Myer's Ap Psychology vocab chapter 8 by Sal Flashcards

Terms Definitions
learning
a reletively permanent change in as organism's behavior due to experience.
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its concequences (as in operant conditioning)
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also calles Pavlovian conditioning.
behaviorism
the view that psychology should (1) be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
unconditioned response (UCR)
in classic conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically- triggers a response.
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS)
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
acquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the pahase associating a neural stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
extinction
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when as unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
spontaneous recovery
the reapperance, after a rest period , of an extinguished conditioned response.
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Little Albert's conditioning
the pairing of a laboratory rat with a terribly loud noise gave Little Albert a conditioned fear (the CR) of both rats (the CS) and similar furry things (generalzation)
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulis; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the enviroment, producing consequences
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber (Skinner box)
a chamber containing a bor or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
reinforcer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing sitmulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains it reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after an unpredictable number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after a specified number of responses
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's enviroment. For example, after exploring a maze, rat's act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
overjustification
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
extrinsic movtivation
a desire to preform a behavior dueto promised rewards or threats of punishment.
observational learning
learning by observing others
modeling
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
mirror nuerons
frontal lobe nuerons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
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