Excelsior NC3, Community Based nursing Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Collaboration
a collegial working relationship with another health care provider in the provision of client care
Community-based health care (CBHC)
a system that provides health-related services within the context of people's daily lives; that is, in places where people spend their time in the community
Community-based nursing
(CBN) nursing care directed toward a specific population or group within the community; primary, secondary, or tertiary care may be provided to individuals or groups.
Community nursing centers (CNCs)
provide primary care to specific populations and are staffed by nurse practitioners and community health nurses
Continuity of care
the coordination of health care services by health care providers for clients moving from one health care setting to another and between and among health care professionals
Integrated health care system
one that makes all levels of care available in an integrated form--primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care
Primary care
(PC) the point of entry into the health care system at which initial health care is given
Primary health care (PHC)
essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determinations
Action stage
occurs when the person actively implements behavioral and cognitive strategies to interrupt previous behavior patterns and adopt new ones; this stage requires the greatest commitment of time and energy
Contemplation stage
the person acknowledges having a problem, seriously considers changing a specific behavior, actively gathers information, and verbalizes plans to change the behavior in the near future
Health promotion
any activity undertaken for the purpose of achieving a higher level of health and well-being
Health protection
behavior motivated by a desire to actively avoid illness, detect it early, or maintain functioning within the constraints of illness
Health risk assessment (HRA)
an assessment and educational tool that indicates a client’s risk for disease or injury during the next 10 years by comparing the client’s risk with the mortality risk of the corresponding age, sex, and racial group
Maintenance stage
the person integrates newly adopted behavior patterns into his or her lifestyle
Precontemplation stage
a person typically denies having a problem, views others as having a problem and therefore wants to change the other person’s behavior
Preparation stage
occurs when the person undertakes cognitive and behavioral activities that prepare the person for change
Primary prevention
activities directed toward the protection from or avoidance of potential health risks
Secondary prevention
activities designed for early diagnosis and treatment of disease or illness
Termination stage
the ultimate goal where the individual has complete confidence that the problem is no longer a temptation or threat
Tertiary prevention
activities designed to restore disabled individuals to their optimal level of functioning
Wellness diagnosis
(NANDA) describes human responses to levels of wellness in an individual, family, or community that have a readiness for enhancement
Adolescence
the period during which the person becomes physically and psychologically mature and acquires a personal identity
Adolescent growth spurt
the period during puberty where sudden and dramatic physical changes occur
Amblyopia
reduced visual acuity in one eye
Apgar scoring system
a scoring system to assess newborn babies
Apocrine glands
develop in the axillae, anal and genital areas, external auditory canals, and around the umbilicus and the areola of the breasts
Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST)
a screening test used to assess children from birth to 6 years of age
Eccrine glands
glands that produce sweat; found over most of the body
Ectoderm
the outer layer of tissue formed in the second week of life
Ejaculation
expulsion of seminal fluid and sperm
Embryonic phase
the phase during which the fertilized ovum develops into an organism with most of the features of the human
Emmetropic
normal refraction so that the eyes focus images on the retina
Endoderm
the inner layer of tissue formed in the second week of life
Entoderm
see Endoderm, the inner layer of tissue formed in the second week of life.
Failure to thrive
a unique syndrome in which an infant falls below the fifth percentile for weight and height on a standard growth chart or is falling in percentiles on a growth chart
Fetal phase
characterized by a period of rapid growth in the size of the fetus; both genetic and environmental factors affect its growth
Fontanelles
unossified membranous gaps in the bone structure of the skull of a newborn that makes molding of the head possible
Hyperopic
(farsighted), that is, unable to focus on near objects
Identification
perceiving one's self as similar to and behaving like another person
Imagination
an important part of preschoolers’ life (the preschooler has an active imagination and fantasizes in play)
Introjection
the assimilation of the attributes of others
Lanugo
the fine , woolly hair or down on the shoulders, back, sacrum, and earlobes of the unborn child that may remain for a few weeks after birth
Menarche
onset of menstruation
Mesoderm
middle layer of the embryonic tissue that forms during the third week
Myopic
(nearsighted), that is, unable to focus on objects that are far away
Normocephaly
normal head circumference at birth; usually 35 cm (14 in)
Peer groups
assume great importance and have a number of functions: provides a sense of belonging, pride, social learning,sexual roles; most peer groups have well-defined, sex-specific modes of acceptable behavior and in adolescence, the peer groups change with age.
Placenta
a flat, disc-shaped organ that is highly vascular and normally forms in the upper segment of the endometrium of the uterus; exchanges nutrients and gases between the fetus and the mother
Primary sexual characteristics
relate to the organs necessary for reproduction, such as the testes, penis, vagina, and uterus
Puberty
the first stage of adolescence in which sexual organs begin to grow and mature
Regression
a defense mechanism in which one adapts behavior that was comforting earlier in life to overcome the discomfort and insecurity of the present situation
Repression
a defense mechanism in which painful thoughts, experiences, and impulses are removed from awareness
Sebaceous glands
active under the influence of androgens in both males and females, which secrete sebum and become most active on the face, neck, shoulder, upper back, and chest and is often the cause of an increased incidence of acne
Secondary sexual characteristics
physical characteristics that differentiate the male from the female but do not relate directly to reproduction
Self-concept
the collection of ideas, feelings, and beliefs one has about oneself
Separation anxiety
the fear and frustration experienced by young children that comes with parental absences
Shaken baby syndrome (SBS)
violent shaking of the infant by the arms or shoulders causing a whiplash, which can lead to severe injury in infants
Stereognosis
the ability to recognize objects by touching and manipulating them
Strabismus
squinting or crossing of the eyes; uncoordinated eye movements
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
the sudden and unexpected death of an infant
Sutures
junction lines of the skull bones
Teratogen
anything that adversely affects normal cellular development in the embryo or fetus
Trimesters
the three-month periods during pregnancy marking certain landmarks for developmental changes in mother and the fetus; three trimesters during the pregnancy
Vernix caseosa
a protective covering that develops over the unborn fetus' skin; a white, cheese-like substance that adheres to the skin and can become 1/8-inch thick by birth
Activity theory
the best way to age is to stay active physically and mentally
Cataracts
opacity of the lens or capsule of the eye
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