Chapter 19 Blood A&P II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Name 3 Functions of Blood
1. Transportation of gases, nutrients, wastes, and hormones
2. Regulation of pH, body temperature, and water levels of the body
3. Protection of body through clotting after injury, and against disease through the immune system
What is Blood?
Blood is a connective tissue composed of plasma (~55%) and various formed elements (~45%)
What is Plasma?
- Plasma is an extracellular matrix, consisting mainly of water, gases, nutrients, and wastes, and some proteins that are synthesized in the liver
: transport proteins for hormones
albumins
transport nutrients; a subset called the immunoglobulins (also called antibodies) attack foreign particles
globulins
plays a role in blood clotting
fibrinogen
What are the non-liquid portion of blood; they include:
- red blood cells (also called erythrocytes)
- white blood cells (also called leukocytes)
- platelets (also called thrombocytes)
Formed elements
Blood constitutes about ? of total body mass
8%
An average man has ? of blood; the average woman has ? L
5-6 L;4-5L
Blood volume and composition are regulated by ?
hormones
These can be controlled by varying the amount of water excreted in the urine
Blood volume and composition
What hormones control the amount of water excreted in the urine
The hormones aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) control this
Cells in the body need to obtain ? & nutrients and eliminate ? & ?
obtain oxygen & eliminate carbon dioxide & wastes
What do Blood and interstitial fluid accomplish?
Blood flows throughout the body inside blood vessels
- Interstitial fluid surrounds cells
- Oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract are carried by blood
- Oxygen and nutrients diffuse from blood into interstitial fluid, and then into individual cells
What 2 things diffuse from cells into interstitial fluid, and then into blood
Carbon dioxide and wastes
? is carried to lungs for expiration
Carbon Dioxide
? are carried to the kidneys or skin for elimination
wastes
are biconcave discs, with a diameter of 7-8 um
RBC's
RBC's are ?(lacking a nucleus) and contain no organelles
anuclear
? gives them strength and flexibility to squeeze through narrow blood vessels
Their shape
RBC's Contain the protein ?, responsible for transporting oxygen and some carbon dioxide
hemoglobin
? contains the pigment that gives RBCs their red color
Hemoglobin
Each RBC contains ? # of molecules of hemoglobin!
280 million
A hemoglobin molecule consists of two parts
heme and globin
is made of four protein chains: 2 alpha-chains and 2 beta-chains
Globin
Each chain surrounds a molecule of ? that has an iron molecule in the center
Heme
This iron molecule binds to ? and can carry it around the body
oxygen
Some ? can bind to the globin molecules and is carried to the lungs,where it is exhaled
carbon dioxide
RBCs only live about ? days
120 days
RBC's are replaced at the same rate that they’re destroyed, about ?# RBCs per second!
about 2 million
The percentage of blood occupied by RBCs can vary; this percentage is referred to as the ?
Hematocrit
Men tend to have ? hematocrits
higher (~47%)
Women tend to have ? hematocrits
lower (~42%)
Why do men tend to have higher hematocrits
- testosterone stimulates RBC production
- women lose RBCs through menstruation
An abnormally low hematocrit is called ?
anemia
Anemia can be caused by 3 factors
1)excessive loss of blood
2)low iron consumption
3)deficient synthesis of hemoglobin
An abnormally high hematocrit is called ?
polycythemia
An abnormally high hematocrit can be caused by
1)dehydration
2)or by “doping” with erythropoietin (the hormone that stimulates RBC production)
An abnormally high hematocrit can also be found in...
populations that live high above sea level, where there is less oxygen in the atmosphere
More RBCs = more opportunities to...
grab free oxygen!
-Responsible for immunity to foreign substances
-have nuclei and do not contain hemoglobin
- Can be classified as either granular or agranular
White Blood Cells (WBCs)/ Leukocytes
-vesicles in their cytoplasm that can pick up a stain
granular WBC's
-not containing vesicles
agranular WBC's
Five types of WBCs
- Granulocytes (*hint: end in –phil):
- Eosinophil
- Basophil
- Neutrophil
- Agranulocytes (*hint: end in –cyte):
- Lymphocyte
- Monocyte
WBC's relative numbers in the body can be remembered using the following acronym:
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas!
1.Neutrophil (most common)
2.Lymphocyte
3.Monocyte
4.Eosinophil
5.Basophil (least common
WBC's that indiscriminate phagocytosis (ingestion and destruction of microbes by WBCs) in the blood
Neotrophils
Three types of Lymphocyte
1. B-lymphocytes
2. T-lymphocytes
3. Natural killer cells
WBC's that are also called B-cells release immunoglobulins (also called antibodies), proteins that help fight bacterial infections
B-lymphocytes
WBC's that are (also called T-cells) destroy altered human cells
T-Lymphocytes
T-Lymphocytes destroy altered human cells, such as these 3
- cells infected with a virus
- transplanted tissues/ organs
- cancerous cells
- cells infected with a virus
- transplanted tissues/ organs
- cancerous cells
WBC's that attack various microbes and tumors
Natural Killer Cells (NK cells)
Some lymphocytes remain in the body for months or years to help fight off repeat infections; these are ?
Memory Cells
This WBC
- Almost always enter tissues to become macrophages
- Responsible for phagocytosis in tissues
Monocyte
This WBC:
- Destroys certain parasitic worms
- Combats the effects of histamine in allergic reactions
Eosinophil
This WBC:
- Aid in the inflammatory response during allergic reactions; releases histamine
- Abnormally high numbers of WBCs is called leukocytosis
- Usually due to infections, surgery, or strenuous exercise; this is a normal reaction
- Abnormally low num
Basophil
Small, disc-shaped, anuclear fragments; numerous in blood
- Help stop blood loss by forming a plug in a damaged blood vessel
- Release chemicals that promote blood clotting
- Only live for 5 to 9 days
Thrombocytes/Platelets
All formed elements (RBCs, WBCs, and platelets) develop in the ? ? ? after birth
red bone marrow
The process in which All formed elemnts develop in red bone marrow is called ?
hemopoeisis
Formed elements all derive from ? ? ? in the red bone marrow
pluripotent stem cells
Development of RBCs is called
erythropoiesis
Development of RBC's is stimulated by the hormone ?produced in the kidneys
erythropoietin
Erythropoietin operates on a ? feedback system
negative
When levels of RBCs are ?, more erythropoietin is secreted until levels return to normal, when secretion stops
low
The precursor cell to RBCs eventually loses its nucleus and becomes a ?
reticulocyte
? leave the red bone marrow and become mature RBCs within a few days
Reticulocytes
Development of WBCs
is stimulated by ?, autocrine or paracrine hormones that help WBCs differentiate and multiply
cytokines
Different WBCs multiply at different times in response to different kinds of ?
infection
A high eosinophil count can indicate a ? infection
parasitic
Development of platelets
is stimulated by the hormone ?, produced by the liver
thrombopoietin
Platelets come from cells called ?
megakaryocytes
megakaryocytes break into several thousand fragments inside the ? ?
bone marrow
These fragments are ?, which leave the bone marrow and enter the blood
platelets
All formed elements are destroyed by ?(monocytes that are fixed in tissues) in the liver,spleen, or red bone marrow in the destruction of formed elements
macrophages
In the destruction of formed elements The hemoglobin in RBCs is broken down into ? and ?
heme and globin
? gets broken down and used to synthesize other proteins
Globin
Heme has its ? ? removed, and it is transported to the red bone marrow to produce more RBCs
iron molecule
The pigment left over from heme is broken down into various other pigments, including: 2
1)Urobilin
2)Stercobilin
? is excreted by the kidneys- This gives urine its yellow color
Urobilin
? is , formed in the large intestine and excreted in feces;This gives feces its brown color
Stercobilin
Antibodies are produced in response to anything that the body recognizes as ?
foreign
- Proteins produced by B-lymphocytes
- Can be produced in response to an infection
Antigens and antibodies
Antibodies are produced in response to anything that the body recognizes as
foreign such as (3)
- Allergens
- Viruses in blood
- Cells from another person
Anything that the body recognizes as foreign is an ?
antigen
An antigen is usually (2)
1) a protein
2)or polysaccharide
When an antigen is present in the body, ? start producing antibodies to neutralize and destroy the “foreign invader”
B-lymphocytes
Antibodies are ? for a certain kind of antigen
specific
The interaction between ? and ? become important when discussing blood groups
antigens and antibodies
A person can have blood types (4)
A, B, AB, or O
People with different blood types have different ? present on their RBCs and different ? in their blood
antigens/antibodies
Type A blood has ? antigen on RBC's & ? Antibody in Blood
A-antigen/anti-B antibody
Type B blood has ? antigens on RBC's and ? Antibodies in blood
B-antigen/anti-A antibody
Type AB blood has ? antigens on RBC's and ? Antibodies in blood
A and B-antigens/no antibodies
Type O blood has ? antigens on RBC's and ? Antibodies in blood
no antigens/anti-A and B antibodies
If someone with Type A blood receives a transfusion of ???, their anti-B antibodies will attack the B-antigens on the donor’s RBCs!
Type B blood
A Type AB person can only donate to other ??, because all other blood types have antibodies against A or B!
AB people
a Type ?? can receive blood from A, B, or O, because there are no antibodies in their blood
AB person
A Type ?? can donate to anyone; there are no antigens on their RBCs that someone else’s antibodies could attack
O person
A Type ?? can only receive blood from a Type O donor
O person
Blood Type A can donate to ?(2)but can only recieve from (2)
donate to A, AB
recieve from A, O
Blood Type B can donate to ?(2)but can only recieve from (2)
donate to B, AB
recieve from B, O
Blood Type AB can donate to ?(1)but can recieve from (4)
donate to AB
recieve from A, B, AB,& O
Blood Type O can donate to ?(4)but can only recieve from (1)
donate to A, B, AB,& O
recieve from O
The ?? is just another type of antigen that can be found on the surface of RBCs
RH factor
Type B blood has ? antigens on RBC's and ? Antibodies in blood
B-antigen/anti-A antibody
Type AB blood has ? antigens on RBC's and ? Antibodies in blood
A and B-antigens/no antibodies
Type O blood has ? antigens on RBC's and ? Antibodies in blood
no antigens/anti-A and B antibodies
If someone with Type A blood receives a transfusion of ???, their anti-B antibodies will attack the B-antigens on the donor’s RBCs!
Type B blood
A Type AB person can only donate to other ??, because all other blood types have antibodies against A or B!
AB people
a Type ?? can receive blood from A, B, or O, because there are no antibodies in their blood
AB person
A Type ?? can donate to anyone; there are no antigens on their RBCs that someone else’s antibodies could attack
O person
A Type ?? can only receive blood from a Type O donor
O person
Blood Type A can donate to ?(2)but can only recieve from (2)
donate to A, AB
recieve from A, O
Blood Type B can donate to ?(2)but can only recieve from (2)
donate to B, AB
recieve from B, O
Blood Type AB can donate to ?(1)but can recieve from (4)
donate to AB
recieve from A, B, AB,& O
Blood Type O can donate to ?(4)but can only recieve from (1)
donate to A, B, AB,& O
recieve from O
The ?? is just another type of antigen that can be found on the surface of RBCs
RH factor
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