Final Flashcards

Australopithecus
Terms Definitions
Mutation
Is the change in Deoxyriboneucleic acid that may involve changes in genes or the number/structure of chromosomes
Grogor Mandel
the 19th century austrian monk who founded the cience of genetics
Genetic drift
Changes in gene frequency produced by random factors
Founder effect
results when a small number of individuals contribute genes to the next generation, creating a genetic bottle neck
Holistic perspective
fundemental principle of anthropology that various parts of culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependance
Natural Selection/Genetics
Modern synthesis combines
Richard Own
British anatomist who argued that the human brain was unique and belonged in a class by itself;He also condemned Darwin
Alfred Russel Wallace
The 19th Century British scientist who along with Darwin independantly discovered the principle of Natural Selection
Meiosis
the kind of cell division that produces the sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the body
Macroevolution
large sized form of evolution that proveds an ecxellent illustration of the fact that evolution does not proceed by preplanned design but rather by a process of tinkering with pre existing forms.
Hominid Family
The family of African Humanoids that includes humans and their ancestors
Environmental Context
a basic principle of natural selection that refers to the food that the environment determines which individual traits are more beneficial and which are detrimental.
Australopithicus Afarensis
The primitive hominid found in ethiopia, tanzia and possible chad; average cranial capacity of 420cm
Prosimians/lower primates
Lemurs and lorises belong to this suborder of primates.
Australopithecus Anamenus
The oldest australopithecus species discovered so far.
Homo Erectus
a species of hominid that appeared in Africa by 1.8 mya
Anthropoids/Greater Primates
Humans, apes and monkeys belong to this sub order of primates.
Australopithecus Robustus
The derived humanoid found in south Africa that dates fromm 2.0-1.3 mya; cranial capacity 520cm
Hylobatids/Lesser Apes
Gibbons and Siamangs belong to this famly of humanoids.
Achulean Tool Industry
The stone tool industry associated with Homo Erectus, whose most characteristic pieces was the tear drop shaped hand ax.
Australopithecus Africanus
primitive hominid found in Southern Africa that dates from 3.5 to 2.2 mya; Cranial Capacity 440cm.
Pongids/Great Apes
Gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans belong to this family of hominid
Oldown
Oldest tool industry
Donald Johanson/ 1973
Paleontologist who discovered Lucy in the year ____
Homo Sapien Sapiens
vertical high rounded cranial vault, little to no prognathism, small brown ridges and a distinct chin.
Laetoli/1000
Fossilized footprints of three australopithecines are found at a site called ______ about ____ miles where Lucy was discovered.
Quadrapedal
The type of locomotion characterist of hylobatids
60 Million Years ago
the first primates appeared about....
Cercopithecoids/Old World Monkeys
The super family of anthropoids that includes animals with narrow noses, downward facing nostrils and tails that are never prehensile is called
"U"/Parabolic
Pongids have a ___ shaped jaw, hominids have ______ shaped jaws.
Louis Leaky/Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, Birute Galdikas
The famous paleontologist ______ recruited 3 women primatologists to study great apes in the wild. ________ who studied chimps, _______ who studied Gorillas, and _________ who studied orangutans
Australopithecus Boisei
The drived hominid found in East Africa that dates from 2.0-1.0 mya; cranial capacity of 520cm
Australopithecus
the genus of hominid characterized by small brains, large faces, small brain cases and pronounced brown ridges is the genus...
Argon Laser
The technique used to date layers of volcanic ash in the region where lucy was discovered.
True
Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei are clearly not direct acesters of humans
False
Australopithecus Afarensis is unquestionably a direct human ancestor
Hominoids
The taxonomic group that includes humans and apes and nothing else is called..
KMN ER 1470/ Australopithecus Rudolfenus
1.9 my old fossil specimen known as _____ which was discovered by Richard Leaky near the shoers of lake turkana, is generally classified as the species ________
Ceboids/ New World Monkeys
The super family of anthropoids that includes animals with broad, flaring nostrils outward facing nostrils and occasional prehensile tales is called....
Large/Parallel
Australopithecus Afarensis has _____ Canines and ______ parallel rows of teeth.
Homo
The genus of hominid characterized by large brains, small faces and reduced brow ridges is the genus....
5-7 Million years ago
Currently available evidence strongly indicates that the pongid-hominid difergence occured between __________
Homo Heidolbergensis
a pre-modern human that appeared in the old world as early as 780,000 years ago and eventually evolved into anatomically modern human beings after 200,00 years ago
Taung Child/ Raymond Dart
The first australopithecus Africanus specimen which was nickenamed the _______ was found by anatomist _____ in 1924
Homo Erectus
Characterized by pronounced supra-orbital tori, post-orbital constriction, a receding forehead and chin and a pentagonal skull
Homo Erectus
heavy cranial bones, a long and low skull vault, maximum cranial breadth below the ear opening and the first prominent hominid nose.
Uranium 283
a chronometric dating technique based upon the principle of radioactive decay that is applied to rocks that may be up to billions of years old.
Potasium Argon
a chronometric dating technique based on radioactive decay that is applied to volcanic rock and especially useful for dates in the range of 1-5 million years ago .
Folsom Points
small light stone projectile points with proportionally large flutes.
Fluorien Dating
The site specific realative dating technique that analyzes the amount of a particular element in dissolved bone
Sunda
The combined land mass of contemporary islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Bali that continues with south East Asia Dduring times of maximum lympioms is called.
Sinodont
Shovel shaped incisors
Stone/bayonet Antler/Harpoon
the Neanderthal spear had a point made of ____ an was used as a _____; where as the moder human spear was made of ____ and used as a _______.
Coprolits/middeus
fossilized human or animal feces which can provide important information on prehistoric diet and health are called.
Burin
Technological innovation of the upper paleolithic that was used to engrave bone, antler, ivory and wood.
Olmec Civilization
The ancient new world civilization whose location was centered in the gulf of Mexico in what are today the Mexican states of Vera Cruz and Tabasco.
Guatamala
The Mayan urban ceremonial center of Tikal is located in what is today the country of..
Inca Civilization
The ancient New World civilization whose capital was Cuzco.
Aztec Civilization
The ancient New World Civilization whoe capital was located in the same place as present day Mexico City.
Indus Valley
The ancient Old World Civilization that left no picturesque ruins despite having built half a dozen urban centers and more than 1000 agricultural villiages.
Honduras
the Mayan urban ceremonial center of Copan is located in what is today the country of ______
Olmec
Erected freestanding basalt heads of notable citizens
Nafutran
a Mesolithic culture that existed between 10,200 and 12,500 years ago in what is now Isreal, Lebanon and Syria.
Teotihuacan
The ancient new world civilization that was located in the Valley of Mexico
Olmec
The ancient New World Civilization that built the ceremonial centers at San lorenzo and La Venta was the _____ civilization
Mixico
The Mayan Urban Ceremonial Center of Paleque is located in what is today the country of __________
Teotihuacan
The ancient New world civilization that featured the colossal pyramids of the sun and the moon was the _____ civilization.
Sumerian
The ancient Old World Civilization that developed the base six mathematics that is basis for our division of the minute to 60 seconds, the hour into 60 minutes and the day into 25 hours was the ____ civilization.
Tribes, Bands
The political organizations that are associated with horticulture is___________
Spirituality
the term anthropologists use to refer to an individual concern with sacred matters.
Machiabellion Hypothesis
The notion that human intelligence evolved as a result of selective pressure to be socially smart is known as the _______
Chiefdoms
large kin-based agricultural societs that build permanent towns.
Undermines
the scientific evidence that is currently available ________ Decartes' claim that the mind and body are separable.
3
Chiefdoms have ________ types of religious organization
Chiefdoms, states
The political organizations that are associated with agriculture are ________
2 (two )
Bands have ____ types of religious organization
Bands
the political organization that is associated with foraging.
Williams syndrom
Children with this syndrome have well developed linguistic and social skills, but they have a form of mental retardation that results in an average IQ of about 50.
Egalitarian
The political organizations that are assocated with pastoralism
Stratified Societies
Societies in which members have unequal amounts of political and economic power and authority based on the level of society to which they belong.
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