Language in a Multilingual Society Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bilinguals are individuals who are fluent in two languages, individuals who actively use, or attempt to use more than one language, even if they have not achieved fluency in their second language 
The Practice of alternately using two languages, L1, L2. Also native-like control of two languages or  balanced bilingualism 2L1

The ability to produce complete meaningful utterances in two languages
Knowing two languages is a normal part of existence for most human beings
Simultaneous Bilingualism
Learn languages at the same time
Early bilingualism
Learn L2 before teen age
Late Sequential Bilingualism
Learn L2 after teen age
Formal Bilingualism
Context of learning, instructed
Informal Bilingualism
Context of learning, outside of professional settings
Vertical bilingualism
Where a dialect in used in conjuction with another language, also known as diglossia.
Horizontal Bilingualism
Two languages have equivelant status in official culture and family live
Diagonal Bilingualism
When no related languages are use
Primary Bilingualism
Where two languages have been learn naturally
Incipient bilingualism
The early stages of bilingualism where one language is not stongly developed. Beginning to acquire a second language.
Succesive Bilingualism
Biloingualism achieved by learning L2, later than L1, after the age of 3
Early/Infant Bilingualism
The simultaneous acquisition of two languages at an early age
Immersion Bilingualism
When the language is learn by living in a speech community of that language.
Immersion Bilingualism
When the language is learn by living in a speech community of that language.
Balanced Bilingualism
When fluency in both languages is equal
refers to those who have deficiencies in both languages compared with monolinguals.
Functional Bilingualism
When the second language is use on distinct ocasions
Dominant Bilingualism
A person is more proficient in one of the two languages, in most cases native one
Ascendant Bilingualism
An individual whose ability to function in a second language is developind do to increase use
Recessive Bilingualism
An individual who begins to feel some difficulty who feels is loosing the proficiency of L2 becuase of lack of use.
Subtractive Bilingualism
An individual whose L2 is acquired at expense of the aptitutdes already acquired in the first language
Receptive/passive bilingualism
An individual who understands a second language either spoken or/and written, but does not necesarilly speaks it or writes it.
Productive Bilingualism
An individual who not only understands but also speaks and possibly writes in two or more languages
The art of knowing how to read in L1 and L2
Coordinate/separate bilingualism
An individual whose two languages are learn in different context
Compound Bilingualism
An individual whose languages are learn at the same time in the same context
Subordinate Bilingualism
An individual who exhibits interferance in his or her language usage by reducing the pattern of the second language to those of the first
Preferred Language
The language you prefer to talk
Societal Bilingualism
A society in which two languages are used but where relatively few individuals are bilingual
Effects of Societal Bilingualsim
Language contact, maintanence, shift and endangement
Language Contact
Occurs when two or more language or dialects interact
Language Maintenance
the continuing us of a langauge in the base of competition from a regional and socially more powerful language
Language Shift
Process were a speech commnity changes to another language
Language endangement
A language that is close to dissapearing
Stable bilingualism
Persistent bilingualism in a society over several generations
Ferguson Diaglossia
A relatively stable language in which in addition to the primary dialects of the language there is a very divergent, highly codified, superposed variety which is largely learn by formal education and is used for most written and spoken purposes but is not for ordinary conversation
Fishman Extended Diglossia
A diglossic situation can occur anywhere where two langauges varieties(even unrelated ones) are used in functionally distinctive ways.
Code mixing
speaking in one language but using pieces from another
Style shifting
from standard to vernacular
Language borrowing
The adoption of one language into another like lexical items
Standard language
native language of a speech community codified in dictionaries and grammars(+p+v)
Classical language
language codified in dictionaries and grammars which is no longer spoken (+p-v)
Language shift in Migrant Minorities
Typically, migrants are monolingual in their mother tongue, their children become bilingual, but grandchildren turn monolingual in the host country language
Language shift in non-migrant communities
It may result from political, economical or social changes within the speech community
Language shift and death
Language death is a gradual process in which the function of language is taken over by a shift to a another language, speaker gradually loss fluency and competence until the language is not spoken anywhere in the world
Factors affecting langauge shift
*economic, political, social
*Large community of speaker, or the community is able to isolate itself from the influence of the majority
*Minority language: pride and respect, ethnic identity, international status
Language planning
Deliberate efforts to influence the behavior of others with respect to the acquisition structure and functional allocations of their language codes
Language Policy
efforts to influence practices and beliefs through intervention, planning or management
Neuro-images of later bilinguals(after 10)
Different representation of L1 versus L2 in Broca's area, whereas no difference is found in Wernickes
Neuro-images of Early Bilinguals
The cortical representation of the two langauges was similar for both broca's and wernicke's areas
Bilingual Ed
The study of ethnicity or cultural diversity within US and the transformation of learning envio in order to succesfuly educate students from diverse backgrounds
Attitudes about Bilingalism
19th century: people believed been bilingual was a sign of great intellect
20th century: bilingual children had lower IQs than monolingual children
Today: Bilingual speakers may be encouraged to surpress their minority language
Bilingual's creativity potential
Bilinguals score higher on the non-verbal uses test than on the word meaning tests.
Combined scores shows the bilinguals were higher therefore more creative
Benefits of Bilingualism
*Enhanced academic and linguistic compentence
*Development of skills in cooperation and collaboration
*Appreciation of other cultures and languages
*Cognitive advantages
*Increased job opportunities
*Expanded travel experiences
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