Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
One explanation for bipedalism centers on environmental changes that swept Africa more than five millions years ago. These changes also resulted in:
The division between the common ancestors of hominins and chimpanzees.
The term hominin is used to refer to the human line after its split from ancestral chimps. Hominid is used:
To refer to the taxonomic family that includes humans and the African apes and their immediate ancestors.
If we compare Earth's history to a 24-hour day (with one second equaling 50,000 years),
Home Sapiens arrives at 36 seconds before midnight.
What do researchers know about Ardipithecus kadabba?
It was a bipedal hominin with strongly apelike characteristics.
As a result of the Kenyanthropus discovery in 1999,
the place of afarensis in human ancestry has been and will be debated between taxonomic "splitters" and "lumpers"
"Lucy" is the nickname of
a small female member of A. afarensis.
Which of the following most clearly identifies Australopithecus afarensis as a hominin?
postcranial (below the head) remains that confirm upright bipedalism.
The presence of very large molars and a sagittal crest on the top of the skull is evidence of
the more robust australopithecines' adaptation to food sources dominated by hard-shelled seeds and grasses
What is the significance of the discovery of Australopithicus afarensis?
It provided clear fossil evidence that bipedalism preceded the evolution of a human like brain.
How were Oldowan tools, the oldest recognized stone tools, manufactured?
by chipping flakes off a core
Despite the continued debate surrounding H. Rudolfensis and H. habilis, there is a sure conclusion
that several different kinds of hominids lived in Africa before and after the advent of Homo.
Which of the following factors definitely is NOT related to the development of larger brains among H. erectus populations?
broad-spectrum revolution
Which of the following is a trend in hominin evolution since the australopithecines?
Molar size has decreased
Which of the following traits did NOT contribute to the increasing adaptability of H. erectus?
microlithic stone tools
What is the most likely explanation for why early Homo left Africa and spread into Eurasia?
the need to find meat
What species is associated with Zhoukoudian, a site in China that has yielded the most specimens of this species?
H. erectus
The recently discovered Dmanisi fossils
are the most ancient undisputed human fossils found outside of Africa
Why are there such a large number of European archaic H. sapiens finds?
There is a long history of Paleolithic archaeology in Europe relative to other regions in the world.
What does the debate about Neandertals' relation to anatomically modern humans focus on?
Whether Neandertals are directly in anatomically modern humans' evolutionary line, or whether they constitute and extinct offshoot.
What is one of the most surprising aspects of the recent discovery of H. floresiensis?
The suggestion that sophisticated cultural abilities typically associated with anatomically modern humans rather than with a homidin with a chimplike brain
With the glacial retreat, foragers pursued a more generalized economy, focusing less on large animals. This was the beginning of what Kent Flannery ('69) has called the
broad-spectrum revolution
Why were the Natufians able to live in year-round villages prior to the emergence of domestication?
because they could exploit their rich local environment with broad-spectrum foraging.
Early cultivation in the Middle East began as an attempt to
copy, in a less favorable environment, the dense stands of wheat and barley that grew wild in the Hilly Flanks.
Why do most domesticated grains (such as wheat and barley) have a tougher axis and more brittle husk than wild grains?
The practices of harvesting and processing grain gradually selected for these features.
In the alluvial desert plain of the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, a new economy based on irrigation and trade fueled the growth of an etnirely new form of society:
the state: a social and political unit featuring a central government, extreme contrasts of wealth, and social class
Food production spread out of the Middle East through trade, diffusion of domesticated species, and actual migration of farmers, to northern Africa, Europe, India, and Pakistan. However, archaeological evidence suggests that-
in southern Egypt cattle may have been domesticated locally rather than imported from the Fertile Crescent.
The findings at Nabta Playa, located in the eastern Sahara and southern Egypt,
represent an elaborate and previously unsuspected ceremonialism, as well as social complexity during the African Neolithic
Using C14 dates and considering the time it would have taken the first Americans to travel by land from the southern part of the Canadian ice-free corridor to Tierra del Fuego at the southern tip of South America, researchers have recently concluded that
The Clovis people were not the first settlers of the Americas
Which of the following statements about life in the Valley of Oaxaca prior to cultivation is NOT true?
People live in sedentary villages
Which of the following is correct about the food-producing traditions of Mesopotamia and Mesoamerica ?
Large domesticated animals played an important role in Mesopotamia but were absent from Mesoamerica.
Chiefdoms
were precursors to states, with privileged and effective leaders- chiefs- but lacking the sharp class divisions that characterize states
Which variable does NOT enter into Carneiro's multivariate theory of state formation?
long-distance trade
Which of the following did NOT distinguish states from earlier forms of society?
burials
Which of the following statements about egalitarian societies is NOT true?
Which of the following statements about egalitarian societies is NOT true?
Everybody has equal status
Which term refers to a ranked society in which villages are NOT autonomous?
chiefdom
Which of the following did NOT accompany primary state formation in southern Mesopotamia?
increasing isolation of communities
Which of the following statements about the earliest writing is NOT true?
It was syllabic
What was the vital step for the development of metallurgy and the wider and rapid distribution of metals evident after 5000 bp?
Smelting
Which of the following is true about the emergence of states in Africa?
Southward Bantu migrations resulted in the emergence of the Mwenemutapa empire.
Which of the following statements about the collapse of Copan is NOT true?
It was precipitated by an Olmec invasion.
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