ANS physiology, neurotransmitters and receptors Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Alpha-1 agonist effects
smooth muscle contraction,
uterine vasoconstriction
Alpha-2 agonist effects
neurotransmitter inhibition,
hypotension, anaesthesia
Beta-1 agonist effects
increased heart rate & force
(chronotropy/inotropy)
Beta-2 agonist effects
bronchodilation & vasodilation
Beta Blocker (general)
decreases heart rate & force
decreases BP

(mild bronchoconstriction from B2)
Beta-1 blocker/antagonist effects
decreases heart rate & force
decreases BP

(no B-2 bronchoconstriction)
Name the 3 visceral effectors controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
(1) smooth muscle
(2) cardiac muscle
(3) glands
Where are adrenergic receptors located?
on "visceral effectors" (organs and glands) that are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system
True or False
Adrenergic receptors are innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system.
False.
Adrenergic receptors are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system.
What is the main difference in classification between alpha and beta receptors?
Alpha responds better to norepinephrine

Beta responds to epi and norepi equally
True or False.
Acetylcholine is a catecholamine.
False.
Acetylcholine is a cholinergic agent.
Epi, Norepi and Dopamine are catecholamines.
What does "cholinergic" mean?
"related to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine"
What does "adrenergic" mean?
"adrenalin-like"
Name the three most abundant adrenergic agents (catecholamines).
epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
True or false.
Acetylcholine stimulates adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system.
False.
Adrenergic receptors respond to catecholamines (epi and norepi).
True or false.
Acetylcholine is released by pre-ganglionic sympathetic neurons.
True.
Post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons usually release catecholamines.
(norepi)
True or false.
Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic nervous system.
True.
parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurotransmitter(s)
acetylcholine
parasympathetic pre-ganglionic neurotransmitter(s)
acetylcholine
sympathetic post-ganglionic neurotransmitter(s)
epinephrine, norepinephrine
sympathetic pre-ganglionic neurotransmitters(s)
acetylecholine
In the ANS, acetylcholine is the main player everywhere EXCEPT _____ganglionic ____pathetic neurons.
post(ganglionic)

sym(pathetic)
agent that mimicks the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
sympathomimetic
agent that inhibits the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
sympatholytic
What do adrenergic receptors and calcium channels have in common?
both are transmembrane proteins that affect cell function
chemical compound derived from amino acid tyrosine
catecholamine

(catechol group + amine group)
What amino acid is epi, norepi, and dopamine derived from?
tyrosine
What is tyrosine?
an amino acid that form the basis for catecholamines
(epi, norepi, dopamine)
Epinephrine is a ______ when made/released by neurons and a ______ when made/released by the adrenal gland.
neurotransmitter

hormone
commonly used building block in organic synthesis that is a component of adrenergic agents
catechol
nitrogen-based organic compound structurally resembling ammonia that is a component of adrenergic agents
amine
Alpha and beta adrenergic receptors are transmembrane ______ imbedded in visceral cell membranes on the effector side of ______ and ______ synapses.
proteins

neuromuscular
neuroglandular
Sympathetic nerves are located from ______ to ______.
T-1

L-2 or L-3
Parasympathetic nerves are located at ______ and ______.
Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X

S-2 thought S-4
another term for the sympathetic division
thoracolumbar division
another term for the parasympathetic division
craniosacral division
Sympathetic responses tend to be ______.

(widespread/localized)
widespread
Parasympathetic responses tend to be ______.

(widespread/localized)
localized
In the ANS, preganglionic neurons are ______.

(myelinated/unmyelinated)
myelinated
In the ANS, postganglionic neurons are ______.

(myelinated/unmyelinated)
unmyelinated
Myelinated fibers are ______.

(white/gray)
white
Unmyelinated fibers are ______.

(white/gray)
gray
Sympathetic and parasympathetic are divisions of the ______ nervous system, which itself is a division of the _____ nervous system.
autonomic

peripheral
The centers in the brain that control the ANS are the ______ and the ______, which recieve input from ______ and other regions of the cerebrum.
hypothalamus
medulla (oblongata)

the limbic system
What are adrenergic receptors?
They are G-protein cellular membrane receptors that are acted on by catecholamines.
What are cholinergic receptors?
They are cellular membrane protein receptors that are acted on by acetylcholine.(a.k.a. acetlycholine receptors)
What is the difference between a cholinergic receptor and an acetylcholine receptor?
Nothing.
They are one and the same.
What is the difference between adrenergic and cholinergic?
Adrenergic = "adrenalin-like"

Cholinergic = "acetylcholine-like"
What is the difference between catecholamine and colinergic?
catecholamine = adrenergic
(epi, norepi, dopamine)

colinergic = acetylcholine
Histamines and catecholamines are both ______.
monoamines
What is a histaminergic receptor?
G-protein coupled receptors that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter histamine.
What is histamine?
Histamine is an monoamine released by the CNS as a neurotransmitter and by mast cells as immunologic agent.
What is a "G-protein coupled receptor?"
It is a large protein transmembrane receptor that senses molecules outside the cell and activate a response inside the cell.
What does the suffix "-ergic" mean?
"resembling, releasing, or activated by"

(Greek "ergon" - work)
A substance that mimics a neurotransmitter or hormone and binds to the same receptor is a(n) ______.
agonist
A substance that competes with a neurotransmitter or hormone for the same receptor is a(n) ______.
antagonist
a powerful central nervous system opioid receptor competitive antagonist
naloxone
What is an opioid receptor?
It is a G-protein coupled receptor in the cell membrane that responds to opioids.
True or false:
The terms adrenergic and catecolamine mean essentially the same thing.
True.
Both refer to epi, norepi, and dopamine.
True or false:
The terms adrenergic and cholenergic mean essentially the same thing.
False.

adrenergic = epi, norepi, dopamine

cholenergic = acetylcholine
What is ACh?
acetylcholine
What neurotransmitter(s) do cholinergic neurons release?
acetylcholine
Name of the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine in the synapse.
acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
What neurotransmitter(s) do adrenergic neurons release?
epinephrine & norepinephrine
What is NE?
norepinephrine
Most sympathetic post-ganglionic axons are ______.

(cholinergic/adrenergic)
adrenergic
Most sympathetic post-ganglionic axons secrete ______.

(epinephrine/norepinephrine)
norepinephrine
Acetylcholine is to parasympathetic postganglionic axons as ______ is to sympathetic postganglionic axons.
norepinephrine
Based on their neurotransmitters, autonomic neurons are classified as either ______ or ______.
adrenergic

cholinergic
Cholinergic neurons include the following: (1,2,3)
(1) all sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons

(2) all parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurons

(3) a few sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons
Release of ACh from cholinergic vesicles is via _____.
exocytosis
Synapses are essential for ______ because they allow signals to be integrated and filtered, with some ______ and others ______.
homeostasis

transmitted
blocked
______ neurons release noradrenalin and adrenalin.
adrenergic
Norepi that diffuses across a synapse may cause depolarization (or ______) of the post synaptic cell.
excitation
Norepi that diffuses across a synapse may cause hyperpolarization or ______ of the post synaptic cell.
inhibition
Why is hyperpolarization inhibitive?
A hyperpolarized cell is further from the depolarization threshold and harder to depolarize, therefore it is inhibited.
Hyperpolarization is ______.
(excitative/inhibitive)
inhibitive

(hyperpolarity moves cell further from threshold)
NE and epi secreted by the ______ into the blood stream ______ the action of NE liberated from sympathetic post-ganglionic axons.
adrenal medulla

intensify
The effects of sympathetic stimulation are ______ and ______ than the effects of parasympathetic stimulation.
longer lasting

more widespread
The two types of cholinergic receptors are ______ and ______.
nicotinic

muscarinic
Nicotinic receptors are found on ______ and ______ postganglionic neurons.
sympathetic

parasympathetic
Nicotine mimicks the action of ACh on ______ receptors.
nicotinic
A nicotinic receptor is a ______ receptor.

(cholinergic/adrenergic)
cholinergic
A nicotinic receptor is activated by ______.

(ACh/Norepi)
ACh
True or false:
Nicotine can stimulate nicotinic receptors.
True
What is muscarine?
mushroom poison
True or false:
Muscarine can stimulate muscarinic receptors.
True.
True or false:
ACh has no effect on nicotinic and muscarinic receptors.
False.
Both are ACh receptors.
Muscarinic receptors are present on all effectors (muscles and glands) innervated by ______ postganglionic axons.
parasympathetic
The two types of receptors for epinephrine and norepinephrine are ______ and ______.
alpha

beta
What receptors are present on all effectors (muscles and glands) innervated by the parasympathetic system?
muscarinic receptors
A(n)______ receptor receives sympathetic stimulation.
A(n) ______ receptor receives parasympathetic stimulation.
adrenergic

cholenergic
Alpha and beta receptors are found on ______ visceral effectors innervated by sympathetic postganglionic axons.

(all/most)
most
_____ and _____ are adrenergic receptors;
_____ and _____ are cholinergic receptors.
alpha (and) beta

nicotinic (and) muscarinic
Cholinergic receptors are activated by ______.
acetylcholine
True or false:
Activation of nicotinic receptors may cause either excitation or inhibition.
False.
Nicotinic receptors always cause excitation.
True or false:
Activation of muscarinic receptors may cause either excitation or inhibition.
True.
With muscarinic receptors, the response depends on the innervated cell.
What effect does the binding of ACh on muscarinic receptors have on cardiac muscles?
relaxation
True or false:
The effects of norepi and epi are always excitatory.
False.
It depends on the post synaptic receptor and the effector's response.
True or False:
In general, alpha receptors are excitatory.
True. In general.
True or false:
In general, beta receptors are excitatory.
False.
Some are excitatory while others are inhibitory.
(eg: increased contractility and smooth muscle relaxation)
True or false:
Most cells contain either alpha or beta receptors, but not both.
True.
Most are either/or, but some do contain both.
True or false:
Epinephrine stimulates alpha and beta receptors equally.
True
True or False:
NE stimulates alpha and beta receptors equally.
False.
NE stimulates alpha receptors more vigorously than beta receptors.
another term for parasympatholytic
anticholinergic
another term for sympatholytic
adrenergic antagonist
another term for adrenergic antagonist
sympatholytic
another term for anticholinergic
parasympatholytic
another term for an adrenergic agent
sympatholitic
another term for a cholinergic agent
parasympathomimetic
ACLS drug that is a competetive antagonist of the muscarinic receptors (blocks ACh and vagal tone)
atropine
ACLS drug that is a parasympatholytic used to treat bradycardia
atropine
True or false:
A parasympatholytic drug interacts with alpha and beta receptors.
False:
Alpha and Beta are sympathetic receptors.
True or false:
The adrenal medulla is essentially a modified sympathetic ganglion that, upon ANS stimulation, releases epi and NE into the bloodstream rather than into a synapse.
True.
True or false:
Anticolinergic and antiadrenergics have the same general effect.
False.
They are opposites.
Anticholinergic speeds things up.
Antiadrenergic slows things down.
True or false:
In a word, the sympathetic division speeds things up while the parasympathetic division slows things down.
In a word, True.
The acronym for parasympathetic response.
"SLUD"

Salivation
Lacrimation
Urnation
Defecation
The memory aid for sympathetic-inducing scenarios.
"E situations"

Emergency
Exercise
Embarrassment
Which ANS division is responsible for "fight-or-flight" when activated.
sympathetic
Describe the eight effects of fight or flight:
(1) Pupils dilate (to see)
(2) HR & BP increase (power up)
(3) Optional circulation shunted (skin/viscera)
(4) Essentials enhanced (skeletal/cardiac)
(5) Bronchodilation (aeration/oxygenation)
(6) Liver glycogen up (sugar/energy)
(7) Adrenal gland on (prolong effect)
(8) Non-essentials off (digestion slows/stops)
The parasympathetic division is the so-called "energy ______-______ system."
conservation-restorative
The sympathetic division is the so-called "______-or-______ response" system.
fight-or-flight
A ______ adjusts the activity of a visceral effector.
visceral autonomic reflex
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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