WWU Anth 215 Paul James Test 1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Savanna
A large flat grass land with scattered trees and shrubs.  Savannas are found in many regions of the world with dry and warm to hot climates.
Hominidae
The taxonomic family to which humans belong; also includes other, now extinct, bipedal relatives.
Hominids
Colloquial term for rmembers of the family Hominidae, which includes all bipedal hominoids back to teh divergence from african great apes.
Bipedally
on wo feet; walking habitually on tow legs.
Species
a group of organisms that can be interreed to produce fertile offspring.  Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species (that is they cannot mate with them to produce fertile offspring).
Primates
Members of the order of mammals Primates which includes prosimians, monkeys, apes and humans.
Evolution
A change in the genetic structure of a population.  the term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of new species.
Adaptation
An anatomical, physiological or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment.  Adaptations result from evolutionary change (specifically, as a result of natural selection).
Macroevolution
Large scale changes that occur in populations only after many generations, sucha s teh apearance of a new species or speciation.
Microevolution
Small genetic changes that occur within a species.   A human example is that variation seen in the different ABO blood types.
Culture
Behavioral aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles.  Culture is a set of leared behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next through learning and not by biological or gentic mechanisms.
Worldview
General cultural orientation or perspecive share by members of a society.
Behavior
Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli; the resonse of an individual, group, or species to its environment.  Such responses may or may not be deliberate, and they aren't necessarily the result of conscious decision making (as in one-celled organisms or insects).
Predisposition
The capacity or inclination to do something.  An organism's capacity for behavioral or anatomical modification is related to the presence of preexisting traits.
Biocultural evolution
The mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution; a basic concept in understanding the unique component of human evolution.
Anthropology
The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology
 
4 types: Cultural, archaology, linguistics and physical/biological
Ethnographies
Detailed descriptive studies of human societies.  In cultural anthropology, an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non-western society.
Applied Anthropology
The practical application f anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques.  For example, many biological anthropologists work in the Pulbic Health center.
Artifacts
Objects or materials made or modified for use by moern humans and the ancestors.  The earliest artifacts tend to be tools make of stone or, ocasionally, bone.
Paleoanthropology
The interdisciplinary approach to teh study of earlier hominids, their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats etc.
Anthropometry
Measurement of human body parts.  When osteologists measure skeletal elements, the term osteometry is used.
Genetics
The study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parents to offspring.  Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
 
The double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code, a set of instructions for producing bodily structures and functions.  DNA is a main component of chromosomes.
Primatology
The stude of the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates.
Osteology
The study of skeletal material.  Human osteology focuses on the interpretation of skeletal remains from archaeological sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, and growth and development.  Some of the same techniques are used in paleoanthropology to study early hominids.
Paleopathology
The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal remains from archaeological sites.
Forensic Anthropology
An applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters.  Forensic anthropologists work with coroners, police and others in identifying and analyzing human remains.
Theory
A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypotheses.
Continuum
A set of relationhips in which all components fall along a single integrated specturm.  All life reflects a single biological continuum.
Science
A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation.
Empirical
Relying on experiment or observation.
Hypothesis
A provisional explanation of a phenomenon.  Hypotheses require verification or falsification through testing.
Scientific Method
An approach to research whereby a question is asked, a hypothesis is stated, and that hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data.
Quantitatively 
Pertaining to measurements of quantity and including such propertes as size, number, and capacity.  When data are quantified, they're expressed numerically and can be tested statistically.
Ethnocentric
Viewing other clutures from the inherently biased perspective of one's own culture.  Often results in other cultures being seen as inferior.
Relativistic
Pertaining to relativism; viewing entities as they relate to something else.  Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts and that they shouldn't be judged through comparison with one's own culture.
Metabolism
The chemical processes within cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use.  When nutrients are broken down into their component parts, such as amino acids, energy is released and made available for use by the cell.
Natural Selection
The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change, first articulated by Charles Darwin; refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals.
Fixity of Species
The notion that species, once created, can never change; an idea diametrically opposed to the theories of biological evolution.
Binominal Nomenclature
binomal = two names
 
In taxonomy, the convention established by Carolus Linnaeus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to species.
Taxonomy
The branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships.
Catastrophism
The view that the earth's geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events.  Cuvier promoted this view, especially in opossition to Lamarck.
Uniformitarianism
The theory that teh earth's features are teh result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past.  Elaborated on by Lyell this theory opposed catastrophism and contributed strongly to the concept of immense geological time.
Transmutation
The change of one species to another. The term evolution did not assume its current meaning until the late 19th century.
Reproductive Success
The number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age; an individual's genetic contribution to the next generation.
Selective Pressures
Forces in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals.
Fitness
Pertaining to natural selection, a measure of relative reproductive success of individuals.  Fitness can be measured by an individual's genetic contribution to the next generation compared to that of other inividuals.  The term genetic fitness, reproductive fitness and differential reproductive success are also used.
Fertility
The ability to conceive and produce healthy offspring.
Genome
The entire genetic makeup of an individual or species.
Biological continuity
Refers to a biological continuum.  When expressions of a phenomenon continuously grade into one another so that there are no discrete categories, they exist on a continuum. Color is one such phenomenon, and life-forms are another.
Christian Fundamentalists
Adherents to a movement in American Protestantism that began in the early twentieth century.  This group holds that the teachings of the Bible are infallible and are to be taken literally.
Genetics
The study of gene structure and action, and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring.  Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.
Nucleic Acids
Organic acids made up of nucleotides.  DNA and RNA are nucleic acids.
Organelles
Structures contained within cells.  There are many kinds of organelles, and each type has a different function.
Nucleus
A structure (organelle) found in all eukaryotic cells.  The nucleus contains chromosomes (nuclear DNA).
Molecules
Structures made up of two or more atoms.  Molecules can combine with other molecules to form more complex structures.
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid
 
A single-strained molecule similar in structure to DNA.  Three forms of RNA are essential to protien synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
Cytoplasm
The portion of the cell contained within the cell membrane, excluding the nucleus.  The cytoplasm consists of a semifluid material and contains numerous structures involved with cell function.
Protiens
Three dimensional molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind to other molecules.
Protien Synthesis
The assembl of chains of amino acids into functional protien molecules.  The process is directed by DNA.
Mitochondria
Structures contained within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that convert evergy, derived from nutrients, to a form that's used by the cell.
Ribosomes
Structures composed of a form of RNA called ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein.  Ribosomes are found in tehcell's cytoplasm and are essential to the manufacture of proteins.
Mitochondrial DNA
DNA found in the mitochondria. mtDNA is inheritied only from the mother.
Somatic cells
All the cells in the body except gametes (eggs and sperm).
Gametes
Reproductive cells (eggs and sperm in animals), developed from precurso cells in ovaries and testes.
Zygote
A cell formed by the union of an egg cell and a sperm cell.  It contains the full compliment of chromosomes (in humans, 46) and has teh potential to develop into an entire organism.
Nucleotides
Basic units of the DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four DNA bases.
Replicate
To duplicate.  The DNA molecule is able to make copies of itself.
enzymes
Specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body.
Complementary
Genetics:  referring to the fact that DNA bases form base pairs in a precise manner.  For example, adenine can bond only to thymine.  These two bases are said to be complementary becuse one requires the other to form a complete DNA base pair.
Hemoglobin
A protein molecule found in red blood cells.  Hemoglobin binds to oxygen, an ability that allows the blood to carry oxygen throughout the body.
Hormones
Substances (usually proteins) that are produced by specialized cells and travel to other parts of the body, where they influence chemical reactions and regulate various cellular functions.
Amino Acids
Small molecules that are the components of proteins.
Messenger RNA
mRNA
 
A form of RNA that's assembled on the sequence of DNA bases.  It carries the DNA code to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
Codons
Triplets of messenger RNA bases that code for specific amino acids during protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA
The type of RNA that binds to amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
Mutation
A change in DNA.  The term can refer to changes in DNA bases as well as to changes in chromosome number or structure.
Gene
A sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entire protein, a portion of a protein, or any functional product.  A gene may be made up of hundreds or thousands of DNA bases organized into coding and noncoding segments.
Regulatory genes
Genes that code for the production of proteins that can bind to DNA and modify the action of genes.  Many are active only during certain stages of development.
Homeobox genes (hox genes)
An evolutionarily ancient family of regulatory genes that directs the development of the overall body plan and the segmentation of body tissues.
Chromosomes
Discrete strutures composed of DNA and protein found only in the nuclei of cells.  Chromosomes are visible under magnification only during certain phases of cell division.
Centromere
The constricted portion of a chromosome.  After replication, the two strands of a double-stranded chromosome are joined at the centromere.
Autosomes
All chromosomes except the sex chromosomes.
sex chromosomes
In mammals, the X and Y chromosomes.
Mitosis
Simple cell division; the process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells.
Meiosis
Cell division in specialized cells in overaies and testes.  Meiosis involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each containing only half teh orginal number of chromosomes.  These cells can develop into gametes.
Recombintion
Sometimes called crossing over; the exchange of genetic material between partner chrommosomes during meiosis.
Clones
Organisms that are geneticaly identical to another organism.  The term may also be used in referring to genetically identical DNA segments, molecules, and cells.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A method of producing thousands of copies of aDNA segment using the enzyme DNA polymerase.
Recombinant DNA Technology
A process in which genes from the cell of one species are transferred to somatic cells or gametes of another species.
Human Genome Project
An internaional effort aimed at sequencing and mappin ghte entire uman genome, completed in 2003.
Hybrids
Offspring of parents who differ from one another with regard to certain traits or certain aspects of genetic make up; heterozygotes.
Principle of Segregation
Genes (alleles) occur in pairs (because chromosomes occur in pairs).  During gamete production, the members of each gene pair separate, so that each gamete contains one member of each pair.  During fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored, and members of gene or allele pairs are reunited.
Recessive
Describing a trait that isn't expressed in heterozygotes; also refers to the allele that governs the trait.  For a recessive allele to be expressed, there must be two copies of it (ie. homozyous)
Dominant
Describing a trait governed by an allele that can be in expressed in the presence of another, different allele.  Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles in heterozygotes.  (definition of complete dominance)
Locus
The position on a chromosome where a given gene occurs.  The term is sometimes used interchangeably with gene, but this usage is technically incorrect.
Alleles
Alternate forms of a gene.  Alleles occur at the same locus on partner chromosomes and thus govern the same trait.  However, because they are slightly different, their action may result in different expressions of that trait.  The term is smetimes used synonymously with gene.
Homozygous
Having the same allele at the same locus on both member of a chromosome pair.
Heterozygous
Having different alleles at the same locus on members of a chromosome pair.
Genotype
The genetic makeup of an individual.  Genotpe can refer to an organism's entire genetic makeup or to the alleles at a particular locus.
Phenotypes
The observable or detectble physical characteristics of an organism; the detectable expressions of genotypes.
Principle Independent Assortment
The distrbution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not influence the distribution of another pair.  The genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another.
Random Assortment
The chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells during meiosis; along with recombination, a source of variation resulting from meiosis.
Mendelian Traits
Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus.  Examples include many blood types, such as ABO.  Many genetic disorders, including sickle cell anemia and Tay-Sachs disease, are also Mendelian traits.
Antigens
Large molecules found on the surface of cells.  Several different loci govern various antigens on red and white blood cells.
Codominence
The expression of two alleles in heterozygotes.  In this situation, neither allele is dominant or recessive; thus both influence the phenotype.
Polygenic
Referring to traits that are influenced by genes at two or more loci.  Examples of such traits are statue, skin color, and eye color.  Many polygenic traits are also influenced by environmental factors.
Variation (genetic)
Inherited diferences among individuals; the basis of all evolutionary change.
Allele Frequency
In a population, the percentage of all the alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele.
population
within a species, a community of individuals where mates are usually found.
Microevolution
Small genetic changes that occur within a species.  A human example is the variation seen in the different ABO blood types.
Macroevolution
Large-scale changes that occur in populations after many generations, such as the apearance of a new species (speciation).
Gene Flow
Exchange of genes between populations.
Genetic drift
Evolutionary changes-that is, changes in allele frequencies-produced by random factors.  Genetic drift is a result of small population size.
Founder Effect
A type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from, or are remnants of, larger populations.
Gene Pool
The total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population.
directional change
In a genetic sense, the nonrandom change in allele frequencies cause by natural selection.  The change is directional because the frequencies of alleles consistently increase or decrease (they change in one direction), depending on environmental circumstances and the selective pressures involved.
Sicle-cell anemia
A severe inherited hemoglobin disorder in which red blood cells collapse when deprived of ozygen.  It results from inheriting two copies of a mutant allele.  This mutation is caused by a single base substitution in the DNA.
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