Equine anatomy-NECK Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1. What is the vertebral formula of the horse?
C7 T18 L6 S5 Cd~15
2. What is the relationship of the cervical vertebrae to the dorsal midline?
It is a gently sloping, backwards "S" type curve.
3. What are the anatomical differences of the nuchal ligament in the horse and the dog?
Dog(1 part)-from spine of 1st thoracic vertebra to the spine of the axisHorse (2 parts) Funiculus nuchae(cord-like)-from skull to spines of thoracic vertebrae of the whithers. Lamina nuchae (sheet-like)-from thoracic spines T2-T3 to cervical spines C2-C6
4. Where are the bursae located in relation to the nuchal and supraspinous ligaments?
NUCHAL BURSAE(2)-cranial-btwn. the arch of the atlas and the funiculus nuchae. Caudal-btwn. the spine of the atlas and the funiculus nuchaeSUPRASPINOUS BURSA-over the whithers at the junction of the funiculus nuchae cranially and the supraspinous ligament caudally
5. What clinical conditions involve these bursae?
"Poll-evil": inflammation of the atlantal bursa (cranial nuchal bursa)"Fistulous withers": inflammation of the supraspinous bursa
6. What condition affects the cervical vertebrae causing compression of the spinal cord and ataxia in horses?
"Wobbler's syndrome"
7. Where is the crest? What is the composition of the tissue in this area?
It is located on the dorsal midline of the neck and is compsed of fat tissue.
8. Identify the topographic position of the wing of the atlas.
-can be palpated near the base of the poll
9A. Identify the superficial muscles on the ventral surface of the neck.
1. Cutaneous colli2. Brachiocephalicus (2 parts) a. cleidomastoideus b. cleidobrachialis3. Omotransversarius4. Sternocephalicus 5. Sternothyrohyoideus (2 parts) a. sternothyroideus b. sternohyoideus
9B. Identify the deep muscles on the ventral aspect of the neck.
1. Omohyoideus2. Longus capitis3. Longus colli a. cervical part b. thoracic part4. Scalenus
9C. Identify the superfical muscles on the lateral surface of the neck.
1. Trapezius a. trapezius cervicis b. trapezius thoracis2. Rhomboidus a. rhomboideus cervicis b. rhomboideus thoracis3. Splenius4. Serratus ventralis a. serratus ventralis cervicis b. serratus ventralis thoracis
9D. Identify the first deep layer of muscles on the lateral aspect of the neck.
1. Semispinalis capitis2. Longissimus capitis > fused at origin3. Longissimus atlantis4. Longissimus cervicis
9E. Identify the 2nd deep layer of muscle on the lateral aspect of the neck.
1. Multifidus cervicis2. Intertransversarii cervicis3. Spinalis system
10. What is the poll? Identify the cranial and caudal oblique muscles of the poll.
1. Obliquus capitis caudalis2. Obliquus capitis cranialis3. Rectus capitis muscles a. rectus capitis dorsalis major b. rectus capitis dorsalis minor c. rectus capitis ventralis d. rectus capitis lateralis
13. How many cervical nerves are present in the horse?
8 pairs
14. The accessory nerve has a dorsal and a ventral branch; which cervical muscles are innervated by each?
Dorsal branch-trapezius brachiocephalicus omotransversariusVentral branch-sternocephalicus
15. Where are the transverse nerve of the neck and the cervical branch of the facial nerve located?
transverse nerve of the neck-?near C2?cervical branch of the facial nerve-runs with the external jugular vein
16. Identify the origin of the phrenic nerve and brachial plexus
phrenic n.-ventral branches of C5, C6, and C7brachial plexus-ventral branches of C6, C7, C8, T1 and T2-deep to the scalenus muscle
17. Identify the major vessels supplying the cervical musculature.
1.Deep cervical artery2.Vertebral artery
18. Identify the superfical and deep cervical lymph nodes.
1.superficial cervical lymph nodes-located near the deep aspect of the brachiocephalicus2.Cranial deep cervical-trachea and around thyroid glandmiddle deep cervical-middle of neckcaudal deep cervical-thoracic inlet
19. Which muscles show a degree of fusion in the cervical region?
1.Brachiocephalicus2.Sternothyrohyoideus3.Omohyoideus4.Longissimus capitis and longissimus atlantis
20. What is Viborg's triangle? What are its borders?
It is a surgical landmark for gutteral pouch sx and the retropharyngeal lymph nodes lie in this regionborders: cranial-ramus of the mandibleventral-linguofacial veindorsal-Sternocephalicus tendon
21. What is the jugular groove? What are the borders of this groove?
-the jugular vein can be found hereborders: dorsal-sternomastoideus m.ventral-sternocephalicus m.deep-omohyoideus m.
22. What is the significance of the omohyoideus in the horse?
-it supposedly "protects" the common carotid a. from deep venipuncture by acting as a barrier
23. What is the relationship of the trachea and esophagus throughout the cervical region?
-the esophagus begins at the pharynx dorsal to the trachea, then moves to the left side at the level of C4 (can sometimes move ventrally to the trachea)
25. Where is the parathyroid gland of the horse located?
1.internal parathyroid gland-usually lie in the vicinity of the cranial pole of the thyroid gland2.external parathyroid glands-lie on the ventral surface of the trachea more caudally
26. Which muscles form the groove of the cephalic vein?
The lateral pectoral groove is formed by:dorsal-cleidobrachialisventral-descending pectoralthe cephalic vein and deltoid br. of the superficial cervical a. lie in this groove
What are the structures contained in the carotid sheath?
Common carotid artery, internal jugular (not always), Vagosympathetic trunk, recurrent laryngeal nerve
What are the borders of the lateral pectoral groove? Which major venous structure is found in this groove? Which small arterial branch is also found in this groove?
Dorsal: cleidobrachialis Ventral: Descending pectoral ; Cephalic vein and deltoid branch of superficial cervical artery are found in groove
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