent to their landlords and taxes to the government.
Subsistence crops
food crops grown to feed the family producing them, with surplus sold to feed city-dwellers.
Cash crops
crops that are not food (cotton, tobacco) or not used as food by the growers (palm nuts, soybeans) that are intended to be sold for money which will then be used to purchase food.
Informal economy
Unregulated, untaxed, and even illegal means of production, often involving pooled resources (eg. barn raising)
Formal economy
Capitalist activities authorized, regulated, and taxed by the state.
When goods or services produced in a society are distributed to those who use them up, or consume them.
Basic human needs
food, shelter, companionship
Conspicuous consumption
the purchase and public display of goods known to be costly and unnecessary for basic survival.
Development of commodity markets in previously non-capitalist areas. “Under conditions of globalization, mass-produced commodities are on offer to people everywhere, and anthropologists should not automatically assume that choosing to consume such commodities signifies the triumph of Western imperialism or the loss of cultural authenticity.”
The reinterpretation of external ideas and practices within indigenous frameworks of understanding
Domestication of commodities
The restatement of foreign expressions and ideas within a domestic language (e.g. "Chinese" food in the US)
Alternative Versions of Modernity
All groups come to modernity on their own terms, and thus the modernity that is expressed is different for each group.
Political Science
One's individual ability to compel others to do what he or she wants them to do
use of physical force
State (five elements)
an independent political entity that controls a geographical territory with clear boundaries and that defends itself from external threats with an army and from internal disorder with the policy.
1) independent political entity that
2) controls a geographical territory with
3) clear boundaries and that
4) defends itself from external threats and from
5) internal disorder with the police
Political Anthropology
What other kinds of political institutions are possible apart from the state? What is the history of the state?
Persuasive Power
All those other forms of influence that transform people's practical activities or their ideas about the world without relying on physical force.
Political Ecology
Pays attention to the ways in which human groups struggle with one another for control of usually local material resources.
Political Economy
The focus is on the political creation and consequences of the division of labor in society
Absence of rule
Dispute resolution
raiding, feuding, warfare
short term use of force with an immediate and limited goal
Ongoing chronic hostilities between groups of neighbors or kin. They often are politically destabilizing because they are potentially endless. Involves mediation, negotiation, and bloodwealth
a formally recognized, neutral third party to whom the disputing parties can appeal to settle their differences. Have no coercive power of their own but instead rely on the persuasive power of negotiation
Verbal argument and compromise
material payment for death of a family member
involves violent conflict on a signficantly larger scale. Occurs when persuasive means of dispute resolution, such as diplomacy, either do not exist or have failed or are ignored, and physical combat becomes the only avenue open to settle differences.
Forms of political organization
band, tribe, chiefdom, state
group of people whose economic structure is foraging. Extremely small scale, no more than 50 people. widely scattered since a group tends to need a lot of area in which to gather resources since nothing is grown. No coercion. No asymmetrical gendered division of labor and acephalous
no head, no official leader
group of people who practice horticulture (extensive agriculture) or herding that plant gardens in cycles in wilderness. Pastoral nomads tend herds of animals on common land. Organized into kinship groups, but within each kinship group access to power is largely equal. No coercion, gendered division of labor, acephalous
New social arrangements show the emergence of distinctions among lineages in terms of status or ranking. One lineage is elevated above the rest and its leader becomes a key political figure whose higher status often dervies from his role in redistributive economic exchanges. Chief has increased access to material and social wealth, but has little coercive power
Agriculture vs. Industrial
(1830, England)
Social Stratification
A permanent, inherited inequality between various component groups of which the society is composed. a.       Caste and class and slaves
b.      Sumptuary privileges: special rules over consumption
c.       Wealth, prestige, and power
d.      Complex societies: caste/class division of labor
public administration
a.       Formalization of life (e.g. socialization of the family)  
Sanctions (law)
substantive law: encodes notions of right conduct that show much cross-cultural variation
Procedural law: how those accused of breaking the law are to be treated.
a.       Nation: ethnic group, usually with a common language (Europe)                                                                                                                                       i.      American exception? b.      Nation-state: situation in which nation maps to state. c.       Imagined community: Since no citizen ever meets all the other citizens of a nation, national identity as a sense of common belonging comes in the shared imagination of citizens, based on shared experiences dealing with state institutions and from reading the same newspaper and books
Benedict Anderson
Came up with Imagined Community
direct, coercive control
the manafacture of the consent of the governed in a liberal, capitalist democracy
cohesive set of ideas that explains and justifies inequality
Hidden Transcript
Attempted opposition to the offical ideology ("counter hegemony) thought up by Antonio Gramsci
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