Essentials of Nursing Chronicity Flashcards

Terms Definitions
colored part of the eye
iris
white of the eye
sclera
mucous memebrane provides a barrier envionment & nourishes the eye
conjunctiva
outermost edge of the iris where conjunctiva meets cornea
limbus
transparent domelike structure , main refracting surface of the eye
cornea
behind cornea, filled with aqueous humor,
anterior chamber
directly behind the pupil
lens
consists of , iris, cilliary, and choroid
Uvea
dilates and constricts in response to light
pupil
Vistreous humor
posterior of lens, contains ocular fundus
innermost surface of the ocular fundus
retina
responsible for night vision
rods
best vision for bright light, color and fine
cones
retina, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tracks
retinal pathway
what is blindness
BCVA of 20/400 to no light perception
nearsighted
myopia
farsighted
hyperopia
irregular curve of cornea
astigmatism
normal eyesight
emmetropia
optic nerve damage related to increased IOP- leading to irreversible blindness
glaucoma
avoid use of what? in patients with glaucoma
goldenseal
lens of the eye becomes opaque
cataracts
seperation of the RPE from the sensory layer
retinal detachment
most common cause of visual loss for over 60years age
macular degeneration
most common eye infection
conjunctivitis
acute staoh infection of the glands of the eyelid
hordeolum (sty)
increase aqueous flow
s/e blurry vision
warn pt be careful in dim areas
choinergic (miotic-pilocarpine)
type of meds ..decreased aqueous production and increase the flow
s/e increase b/p
adrenergic agonists (dipivefrin, epinephrine)
decrease aqueous humor production
s/e bradycardia and hypotension
contraindicated in COPD, asthma
beta blockers (betaxolol, timolol)
alpha-adrenergic agonists
increase uveoscleral outflow
s/e darkening of iris, rash
prostaglandin ( latanaprost)
dilates pupils
mydriatics
leading cause blindness in diabetics
diabetic retinopathy
excess of ? blocks ear canal and impairs hearing
cerumen impaction
tx cerumen impaction
Ceruminolytic agents and lavage
inflammation of the middle ear, common cause of temporary conductive hearing loss.
otitis media
tx otitis media
topical heat and systemic analgesics and antibiotics for bacterial infection.
surgical tx otitis media
myringotomy
[incision is made in the eardrum & fluid is aspirated. A polyethylene tube may be placed in the ear drum to equalize pressure & allow for drng.]
myringotomy
inflammation c edema, dischg, and erythema. Moisture in ext ear usually referred to as swimmers ear.
external otitis media
inflammation of the inner ear (cochlear or vestibular portion) Sx- vertigo, tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss on the affected side. Rare condition since the use of antibiotics. Destruction of cochlea or labyrinth cause permanent deafness
Labyrinthitis
sensorineural hearing loss associated with aging. Loss of higher frequency sounds related to degenerative changes in the inner ear, loss of hair cells, reduction of blood supply
Presbyacusis
Most common conductive hearing loss, occurs because of pathologic changes in the bones of the middle ear
Otosclerosis
tinnitus and vertigo, treated with anithistamines, antiemetics, benzodiazepines, diuretics, tranquilizers, vasoactive agents, and oral niacin...May cause perm. hearing loss.
Meniere’s disease
Loss of central vision related to atrophy or deterioration of the macula. Peripheral vision remains. Associated with aging.
macular degeneration
the point on the retina where light rays meet as they are focused by the cornea & lens of the eye.
macula
lens loses its transparency and/or becomes opaque. Associated with aging, but may be congenital, caused by eye injury or secondary to metabolic problems such as diabetes mellitus. Surgical removal and insertion of intraocular lens.
cateracts
changes in the retina due to poorly controlled diabetes. It is the leading cause of vision loss in adults under age 40. Sx; retinal edema & hemorrhage & leads to gradual blurring and may progress to blindness. Prevention = yearly eye exam
retinopathy
burning, prickling, tingling sensation.
paresthesia
test that assesses for balance
romberg test
tests visual acuity
snellen chart
for profoundly deaf. Requires postoperative training and rehabilitation for use.
cochlear implants
in high does cause transient or permanent hearing loss.
osmotic diuretics
measurement of intraocular pressure. Elevated pressure reveals glaucoma.
tonometry
test using tunning fork placed at the top of the head. Equal vibrations should be heard in both ears. In conduction deafness vibration will be best heard in the affected ear. In sensorineural loss the sound is heard in the unaffected ear.
weber
use of tuning fork placed against the mastoid process and near the ear to assess hearing. Conductive hearing loss if the bone conduction of sound is greater than air conduction.
rinne test
inability of the eyes to focus in the same direction
strabismus
profoundly deaf have greater than ? dB [usually congenital defect]
91 db
abnormality in the heel strike through push-off action.
Antalgic gait
Sensory receptors within the body regarding spatial position and muscular activity
Proprioceptors
associated with aging when the elasticity of the lens of the eye is lost. Near vision is lost but far vision remains the same
Presbyopia
type of glaucoma...has a gradual rise in intraocular pressure, slow progressive loss of peripheral vision.
open angle
type of glaucoma...sudden attacks of increased intraocular pressure with a bulging iris which is an emergency situation
closed angle
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