Surgical Tech Cert. Exam Flashcards

Large intestine
Terms Definitions
Which of the following structures is located in the alveolar processes?
Teeth
The portion of the stomach surrounding the lower esophogeal sphincter is called the:
Cardia
The islets of Langerhans secrete:
Insulin
The area in the duodenum where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty is called the:
Ampulla of Vater
The primary function of the gallbladder is to:
Store Bile
The plicae circulares, microvilli, and villi are:
Structures that increase surface absorption area in the small intestine
The first part of the small intestine is the:
Duodenum
The appendix is attached to the:
Cecum
The double-layered, apron-like structure that hands from the lower border of the stomach is the:
Greater omentum
The main function of the large intestine is to:
Reabsorb water and electrolytes
The chemical reaction that provides energy by the breakdown of food molecules is called:
Catabolism
Which of the following substances is the bodies preferred source of energy?
Carbohydrates
The process by which glucose is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle cells as glycogen is?
Glycogenesis
The structure that binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the:
Mesentary
The salivary glands located in the front of the ear that become inflamed and enlarged during mumps are the:
Parotid
The catabolism of fats produces which of the following substances?
Ketone bodies
Vitamins A,D,E and K are absorbed in the:
Intestine
The organ that lies posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach and is connected by a duct to the duodenum is the:
Pancreas
When body cells require energy, what molecule is broken down
ATP molecule
The outer layer of the intestines is the
Serosa
The cricoid cartilage is a:
Ring of cartilage forming the inferior walls of the larynx.
The passageway for foods and liquids into the digestive system and for air into the respiratory system is the:
Pharynx
The larynx is located between the:
Pharynx and the trachea
The vocal cords are located in the:
Larynx
Which structure has three divisions consisting of Naso, oro and laryngeal?
Pharynx
The function of the trachea is to:
Conduct air to and from the lungs
The space between the vocal cords is called the:
Glottis
The nasil cavity is divided into two portions by the:
Septum
The structure that drains excess tears to the nasal cavity, causing the nose to run is the:
Nasolacrimal duct
The cartilaginous nasal septum lies upon which bone?
Vomer
The structure that connects te middle ear and the throat, allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely, is the:
Eustachian tube
Another name for the tympanic membrane is the:
Eardrum
The winding, cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is the:
Cochlea
The nasal sinus located between the nose and the orbits is the:
Ethmoid
Which ossicle of the middle ear covers the oval window?
Stapes
The large, leaf-shaped laryngeal cartilage that acts as a trap door over the larynx is the:
Epiglottis
Which part of the ear is responsible for the equilibrium?
Semicircular canals
A term referring to a waxy sectretion in the external ear canal is:
Cerumen
Which of the following strucutres is not an ossicle of the middle ear?
Vestibule
The fluid within the membranous labyrinth is called:
Endolymph
In the physiology of hearing, sound waves collect in the ______ and pass on to hit the ______:
External Auditory Canal; tympanic membrane
striated-voluntary muscle tissue is found in the ________ muscle tissue.
Skeletal
The white, tough layer of the eye that gives it its shape is the
Sclera
The layer of the eye that is clear, covers the iris, and contains no blood vessels is the:
Cornea
The layer of the eye that absorbs light rays and nourishes the retina through its numerous blood vessels is the:
Choroid
Which muscle alters the shape of the lens of the eye to accomodate near or far vision?
Ciliary muscle
What structure regulates the amount of light entering the eya and assists in obtaining a clear image?
Iris
Intraocular pressure is primarily dependent on:
Aqueous humor
At the junction of the sclera and cornea is a venous sinus known as the:
Canal of Schlemm
The smooth intrinsic muscle that alters the shape of the eye lens is the:
Ciliary body
The ciliary body is part of which layer of the eye?
Vascular
The capillary network of blood vessels withing the renal cortex that functions as a filter is called the:
Glomerulus
The triangular area of the bladder that is formed by the two openings of the ureters and the opening of the urethra is known as the:
Trigone
Gerota's fascia is located:
Around the kidney
The kidneys are positioned:
Retroperitoneally
The functional unit of the kidney responsible for removing waste and regulating fluids is the:
Nephron
The most abundant extracellular ion necessary for the transmission of impules is:
Sodium
The prostate gland secretes:
Alkaline fluid
The ciliary body is part of which layer of the eye?
Vascular
A capilary network of blood vessels within the renal cortex that functions as a filter is called the:
Glomerulus
The triangular area of the bladder that is formed by the two openings of the ureters and the opening of the urethra is known as the:
Trigone
Gerota's fascia is located:
Around the kidney
The kidneys are positioned:
Retroperitoneally
The functional unit of the kidney responsible for removing waste and regulating fluid is the:
Nephron
The most abundant extracellular ion necessary for the transmission of impulses is:
Sodium
The prosate gland secretes:
Alkaline fluid
The first step of urine production in which fluids and dissolved subtances are forced through a membrane by pressure is called:
Glomerular filtration
Sperm are produced by the:
Seminiferous tubules
The cup-like extensions of the kidney pelvis that collect urine from the pyramids are:
Calyces
The notch on the kidney through which the ureters exit is the:
Hilum
Which of the following is the principal male hormone produced in the testes and responsible for sexual characteristics?
Testosterone
The comma-shaped organ that lies along the posterior border of the testes is the:
Epididymis
The only artery in the body that carries unoxygenated blood is the:
Pulmonary artery
The pacemaker of the heart is the:
SA Node
Which arteries are formed by the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta?
Iliac
The process by which blood cells are formed is known as:
Hemopioesis
Which of the following arises from the left ventricle?
Aorta
The pancreas lies behind the stomach and the duodenum in the right and left upper quadrants and is divides into how many portions?
Three
Which organ is responsible for the synthesis of many of the coagulation factors?
Liver
The Atrioventricular (AV) valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the:
Bicuspid
The inner layer of an artery is known as the:
Intima
Which of the following vessels arises from the right ventricle?
Pulmonary artery
Which of the following vessels do not empty into the right atrium?
Pulmonary veins
The large artery found behind the knee is the:
Popliteal
The large artery that arises from the left side of the aortic arch and descends into the arm is the:
Subclavian
The medial malleolus is part of which bone?
Tibia
The sutures of the skull are examples of:
Synarthrosis
Which characteristics does not belong to a synovial joint?
Synchondrosis containing hyaline cartilage
Which of the following is an example of a saddle joint?
Radius and carpals
Thumb and trapezium
Femur and hip
Ulna and radius
Thumb and trapezium
Smooth, sustained contractions produced by several very rapid stimuli are called:
Tetanus
The dense white fibrous covering around the bone is the:
periostium
An example of a short bone is the:
Wrist
A large bony process found on the femur is a:
trochanter
The foramen magnum is found on which bone?
Occipital
An example of a flat bone is the:
Wrist
Vertebrae
Cranial bones
Facial bones
Cranial bones
The acromion is part of which bone?
Scapula
The olecranon is part of which bone?
Ulna
Which of the following is not a carpal?
Lunate
Scaphoid
Capitate
Styloid
Styloid
The only bone in the body that does not articulate with another is the:
Hyoid
The shaft of a bone is known as the:
Diaphysis
The extremity or end of a bone is known as the:
Epiphysis
Another name for spongy bone is:
Cancellous
The vertebrae are examples of what type of bone?
Irregular
The area of a bone where growth occurs until early in adulthood is the:
Epiphyseal plate
What bones form the greater portion of the sides and roof of the cranial cavity?
Parietal
The structure that serves as the socket for the head of the femur is the:
Acetabulum
Where are cruciate ligaments found in the knee?
Lateral and medial in the knee
A triangular muscle that abducts the arm and covers the shoulder is the:
Deltoid
The rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and the castus intermedius are muscles that extend the legs and are known as the:
Quadriceps
The muscle that flexes and supinates the forearm and covers the anterior portion of the upper arm is the:
Biceps Brachii
The muscle that forms the bulk of the uppe calf is the:
Gastrocnemius
The madible articulates with the:
Temporal bone
The thoracic spine contains how many vertibrae?
Twelve
The inner lining of the uterus is the:
Endometrium
The walls of the vagina are lined with:
Mucous membrane
All of the following ligaments maintain the position of the uterus except the: Broad Ligament
Ovarian Ligament
Round Ligament
Cardianl Ligament
Ovarian Ligament
The perineum is the:
Area between the vagina and the anus
Fertilization of the ovum generally occurs in the:
Fallopian Tubes
The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics is:
Estrogen
The structure that provides an exchange of nutrients and wastes between the fetus and mother and secretes the hormones necessary to maintain the pregnancy is:
Placenta
In the ovary, a granular yellow body that develops after the extrusion of the ovum is the:
Corpus luteum
The finger-like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes are:
Fimbriae
The funnel-shaped open distal end of each fallopian tube is called a/an:
Infundibulum
The portion of the uterus above the level of the uterine tubes is called the:
Fundus
The elevated adipose tissue over the symphysis is called the:
Mons pubis
The ovary is attached to the uterus by the:
Ovarian Ligament
The middle layer of the uterus composed of muscle is the:
Myometrium
The outermost covering of the brain and spinal cord is the:
Dura mater
The brain contains four fluid-filled spaces caleed the:
Ventricles
The area of the brain that controls respiration is the:
Medulla oblongata
All thought takes place in the:
Cerebral cortex
The basic unit of the nervous system is the:
Neuron
The cranial nerve that contains special fibers for hearing as well as balance is:
VIII
The peripheral nervous system contains:
Cranial and spinal nerves
Muscle tone, coordination of voluntary muscles and balance are controlled by the:
Cerebellum
The largest part of the brain is the:
Cerebrum
Which cranial nerve emerges from the medulla, passes though the skull, and descends through the neck region into the thorax and abdominal region?
X
The cranial nerve that carries motor fibers to the tongue and sensory impulses from the tongue to the brain is the:
Hypoglossal
Which cranial nerve can be tested for sensations of pain, touch, and temp. with the use of a safety pin and hot and cold objects?
V
Which cranial nerve carries impulses for sense of smell?
I
Neurons that conduct impulses to the cardiac muscles are part of the:
Autonomic nervous system
The contractions of involuntarty muscles are controlled by the:
Autonomic nervous system
The neuroglia are cells that:
Support and protect
The cytoplasmic process of a neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell body is a/an:
Axon
The part of the brain that is a continuation of the spinal cord and forms the inferior protion of the brain stem is the:
Medulla
Which area of the brain produces subconscious skeletal movements required for coordination and balance?
Cerebellum
The fifth cranial nerve is also called the:
Trigeminal nerve
Which of the following neuroglia are star shaped and attach neurons to their blood vessels?
Astrocytes
Where is cerebrospinal fluid formed?
Ventricles
The diencephalon is composed of the:
Thalamus and hypothalamus
The wisp-like roots of the nerves at the end of the spinal cordare called the:
Cauda equina
Neuron axons that are surrounded by a multilaer, white, phospholipids, segmented covering are called:
Myelinated neurons
Chemicals released by neurons to increase or inhibit impulses are called:
Neurotransmitters
The brige connecting the spinal cord with the brain is the:
Pons
The inner lining of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is composed of:
Epithelium
Minety-six percent of the body's mass is made up of:
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen
The essential component of hemoglobin is:
Iron
A pH level refers to:
Acidity vs. alkalinity
The basic living, structural, and functional unit of the body is known as the:
Cell
What is the function of the phagocytic white blood cells?
Engulf and destroy bacteria
The result of fertilization of gametes is a/an:
Zygote
The roof of the mouth is formed by the:
Hard and soft palates
The teeth are composed primarily of:
Dentin
The set of teeth that erupt at about six months of age and are lost are the:
Decidous teeth
The main duct of the pancreas is the:
Duct of Wirsung
Which of the following glands are located in the stomach?
Parietal cells
Crypts of Lieberkuhn
Brunner's glands
Paneth cells
Parietal cells
The portion of the stomach above the level of the lower esophageal sphincter is the?
Fundus
Which of the following substances are absorbed in the stomach?
Alcohol
The function of the small intestine is?
Digestion and absorbtion of nutrients
The small intestine is drained by the:
Hepatic portal vein
The pouches of the large intestine are called?
Haustra
The secretion of gastric juices is regulated by the impulses of the:
X nerve
Testosterone is secreted by the:
Cells of Leydig
Inhibin is produced by the:
Sertoli's cells
The most abundant ion in the body is:
Calcium
The conducting fibers that run from the AV node down the interventricular septum are referred to as the:
Bundle of his
The left coronary artery divides into the:
Anterior descending and circumflex
Which of the following structures are found in the ventricles of the heart?
Pectinate muscles
Papillary muscles
Ligamentum anteriorum
Fossa ovalis
Papillary muscles
The function of hemoglobin is to:
Carry oxygen
Albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen are all:
Plasma proteins
The large vein that drains the head is the:
Jugular
Which of the following arteries does not arise directly from the aorta?
Celiac
Mesentaric
Common Carotid
Vertebral
Vertebral
The vessel that delivers blood from the gastro intestinal tract to the liver is:
Hepatic portal vein
Which of the following is not part of the immune system?
Lymph nodes
Tonsil
Spleen
Thyroid
Thyroid
The thymus gland functions in immunity by producing:
T cells
The structure that is located anterior to the esophagus and extends from the larynx to the 5th thoracic vertebra is the:
Trachea
The portion of the small intestine that joins the large intestine is the:
Ileum
Another name for the folds of the stomach is:
Rugae
The longest, heaviest, stongest bone in the body is the:
Femur
The anterior chamber of the eye lies:
Behind the cornea and infront of the iris
Aqueous humor is found within the:
Anterior cavity
The ureters enter the bladder:
Medially from the posterior aspect
Which membrane lines the thoracic cavity?
Pleura
The region between the lungs is the:
Mediastinum
Which duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum?
Common Bile duct
Which of the following is not part of the stomach?
Hilum
Fundus
Antrum
Body
Hilum
Which ligament stabilizes the duodenojejunal angle?
Treitz
What valve is located between the left upper and lower chambers of the heart?
Mitral
Which of the following structures would not be found in a blood vessel?
Tunica adventitia
Tunica intima
Tunica vaginalis
Tunica media
Tunica vaginalis
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Term:
Definition:
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