Teaching and Learning (Basics in Nursing) Flashcards

Terms Definitions
(def)

the desire to learn
motivation
(def)

the extent to which an individual's behavior coincides with medical or health advice
compliance
(def)

a change in human disposition or capability that persists over a period of time and cannot be solely accounted for by growth
learning
(def)

system of activities intended to produce learning
teaching
(def)

observing the behavior of people who have successfully achieved a goal that one has set for oneself, and through observing, acquiring ideas for behavior and coping strategies
modeling
(def)

term used to describe the process involved in stimulating and helping elderly persons to learn
geragogy
(def)

copying the behaviors and attitudes of another person
imitation
(def)

the response or message that the receiver returns to the sender during communication
feedback
(def)

the art and science of helping adults learn
andragogy
(def)

the discipline concerned with helping children learn
pedagogy
(def)

teaching involving communication with a person and/or persons whose cultural background differs from that of the teacher
transcultural teaching
(def)

statement describing the behavior a learner should be able to demonstrate after completing a learning experience
learning objective
(def)

the demonstration of behaviors or cues that reflect the learners motivation to learn at a specific time
readiness to learn
(def)

a process in which a response is strengthened by the fear of punishment or the anticipation of a reward
reinforcement
(def)

a pleasant experience such as praise and encouragement
positive reinforcement
Benjamin Bloom identified what three domains/areas of learning?
1. Cognitive domain
2. Affective domain
3. Psychomotor domian

**likely on test** be able to identify which domain a person is thinking in
Which domain includes the following sub-categories: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, and synthesis?
Cognitive domain
For compliance to occur, what 3 things must be accomplished by the client?

**likely on test**
1. recognizes need to learn
2. expends energy required to learn
3. follows through with behaviors
Which domain of learning is also known at the "thinking domain"?
cognitive domain
Which domain of learning is also known as the "feeling domain"?
affective domain
Which domain of learning is also known as the "skill domain"
psychomotor domain
Which domain is divided into categories that specify the degree of a "person's depth of emotional response to tasks"?
affective domain
Which domain includes the following subcategories: receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, and characterizing?
affective domain
Which domain includes the following subcategories: perception, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, and adaptation?
psychomotor domain
Explanation or description (ex. a lecture) prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
Cognitive
One-to-one discussion prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
Cognitive, affective
Answering questions prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
Cognitive
Demonstration prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
Psychomotor
Discovery (ex. problem-solving situation) prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
Cognitive, affective
Group discussion prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
Affective, cognitive
Printed and audiovisual material prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
cognitive
Role-playing prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
cognitive, affective
Modeling prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
affective, psychomotor
Practice prompts what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
psychomotor
Computer-assisted learning programs prompt what domain(s) of learning in the learner?
All types of learning
What things should you look at when determining a client's readiness to learn?
- motivation
- past experiences
- beliefs
- cultural heritage
- emotional status
- physical condition
- developmental stage
What things should you look at when determining a client's ability to learn?
- developmental capacity
- physical capacity
Assessment of knowledge base prior to teaching will facilitate what?
a more efficient and successful learning process that is individualized to specific needs
What is the purpose of assessing a person's knowledge base prior to teaching?
to facilitate a more efficient and successful learning process that is individualized
What does the assessment of a client's "readiness to learn" facilitate?
successful learning
Why is it important to teach a client using their preferred learning style?
it influences receptivity to the material being presented (client more likely to learn if they are comfortable with the learning style)
Culture is an important variable in observational learning. Imitation is ________ (more or less) likely if models are of different culture than oneself.
less
What effect on learning would you expect to see if a client is experiencing high stress? low stress?
high stress = interferes with learning
low stress = enhances
What are 2 types of limitations that need to be identified and considered when establishing a teaching plan?
- cognitive limitations
- physical limitations
Age provides information on a person's ____________ status.
developmental
How can physiologic events, such as critical illness, pain, or impaired hearing, affect learning?
learning can be inhibited
How does the transfer of knowledge (using knowledge in more than one situation) help the client?
it allows them to relate what they have learned to their own life situations
Learning is facilitated by material that is presented in what (2) manners?
- logically organized
- proceeds from the simple to the complex
Subject matter seen as having ________ relevance is more readily learned.
personal
Behavior is more likely to be retained if it is what?
repeated
What type of vocabulary should be used to enhance learning?
a lay person's vocabulary
A relationship that is both ________ and ________ will best assist learning.
constructive and accepting
What is the purpose of written information in the learning process?
it both enhances and clarifies verbal information received
Learning should be a holistic experience. What should you do to ensure that it is?
use multiple sensory modalities (touch, sight, movement)
What is the purpose for feedback in a teaching/learning relationship?
- allows evaluation of learning and understanding
- reviews effectiveness of teaching
- evaluates need for clarification of information
- evaluates need for a modification of the teaching process
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

A client is experiencing an acute illness and needs all of his resources and energy to cope with his illness.
Defer teaching until the client is less ill
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

Client has just received information that he is terminally ill.
Defer teaching to a better time
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

Client may be experiencing pain.
Conduct a pain assessment prior to teaching. Defer if the client is in pain.
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

Client states "I can't concentrate this early!" while you are attempting to teach.
Adapt a better time that suits the client's needs
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

Client is upset because his wife was recently relocated to a nursing home.
Deal with the emotional issue first, and address the teaching at a later time
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

Client speaks a different language.
Get an interpreter or another nurse with the appropriate skills
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

Client is elderly.

**likely on test**
Vision, hearing and motor control can be lost/diminished over time. Consider these deficits and adapt a plan that works.
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

Client is of a different culture.
Assess needs when planning
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

Client is blind or deaf.
Plan teaching according to ability
How should you address the following learning barrier?:

Client has a learning disability.
Assess capacity for learning, plan teaching to complement
(def)

the state in which an individual or family does not comprehend, learn, or demonstrate knowledge of health care measures necessary to maintain health
knowledge deficit
What are the (6) approved NANDA etiologies of Knowledge Deficit?

***likely on test***
1- lack of exposure
2- lack of recall
3- information misinterpretation
4- cognitive limitation
5- lack of interest in learning
6- unfamiliarity with information resources
(def)

a nursing diagnosis; a person's informed decision not to adhere to a therapeutic recommendation
Noncompliance
(def)

a nursing diagnosis; a state in which an individual in stable health is actively seeking ways to alter personal health habits and/or the environment in order to move toward a higher level of health
health-seeking behaviors
Teaching can be described as having what (3) qualities?
1. interactive process
2. deliberate set of actions
3. prompts the learner
What is the differences between formal and informal teaching?
Formal teaching requires preparation. Informal teaching is constant, spontaneous, and spur of the moment.
What are the 3 characteristics of a learning objective?

**likely on test**
1. state the behavior in measurable and observable terms
2. contain criteria that indicate an acceptable level of performance
3. state the conditions under which the behavior will be demonstrated
What type of words should be avoided when stating behavioral objectives?
those with many interpretations (ex. know, learn, understand, comprehend, value, feel, realize, etc.)
When listing the defining characteristics for a nursing diagnoses of "Knowledge deficit", you should include characteristics that meet what (4) criteria?
1. individual
2. specific
3. objective
4. subjective
Defining characteristics of a Knowledge Deficit nursing diagnosis may include what (2) types?
1. observed behaviors
2. direct client statements
Failure to keep appointments or statements made by the client that he/she is unwilling to follow treatment are examples of what?
Noncompliance
Prior to developing a teaching plan, the nurse should assess what (4) things?
1. learning need
2. readiness to learn
3. ability to learn
4. learning style
What are 3 ways that you can provide an environment conducive to learning?
1. reduce noise
2. avoid interruptions
3. provide adequate lighting
Why would you want to provide a visual aid when teaching?
visual aids assist in remembering information
When teaching, feedback should be given how?
via praise - this establishes a relationship that is both accepting and constructive
____________ is both an ongoing and final process which determines if learning has occurred.
Evaluation
When documenting a teaching experience, what 4 things should be included?
1. topic taught
2. client outcomes
3. resources provided
4. need for additional teaching **if required**
Which phase of the nursing process?:

Determine priority of a client's needs.
Planning
Which phase of the nursing process?:

Develop objectives and identify relevant content.
Planning
Which phase of the nursing process?:

Select teaching methods and learning activities, including the client if possible
Planning
A learning objective (behavioral objective) describes what?
the behavior a learner should be able to demonstrate after completing a learning experience
Which phase of the nursing process?:

Explanation, one to one discussions, answering questions
Planning and/or Implementation
Which phase of the nursing process?:

Demonstrations, Discovery, Practice, Discussions, Role Playing, Modeling, and receipt of Audio/Visual or Printed Materials
Implementation
What are (11) guidelines for teaching?
1. build a rapport
2. use previous client knowledge
3. optimal timing
4. communicate clearly/concisely
5. use layman's terms
6. teach at a moderate pace
7. comfortable environment
8. use teaching aids
9. involve all senses
10. stimulated motivation/self-directed learning
11. repeat/reinforce
Which phase of the nursing process?:

Give feedback
Implementation
Which phase of the nursing process?:

validate learning
Evaluation
Which phase of the nursing process?:

Modify teaching plan
Evaluation
Which phase of the nursing process?:

State goals/expected outcomes
Planning
What must always accompany a nursing diagnosis?
defining characteristics
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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