Japanese Verbs: Saying What you Mean Grammar Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
yodan verb
end in u, ku, gu, su, tsu, nu, bu, mu, or ru
ichidan verb
end in either eru or iru
Base 3 Verb
plain verb or root verb e.g kau, aruku
Base 2 Verb (yodan)
yodan verb changed so they end in -i
Base 2 Verb (ichidan)
ichidan verb drops "ru" at end
Base 2 Verb +masu
the polite form of verbs. Used everywhere
Base 2 Verb+masen
the polite negative form of verbs. Used everywhere
Base 2 Verb+mashita
Mashita is used to change verbs to their past polite form
Base 2 Verb+masen desshita
polite negative past tense
Desu after nouns and adjective
acts like English be verbs
plain form of desu used by kids and adults in casual situations
Iru and Aru
to be in a certain place or to exist. Iru is for people and animals and aru is for things.
Imasu and Arimasu
polite form of iru and aru
Inai and Nai
plain negative form or iru and aru
Base 2 Verb+tai
want to do something
Base 2 Verb+takunai
don't want to do something
Base 2 Verb+takereba
if you want to
Base 2 Verb+mashou
Let's (do something) or I'll do something for you
Base 2 Verb+nasai
command to do
Irregular Verb Base 2 form of kuru
Irregular Verb Base 2 form of suru
turns the word to a question
Base 2 +ni iku
reason for going
Base 2+ ni kuru
reason for coming
Base 2+nikui
something is hard to do
Base 2+yasui
something is easy to do
Base 2+sugiru
to 'overdo' something
Base 2+nagara
while (doing something)
Base 1 verbs are used...
mainly for creating negative verb endings
Base 1 verb (yodan) '
verb changed so that it ends in 'a
Base 1 verb (ichidan)
drops 'ru' at the end. (same as base 2)
Base 1+nai
change verbs to plain negative (informal)
Base 1+nai deshou
somebody is probably not going to do something or something is not likely to happen
Base 3+deshou
somebody is probably going to do something or something is probably going to happen
Base 1+nakatta
plain past tense (informal)
Base 1+nakereba
negative conditional sentences
Base 1+nakereba narimasen
must do or has to
Base 1+nakereba naranai deshou
probably has to or probably needs to
Base 1 (yodan)+seru
let/have/make someone do something
Base 1 (ichidan+irregular)+saseru
let/have/make someone do something
base 3+no wa (hanasu no wa)
make a noun out of a verb. Like adding -ing to a verb
base 3+node (kuru node)
reasons or causes...similar to kara but not as direct a relationship
base 3+ noni (iu noni)
in spite of
base 3+sou desu (ame furu sou desu)
things you've heard, understood to be, rumors, etc
base 3+tame ni (kau tame ni)
for the purpose of (to..)
base 3+to (natsu ni naru to)
when or if
base 3+to omoimasu (kaeru to omoimasu)
I think (you do know something)
base 3+tsumori (kaeru tsumori)
used to express intention
base3+you desu (ame ga furu you desu)
seems to
base 4+ba (isogeba)
why don't you...(conditional if)
base 4+ba ii (benkyou sureba ii)
it would be good if
base 4+ba ii noni
it would be good if...in spite of the fact that (you're bugged because someone is not doing what you asked or want them to do)
base 4+ ba yokatta
regret for a decision made after its too late to change it.
base 4 (by itself)
give orders without any hint of kindness. Yodan verbs only
base 4+ ru (nihongo o yomeru)
ability to do something (usually yodans only)
base 4+ru makes verbs end
in eru, just like most ichidans
base 4+nai (nihongo o yomenai)
inability to do something (usually yodans only)
base 4+reba (Hachi jikan nereba genki ni naru deshou)
if someone can
base 5
Let's do (something) non-polite
base 5+ka
Suggestions to questions Ikou ka
base 5+ka na
I wonder if I should
base 5+to suru
try to do something (koyou to suru to omou)
Base 1+zu ni
did something without doing something else that was expected. 'without'
base 3+hazu
supposed to be, ought to be, planned to be
base 3+hou ga ii
should do, had better do, would rather do
Is hou ga ii active or passive
Is hazu active or passive
Base 3+ka dou ka
whether or not
Base 3+kamo shiremasen
maybe or perhaps
kamo shirenai kamo shiremasen
cannot be known
base 3+kara
because or since
base 3+keredomo
although or but
Te form+kudasai
a polite request
Base 1+nai kudasai
polite negative requests
Te form+ageru (matte ageru)
someone is going to do something for someone else.
Te form+agemasu (denwa shite agemasu)
someone is going to do something for someone else (polite form)
Te form+goran (Bob ni kiite goran)
You ask someone to try something
Te form+goran nasai
You ask someone to try something to prove a point
Te form+iru (Nina wa tabete iru)
Used to show the present progressive tense
Te form+inai (nagging wife form??)
Used to show the negative present progressive. Also used to express 'not yet'
Te form+inai deshou
Probably not -ing
Te form+inai inakereba
If they are not -ing...
Te form+ita
plain past form of iru and expresses the past progressive tense.
Te form+itadaku (denwa shite itadakemasu ka?)
to make very polite requests. Literally 'I humbly partake' Similar to 'kudasai'.
Te form+morau (Ojii-chan itte moraimashou ka?)
same as itadaku but in plain form. Used to talk about a third party.
Te form+kara (Tabete kara kaimono ni iku)
'after (doing something) Different from kara used as 'because' with Base 3 and 'Ta' form.
mi ni iku
to go and see. Base 2 form of miru
Te form+kureru (rokuji ni kite kureru?)
Used like kudasai when rank or 'greatness' doesn't need to be worried about. Ask a favor of family members or close friends.
Te form+kuremasu
Used like kudasai when rank or 'greatness' doesn't need to be worried about. Good for talking to colleagues or about others.
Te form+kurenai (Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka?)
Used for an urgent repeated request, especially one that's already been turned down.
Te form+kure
Command form of kureru. Huge difference between kudasai and kure. Be careful using this.
Te form+kuru/iku (nihongo ga wakatte kimashita)
to come up to or start from a given time.
Te form+miru (kono kanji o yonde miru)
I'll see if I can or I'll try to
Rusu (Bob wa ima rusu desu.)
To be out
Te form+mo ii (Boku no PC o tsukattemo ii yo.)
If someone were to do something it would be okay. Its ok to do something.
a more polite form of 'ii' Be careful because you may sounds like a 'big boss'
Te form+oku (Ron ni denwa shite oku)
will certainly do or will go ahead and do. Verbs with te-oku are often greatly compressed in native speech.
Te form+shimau (Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo)
1. Finish or put away 2. express doing something that was hard to do or unexpected 3. concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or dismay that something negative happened.
Te form+wa ikaga/dou desu ka
polite way to ask "how about doing (something)?"
Te form+wa ikemasen (Okurete wa ikemasen yo)
show that something is forbidden. In Kansai dialect is 'akan'
Te form for continuing statements
talk about multiple or further actions. The final verb conjugated gives the intended meaning
Ta form
the plain past. Conjugated just like 'te' form but with 'ta' instead. Also used as noun modifier. i.e hon yonda
Ta form+combinations shared with base 3
itta deshou, kita hazu,itta houga ii (same in past as present) dekita ka dou ka, mita kamo shrenai, okureta kara, okita noni, yameta sou desu, kaetta to omoimasu, futta mitai
Ta form+bakari Watashi wa tabeta bakari
someone did something just now. Be careful not to confuse with te-bakari which means "all someone ever does is"
Ta form+koto ga aru/koto ga nai
To talk about things you or others have (have not) experienced
Ta form+ra (Denwa shitara, kare wa kuru deshou)
if element for conditionals. Same as base 3+nara and base 4+ba except it is used in more familiar settings.
Ta form +ra dame (Ima tabetara dame)
Used a lot for Don't (do something) instead of -te wa ikenai
Ta form+rashii (Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii)
means 'it seems that or I hear that'. Similar to base 3+sou desu but used in more familiar settings.
Ta form+ri
to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. Structures using two or more verbs is common. A general idea of actions done. Also usable for future tense.
Ta form+ to shitara (ima oyogi ni itta to shitara, tabun koukai suru deshou)
suppositional statements i.e. If you were to...supposing it...etc
Ta form+ to shite mo
like -to shitara but adds a light warning. i.e Even IF...you should remember...
Ta form+toki (Sore o kiita toki waratta)
talking about the time around certain events occurred
Ta form+tokoro (Casey heya o souji shita tokoro desu.)
states that you or someone have done something just now. Different from -ta bakari because it -ta bakari has a 'relatively speaking' feel to it. Tokoro means right now.
Base 3+tokoro with datta or deshita (Watashi no saifu o wasureru tokoro datta)
was just about to
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