Emergency Care in the Streets: Chapter 17 Trauma Systems and MOI Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is the primary cause of death in people age 1 to 34 yrs?
Trauma
What is the primary cause of death in people age 1 to 34 yrs?
17.5
Trauma
The acute physiologic and structural change (injury) that occurs in a pt's body when an external source energy dissipates faster than the body's ability sustain and dissipate it.
Trauma
17.5
Mechanical energy
Energy from motion (kinetic energy, ie a moving vehicle) or stored in an object (potential energy, ie wall).
Mechanical energy
17.6
Chemical energy
Energy found in an explosive, acid, or even from a reaction to an ingested or medically delivered agent or drug.
Chemical energy
17.6
Electrical energy
Energy form from high voltage electrocution or a lightning strike.
Electrical energy
17.6
Barometric energy
Energy resulting in sudden and radical changes in pressure, ie during flying.
Barometric energy
17.6
Biomechanics
The study of the physiology and mechanics of a living organism using the tools of mechanical engineering. Provides a way of analyzing the mechanisms and results of trauma sustained by the human body.
Biomechanics
17.6
Kinetics
The study of the relation of speed, mass, direction of force, and gives us the ability to predict injury pattern.
Kinetics
17.6
velocity
How fast your pt is traveling.
The distance an object travels per unit time. The difference between velocity and speed is velocity is also defined by moving in a specific direction.
velocity
17.6
____________ tissues are less compressible than ______________ tissues.
Water-bearing
gas-containing
____________ tissues are less compressible than ______________ tissues.
17.6
The platinum ten minutes
The goal of a maximum time spent at a scene for a critical trauma pt.
The platinum ten minutes
17.9
Acceleration
The rate of change of velocity that an object is subject to, whether speeding up or slowing down,
Acceleration
17.9
Gravity
The downward acceleration that is imparted to any object on earth by the effect of the earth's mass.
Gravity
17.9
Kinectic energy of an object
The energy associated with that object in motion. Express mathematically as KE=mass/2 x velocity to the 2nd
Kinectic energy of an object
17.10
law of conservation of energy
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, it can only change form.
law of conservation of energy
17.11
List the forms of energy:
Thermal
Electrical
Chemical
Radiant
Mechanical
Kinetic
Newton's 1st law of motion
A body at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an outside force.
Newton's 1st law of motion
17.11
Newton's 2nd low of motion
The force that an object can exert is the product of its mass times accleration. Force= Mass x Accleration
Newton's 2nd low of motion
17.11
Blunt trauma vs Penetrating trauma
Where as penetrating penetrates the skin, blunt trauma refers in which tissue is not penetrated by an external object.
Blunt trauma vs Penetrating trauma
17.11
entrance wound vs exit wound
In general the entrance wound is always smaller than the exit wound.
entrance wound vs exit wound
17.11
Injuries that occur before impact
deceleration injuries.
Injuries that occur before impact
17.12
flail chest
A condition in which the chest wall moves paradoxically with respirations. *
flail chest
17.13
Blunt cardiac injury can...
compress the heart between bones in the chest, causing arrhythmias and direct injury to the heart muscle.
Blunt cardiac injury can...
17.13
What may compression of the lungs cause?
ARDS-Acute respiratory distress syndrome characterized by respiratory insufficiency and hypoxemia.
What may compression of the lungs cause?
17.13
List the three impacts with adult pedestrian vs vehicle
Usually facing away.
1) Point of impact at the bumper usually lower half.
2) Upper part of body is thrown on hood and or grill.
3) Body strikes ground.
List the three impacts with adult pedestrian vs vehicle
17.21
List the three impacts with pediatric pedestrian vs vehicle
Usually face towards like deer in the head lights.
1) Bumper hits pelvis and femur.
2) Cx and abd hit the grill or hood.
3) The head strikes the vehicle and the ground.
List the three impacts with pediatric pedestrian vs vehicle
17.21
Injuries from height depend on:
Height determines velocity, position determines injury pattern (Children tend to fall head 1st), area, surface, physical condition.
Injuries from height depend on:
17.21
Don Juan syndrome of lover's leap
Injury pattern from a fall from vertical standing position with common injuries including foot, lower ext, hip, pelvis, sacral, and lumbar compressions, also cause force injuries to organs within the abd.
Don Juan syndrome of lover's leap
17.21
List the 5 phases of MVA
1) Deceleration of the vehicle
2) Deceleration of the occupants
3) Deceleration of internal organs
4) Secondary collisions
5) Additional impact the vehicle may receive
List the 5 phases of MVA
17.134
List the five primary types of impact patterns for MVAs.
Frontal or head on, lateral or side impact, rear impact, rotational, and rollover.
List the five primary types of impact patterns for MVAs.
17.14
Which type of impact pattern have a greatest potential to cause death? (MVA)
Rollovers
Which type of impact pattern have a greatest potential to cause death? (MVA)
17.17
Ejection increases chance of death by ___ times. _____ of _____ sustain cervical-spine fracture. _____ of _____ sustain major and permanent cervical spine injuries.
25
1
3
1
13
Ejection increases chance of death by ___ times. _____ of _____ sustain cervical-spine fracture. _____ of _____ sustain major and permanent cervical spine injuries.
17.17
Information to be obtain if possible for gun shots:
-What kind of weapon was used (handgun, rifle, or shotgun, typen and caliber if known)?
-At what range was it fired?
-What kind of bullet was used?
-Powder residue around wound?
-Entrance and exit wound
Information to be obtain if possible for gun shots:
17.24
permanent cavity
17.23
pathway expansion
17.23
What type of organs are most susceptible to pressure changes?
Air-containing organs such as middle ear, lung, and gastrointestinal tract.
What type of organs are most susceptible to pressure changes?
17.25
With blast injuries to the ears be suspicious for...
Lung injuries.
With blast injuries to the ears be suspicious for...
17.25-26
arterial air embolism
Air bubbles in the arterial blood vessels.
arterial air embolism
17.28
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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