AP Art History: Ancient Near East Flashcards

Babylonia
Terms Definitions
Mesopotamia
-Presumed to be the mythical Garden of Eden
-Running during the same time as Egypt, India, and China
-Area is extremely flat and had no stone, so everything was made of mud and brick, making them susceptible to invaders
-Hostile environment
-Extreme heat, cold, storm, droughts, and locusts
Sumerian (Iraq)
Standard of Ur, Tell Asmar, mud bricks, votive figures, bull motifs, 3500-2340 BCE
Akkadian (Iraq)
Victory Stele of Naram Sin, Sargon I, a short lived society, 28000-2340 BCE
Neo-Sumerian (Iraq)
Gudea of Logash, 2150-2000 BCE
Babylonian (Iraq)
Stele of Hammurabi (Code of Hammurabi) 1792-1750 BCE
Hittites (Turkey)
Huge boulders used in construction of city 1600-1200 BCE
Assyrian (Iraq)
Palace of Sargon II, Lamassu guardian figures, narrative reliefs in the Palace of Ashurbanipal 100-612 BCE
Neo-Babylonian (Iraq)
Nebuchadnezzar (made Babylon a fabulous city), Ishtar Gate 612-539 BCE
Persian (Iran)
Persepolis, bull capital, animal style 534-331 BCE
White Temple (Sumerian)
-Built of mud brick and faced with glazed tiles
-Bent access approach was part of the ritual to walk up to the cella
cella
where a statue of the local god was kept
The Ziggurat of Ur (Sumerian)
Votive Figures from Tell Asmar (Sumerian)
-Stand-ins for worshipers
-Wide eyed, fearful and filled with devotion
-Little proportion of the human figure
-Stylized beards
-Believed gods were present in the figures
-Eyes were the windows to the soul
The Ram and the Tree (Sumerian)
-Whimsical
-Lazulli (blue colored material)
-Assemblage
-Considered a fertility symbol
-Found in a tomb
The Standard of Ur (Sumerian)
-Has a ground line
-In profile
-Two sided mosaic panel (war side and peace side)
-Probably used like a flag today
-Made of shells and bitamin
-Read from bottom to top
-Chariot repeated frame by frame
-Sumerians won the battle
-Peace side shows attendants bringing the king food
cylinder seal
like a spool on threat. When rolled on clay, it leaves an impression. Used to seal documents, door, etc. Infinite repetition starting with and returning into itself
Akkadian Notes
-Spoke a language similar to Hebrew + Arabic
-Conquer the Sumerians
-Sargon I was the first ruler
-Lived good lives, but had internal weaknesses
Victory Stele of Naram-Sin (Akkadian)
-Warriors move up mountainside lead by Naram-Sin
-He is the largest figure (hierarchical scale)
Neo-Sumerian Notes
-Golden Age of Sumerian art
-Gudea was the leader, had about 30 portraits done of himself, mostly done in diorite stone. Short and stocky. Patron of the arts. Made Ur a new royal city
-Devoted to peace
-Cunnieform writing was developed
Babylon Notes
-Cultural center of the area
-Under the rule of Hammurabi, who saw himself as the shepherd of his people
-Created the Code of Hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
-Created from black basalt or diorite
-About 8ft high
-Shamosh giving Hammurabi rope, rod, and a ring
-Platform almost resembles a ziggurat
-Shamosh's shoulders seem either on fire or wings
-Thick beard and crown made of several horns
-Code was based off "an eye for an eye" concept
Lion Gate (Hittites)
-Used stone instead of mud brick
-Lions were guardian figures
-Known for fortifications around cities
Assyrians
-Warriors, inflicted horrible things on their enemies
-Very powerful
-Low or bas Relief carved all over Assyrian palaces to express the greatness of the king
-Very little sculpture
-Lions represented the enemy
-People are stiff and stoic
-Animals are portrayed with more emotion
Palace of Nimrud
-Glorifies the king
-Details of military conquest
-Hunting expeditions
-Earliest narratives in the history of art
Lamassus
-Guardian figures (claw-lion, hooves-bull)
-Human head
-High relief
-Stocky, enormous chest
-Severe face, not pleasant
-Described the power of the king
-Large earrings
-Crown made of horns to show the divine nature of the beast
-Have 5 legs so it looks like it's standing or walking from any angle
-Creates intimidation
Dying Lioness
-Pierced by arrows
-Dragging her legs
-Not giving up
-Artist is sympathetic toward the lioness
Neo-Babylonia Notes
-Nebuchadnezzar was the most famous ruler
-Construction of roads and temples
-Hanging Gardens of Babylon
-Babylon was covered by gates and protected by deities
Ishtar Gate
-Covered with beautiful painted tiles
-Processional way lined with lions
-Glaze tiles that look like low relief
-Animals were less somber
-Bulls, lions, maradukes (dragons)
Persian Notes
-Larger than Assyrian + Egypt
-Wealthy empire, lots of gold and silver
-Humane and efficient society
-Made mostly of tribes
-No real records kept
-Buried objects with their dead
-Metalworkers known for their work in gold
-No religious architecture
-Conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE
Persepolis
-Steps were shallow, low and wide, so they didn't have to dismount their horses
-Relief figures of people from different nations bringing tributes to the king
-Huge columns topped by bulls made of limestone covered with silver and gold leafing
-Magnificently preserved from antiquity
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