Primates Bones Structure Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Vertical Clinger and Leaper
Slow Climbing
Slow and slender lorises
Brachiation, Arm Slining
Gibbons and Siamang
All fours: mouse and dwarf lemurs
Knuckle walking
Chimps, Gorilla
Walk w. both hands and feet flat on ground: Lemurs
Walk on fingertips: Baboons
Shape of vertebral column:
Quadruped: single curveBiped: S-shaped
Size of vertebral bodies
Quadruped: similar in size from neck to pelvisBiped: Larger in size from neck to pelvis
Center of gravity
Quad: Over the forelimbsBi: Closer to hind limbs
Shape of thorax
Quad: narrow and deepBi: shallow and broad
Quad: in all but apesBi: none
# of Lumbar Vertebraes
Quad: Galago, 6-7OWM, 7Chimp, 3-4Human, 5
Ilium (Pelvis)
Quad: long and narrowBi: shallow and broad
New World Monkeys have what kind of tail?
Grasping (prehensile)
What is the Intermembral Index?
Humerus Length + Radius Length / Femur Length + Tibia Length x 100
Tibia and Fibula
Quad: use bothBi: fibula used for muscle attachment and balance only
Quad: lateralBi: dorsal (humans and chimps)
Spinal Cord Exit
Quad: posteriorBi (HUMANS): anterior*everything except human skulls are posterior*
Spinal Cord Exit
Quad: posteriorBi (HUMANS): anterior*everything except human skulls are posterior*
Intermemberal Index #s
Bipeds, 70 or belowVCLers, 70 or belowBrachiators, 100+Quad, 80-100
Rib Cage
Galago, narrow and long/deepOWM (baboon), narrow and deepChimp, wide and broadHuman, shallow and narrow
Nails v. Claws
ALl primates have nails except the galago/ aye-aye, which has a grooming claw on second digit
Divergent Big Toe
ALl but humans
Strepsirhini (lemurs and lorises) Characteristics
NocturnalWet NosePost-Orbital Bar
Haplarhini (monkeys, apes, and humans) Characteristics
No tailComplete Post-Orbital WallDry noseNo metopic suture (frontal bones are fused)
Platyrrhini (NWM) Characteristics
2-1-3-3 Dental CodeBroad noses, nostrils to sideArboreal
Catarrhini (OWM)Characteristics
No prehensile tailsNose pointed down2-1-2-3 dental code
Shape of Dental Arcade
Galago: VChimp/GOrilla/Orangutan/Apes: UHumans: parabola :(
Canine Destema (gap where canines fit into)
Galago, noOWM, yesNWM, yesChimp, yesGorilla, yesOrangutan, noHuman, no
Y-5 Molar
All apes only
Dental Formula
NWM are only ones with 2-1-3-3, everything else 2-1-2-3
Hominoidea (Apes and Humans)
Broad ChestDorsally placed ScapulaGreater Mobility of Shoulders and Hips
Apes dont have tail
Monkeys do
HIs Madison Dumb
Yes Very
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